The Mahabharata
  Srimad Bhagavatam

  Rig Veda
  Yajur Veda
  Sama Veda
  Atharva Veda

  Bhagavad Gita
  Sankara Bhashya
  By Edwin Arnold

  Brahma Sutra
  Sankara Bhashya I
  Sankara Bhashya II
  Ramanuja SriBhashya


  Agni Purana
  Brahma Purana
  Garuda Purana
  Markandeya Purana
  Varaha Purana
  Matsya Purana
  Vishnu Purana
  Linga Purana
  Narada Purana
  Padma Purana
  Shiva Purana
  Skanda Purana
  Vamana Purana

  Manu Smriti

  Bhagavad Gita
  Brahma Sutras

See for the online version with illustrations, music and links to the previous translation: http://bhagavata.org/


'The story of the fortunate one'


Canto 4a

The Creation of the Fourth Order, the Lord's Protection

Chapter 1  Genealogical Table of the Daughters of Manu

Chapter 2 Daksha Curses Lord S'iva

Chapter 3  Talks Between Lord S'iva and Satî

Chapter 4  Satî Quits Her Body

Chapter 5  Frustration of the Sacrifice of Daksha

Chapter 6  Brahmâ Satîsfies Lord S'iva

Chapter 7  The Sacrifice Performed by Daksha

Chapter 8  Dhruva Leaves Home for the Forest

Chapter 9 Dhruva Returns Home from the Forest

Chapter 10  Dhruva Mahârâja's Fight with the Yakshas

Chapter 11  Svâyambuva Manu Advises Dhruva Mahârâja to Stop Fighting

Chapter 12 Dhruva Mahârâja Goes Back to Godhead

Chapter 13 Description of the Descendants of Dhruva Mahârâja

Chapter 14 The Story of King Vena

Chapter 15 King Prithu's Appearance and Coronation

Chapter 16  King Prithu extolled

Chapter 17  Mahârâja Prithu Becomes Angry at the Earth

Chapter 18  Mahârâja Prithu Milks the Earth

Chapter 19 King Prithu's One Hundred Horse Sacrifices


Chapter 1 

Genealogical Table of the Daughters of Manu

(1) S'rî Maitreya said: 'Svâyambhuva Manu begot in his wife S'atarûpâ as well [as two sons] three daughters named Âkûti, Devahûti and Prasûti, as you know. (2) Although Âkûti had brothers she was handed over to the great sage Ruci on the condition that the king, who had the support of religious rites and the consent of his wife, would get the resultant son. (3) He, the most powerful great sage Ruci, was entrusted the procreation and begot in her a pair of children that were of the greatest spiritual and brahminical strength. (4) The male child of the two, Yajña ['the One of Sacrifice'], was a direct impersonation of Vishnu while the other female child Dakshinâ was His unseparable plenary portion, the goddess of Fortune [Lakshmî]. (5) The very powerful son born of the daughter was taken to the home of the very happy Svâyambhuva Manu, while Ruci kept Dakshinâ with himself. (6) The Lord and master of all sacrifice who always longed for her, married and His wife who was very pleased having Him as her husband, gave birth to twelve sons. (7) The twelve were: Tosha, Pratosha, Santosha, Bhadra, S'ânti, Idaspati, Idhma, Kavi, Vibhu, Svahna, Sudeva and Rocana. (8) In the period of Svâyambhuva they were known as the Tushita demigods, with Marîci heading the sages and Yajña as the King of the Enlightened. (9) The two sons of Manu, Priyavrata and Uttânapâda, were in that period of the greatest and their sons and grandsons spread all over. (10) My dear, concerning Svâyambhuva handing over his daughter to Kardama, you have heard me speaking in full. (11) The great personality Svâyambhuva gave Prasûti to Daksha, the son of Brahmâ, who's offspring expanded greatly over the three worlds. (12) I told you already about the nine daughters of Kardama who became the wives of nine great sages of spiritual knowledge [see 3-24]. Now hear from me my description of the generations coming from them. (13) The daughter of Kardama, the wife of Marîci also named Kalâ, gave birth to Kas'yapa and Pûrnimâ whose children spread all over the world. (14) Pûrnimâ got sons named Virajâ, Vis'vaga, o conqueror, and a daughter named Devakulyâ. By the water which washed from the Lord His lotusfeet she became the holy of the Ganges. (15) The wife of Atri Muni, named Anasûyâ, bore three very famous sons: Dattâtreya, Durvâsâ and Soma [the moongod], which are [partial] incarnations of respectively the Supersoul [Vishnu], Lord S'iva and Lord Brahmâ.'

(16) Vidura said: 'O spiritual master, tell me how in the house of Atri the chief demigods to the causes of maintenance, creation and destruction, could appear desiring to do something.'

(17) Maitreya said: 'Being inspired by Lord Brahmâ to procreate went Atri the chief of the learned in spiritual knowledge together with his wife to the great mountain named Riksha to stay there for austerities. (18) In that place in the garden of the forest there were many flowers, As'oka trees growing everywhere and the sound of the falling waters of the river the Nirvindhyâ. (19) Controlling the mind by regulating his breath the sage remained there for a hundred years standing on the one leg of non-duality, eating the air. (20) He thought: 'Taking shelter I surrender myself unto Him, may He who is for sure the master of the universe give me a son alike Himself.' (21) By the fire, issuing out of the top of the head of the sage, that was fueled by his breathcontrol, he was, practicing his austerities over the three worlds, noticed by the three principal gods. (22) With the fame of his honor spreading did the Apsaras, the munis, the Gandharvas the Siddhas, the Vidyâdharas and Nâgas, head for his place of meditation. (23) Seeing the simultaneous appearance of these demigods and great personalities lightened up the mind of the sage who had awakened on his one leg. (24) Recognizing the symbols of their own paraphernalia [drum, Kus'a grass and discus] and the bull, the swan and Garuda on which they were seated, he with folded hands fell down prostrating before them, offering his obeisances. (25) Dazzled by the glaring effulgence of their smiling faces and the apparent satisfaction from their merciful glances, the sage closed his eyes. (26-27) Fixing his heart on them he whispered the ecstatic words of the prayers that he offered the honorable predominating demigods with folded hands. Atri said: ' I bow before you the Lord Brahmâ, Lord S'iva and Lord Vishnu, who have accepted your bodies according the different millenniums in being divided to the modes of nature in the creation, destruction and maintenance of the universe. Who of you is it that has in truth been called by me? (28) Being so merciful, please explain to me in my severe doubt, how can it be so that, although being far beyond the minds of the embodied, all of you appeared here while I, for begetting a child, fixed my mind on the One Great Lord of the Primary Principle?

(29) Maitreya said: 'O mighty one, after thus hearing of the great sage his words, replied all the three chief demigods him smiling in gentle voices. (30) The gods said: 'As you have decided to, so shall it be done and not otherwise; to you whose determination was never lost, o dear brahmin, we are all of the one you were so truly meditating upon. (31) Therefore will our plenary expansions, your sons to be born, be very famous in the world, dear sage and to your great fortune they will also spread your good name.'

(32) As the husband and wife were looking on did the chief demigods, thus having offered the desired benediction being perfectly worshiped, return from there. (33) Soma appeared as a partial expansion of Lord Brahmâ, Dattâtreya as a very powerful yogî of Lord Vishnu, and Durvâsâ as a partial expansion of S'ankara [S'iva]. Hear now about the generations that came from Angirâ. (34) S'raddhâ, the wife of Angirâ, gave birth to the daughters Sinîvâlî, Kuhû and Râkâ with Anumati as the fourth one. (35) Besides them were the sons born from him very famous in the millennium of Svârocisha Manu [the second Manu after Svâyambhuva]: the mighty Utathya and Brihaspati, the full of the brahminical in person. (36) Pulastya begot in his wife Havirbhû, Âgastya, who in his next birth would be Dahrâgni [the one of the digestive fire] and Vis'ravâ the great one of austerity. (37) Of Vis'ravâ came the demigod Kuvera, the king of the Yakshas [his supernatural attendants], who was born from Idavidâ while the sons Râvana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhîshana were born from another wife [named Kes'inî]. (38) Gati, the wife of Pulaha, o devoted one, gave birth to three chaste sons [Karmas'reshthha, Varîyân and Sahishnu] who knew all about karma and were also very respectable and tolerant. (39) Kriyâ, the wife of sage Kratu, from her side brought forth sixty thousand sages after the Vâlakhilya [some Rig-veda verses], who shone with the brilliance of the brahminical [they are also known as the small ones produced from Brahmâ, surrounding the chariot of the sun]. (40) From Ûrjâ [also called Arundhatî], of the sage Vasishthha, o great one, came Citraketu as the principal of seven sons who were all great and pure sages of the Absolute Truth. (41) They were Citraketu, Suroci, Virajâ, Mitra, Ulbana, Vasubhridyâna and Dyumân. Also were there S'akti and other sons born from his other wife. (42) Also Citti [also known as S'ânti], the wife of Atharvâ, got in complete dedication to the Dadhyañca vow [the vow of meditation] a son who was called As'vas'irâ. Now hear about the generation of Bhrigu. (43) Bhrigu, greatly fortunate, begot in his wife Khyâti, the sons Dhâtâ and Vidhâtâ and a daughter named S'rî, who was of great devotion to the Lord. (44) Âyati and Niyati, two daughters of the sage Meru, were given in marriage to the two of them from whom appeared Mrikanda and also Prâna. (45) Mârkandeya Muni was born from Mrikanda and from Prâna came the great sage Vedas'irâ whose greatly powerful son named Kavi Bhârgava was also known as Us'anâ [or S'ukrâcârya]. (46-47) O Vidura, I have spoken to you about how they, all the great sages, with their descendants populated the three worlds with grandsons born from the offspring of sage Kardama. With faith hearing about this will forthwith diminish the greater of all sinful reactions.

Prasûti, a daughter of Manu, married the veritable son of Brahmâ, Daksha. (48) With Her Daksha begot sixteen lotus-eyed daughters of which thirteen were given in marriage to Dharma and one was given to Agni. (49-52) One daughter he gave to the forefathers together and one he gave to Lord S'iva the deliverer of the sinful. S'raddhâ, Maitrî, Dayâ, S'ânti, Tushthi, Pushthi, Kriyâ, Unnati, Buddhi, Medhâ, Titikshâ, Hrî and Mûrti are the names of Daksha's daughters given to Dharma, of whom S'raddhâ got S'ubha, Maitrî got Prasâda, Dayâ got Abhaya, S'ânti got Sukha, Tushthi got Muda, Pushthi got SMâyâ, Kriyâ got Yoga, Unnati got Darpa, Buddhi got Artha, Medhâ got Smriti, Titikshâ got Kshema and Hrî got Pras'raya. Mûrti, a reservoir of all good qualities, gave birth to the two sages Nara and Nârâyan. (53) The appearance of the both of them gladdened the universe and filled everyone's mind with joy; in all directions over the rivers and mountains the atmosphere became pleasant. (54-55) From the heavens musical instruments vibrated and were flowers showered from the sky, the sages satisfied chanted vedic hymns and the Gandharvas and Kinnaras began to sing. The beautiful damsels of heaven danced as all signs of good fortune were seen and the demigods, Brahmâ and the others all offered prayers of respect. (56) The gods said: 'Our obeisances unto the Supreme Original Personality, who by his own external energy created the variety of all existing that resides in Him the way masses of clouds are found in the sky and who today has appeared in the form of these sages in the house of Dharma. (57) May He, who is understood by the Vedas and who for the destruction of the calamities of the created world by the mode of goodness created us, the demigods, bestow His merciful glance, which supersedes the spotless lotus that is the home of the goddess of fortune'.

(58) O Vidura, the Supreme Lord, thus being praised by the assembled demigods finding the mercy of his glance, departed after that worship for Gandhamâdana Hill. (59) These two partial [ams'a-] incarnations of the Supreme Lord Hari, have now appeared here for mitigating the burden of the world as the two of Krishna who are the best that the Kuru and Yadu-dynasty brought forth. (60) Svâhâ [daughter of Daksha], the wife of the presiding deity of fire Agni, produced three sons: Pâvaka, Pavamâna and S'uci who feed on the oblations of sacrifice. (61) From them were forty-five fire gods produced, so that together there are in truth forty-nine of them including the fathers and grandfather. (62) By the names of these forty-nine fire-gods do the knowers of Brahmân direct themselves in their fire sacrifices. (63) Their forefathers are these Agnishvâttas, Barhishadas, Saumyas and Âjyapas; they either operate with or without fire and Svadhâ, Daksha's daughter is their actual wife. (64) From them were two daughters, Vayunâ and Dhârinî, produced who were both expert in as well the knowledge as the transcendence with the impersonal way of Brahmân. (65) The wife of Bhava [a name of S'iva], named Satî, faithfully engaged herself in the service of Bhava the demigod, but was herself, despite of her qualities and character, not able to get a similar son. (66) Her own father namely had been unfavorable with anger to the faultless one, so that she even before attaining maturity, in the connectedness of yoga had to give up her own body.


Chapter 2

Daksha Curses Lord S'iva

(1) Vidura said: 'Why did Daksha exhibit enmity towards Lord S'iva, the best among the gentle, neglecting his own daughter Satî while he cared so much about her? (2) How could he hate him who is the spiritual master of the whole world who is, with a peaceful personality and satisfied within without enmity, the greatest demigod of the universe? (3) Tell me therefore, o brahmin, the reason the father- and son-in-law did quarrel because of which Satî gave up the life that is impossible to give up.'

(4) Maitreya said: 'Formerly, were the leaders, great sages and immortal ones of the creation along with their followers and the philosophers assembled at a sacrifice. (5) Entering that great assembly there made the sages see him [Daksha], free from darkness as he was, as shining with a luster like that of the sun. (6) They, the members of the assembly along with the ones of the fire, who were impressed by his luster all, except for Lord Brahmâ and Lord S'iva, stood up from their seats. (7) Daksha, the one of all opulence, who was properly welcomed by the leaders of the assembly, made his obeisances towards the unborn one, the master of the world, and sat down upon his order. (8) Before the seated Lord S'iva who showed no respect for him he felt offended though and losing his temper he spoke to him looking with anger in his eyes. (9) 'Listen to me, o wise among the brahmins, o godly ones, o fire-gods, how I speak to you about the manners of the gentle ones and this I do not out of ignorance or jealousy. (10) He, who belongs to the rulers of the universe, has, lacking in manners, shamefully polluted and spoilt the fame of the ones following the path of the gentle ones. (11) He has accepted to be of a lower position, acting like an honest man in taking the hand of my daughter, in the presence of fire and brahmins. (12) Taking the hand of her who has eyes like that of a deer cub, he has himself the eyes of a monkey, not giving me, who is worthy of such a welcome, the honor of standing up from his seat. (13) With no respect for the rules and regulations, he, impure and proud, has broken with the code of civility; although I didn't want to, have I handed over my daughter as if the message of the Vedas would be given to a s'ûdra. (14-15) Accompanied by ghosts and demons he wanders around at the burial places where corpses are burnt, laughing and crying like a madman, with scattered hair smearing himself with the ashes of the funeral pyre. He has a garland of skulls and is ornamented with dead man's bones; only in name he is S'iva or auspicious. He is in fact inauspicious, crazy and dear to the crazy, their leader and Lord, engrossed in the mode of ignorance. (16) To him, the Lord of Ghosts, void of all cleanliness, with his heart so far off, I alas, as the supreme teacher did request, have given Satî.'

(17) Maitreya said: 'Thus abusing S'iva who remained without hostility, Daksha angry, next washed his hands and mouth with water and began to curse: (18) 'The portion of the sacrifice to the gods that the demigods have along with Indra, Upendra [the younger brother of Indra] and others, is not for the lowest of the demigods to get.' (19) Though asked by the members of the assembly not to, did he, Daksha, having cursed S'iva, leave from there going home, o Vidura, as he had grown very angry. (20) Understanding that Lord S'iva had been cursed, one of his principal associates Nandîs'vara, turned red and blind with anger and he harshly cursed Daksha and the brahmins who had allowed the cursing to happen.

(21) 'May he who in reference to the physique of this one, the non-envious Lord S'iva, bears envy and thus is stupefied by a dual vision, lose all his grip on reality. (22) He who is attracted to the householders life of pretentious religiosity and performs by the explanations of the Vedas in a desire for material happiness and fruitive action, will see his intelligence lost. (23) Let him who with the intelligence of accepting the body as the self has forgotten the knowledge of Vishnu and as an animâl is attached to sex-life, that excessive Daksha, soon have the head of a goat. (24) May those who follow Daksha in his insults and who in the nescience of their fruitive actions grew dull in their materialistic education and intelligence, time and again end up here in the ocean of material suffering. (25) Let those who are so envious with Lord S'iva and whose minds have grown slow of the enchanting flowery words of the Vedas so profuse with the scent of honey, remain attached. (26) Let those brahmins, who have taken to education, austerity and vows in order to have money and to satisfy their physical senses, wander here as beggars from door to door, eating whatever!'

(27) Hearing the words of his curse thus against the class of the twiceborn, in response Bhrigu made an insurmountable curse in line with brahmin chastising: (28) 'May anyone who takes a vow to please Lord S'iva and follows such principles, become an atheist straying away from the scriptural injunctions. (29) Let them, who have abandoned cleanliness, foolishly having their hairs long, wearing bones and covered in ashes, embark on the lead of S'iva from which one has the spiritual of finding relief in intoxication. (30) Since you in truth blaspheme the brahmins and the allegiance to Vedas, you have therefore taken shelter of the weakness of atheism. (31) In the Vedas that are for sure the auspicious eternal path of all people and which in the past have always been rigidly followed, one finds the evidence of Janârdana [the Lord as the well-wisher of all]. (32) Blaspheming that supreme and pure spirit, which is the eternal path of the truthful, you are to end up in atheism where you have your deity, the Lord of matter and the dead [S'iva as Bhûtapati]!'

(33) Maitreya said: 'Thus being spoken of in the curse of Bhrigu, did S'iva, the Supreme One, somewhat downcast, leave from there with his followers. (34) Of that, are even the fathers of mankind for thousands of years in worship, o great master, as that is how the Supreme Personality, the leader of all the wise, should be respected. (35) Purifying their hearts, taking their ceremonial concluding bath where the Ganges meets with the Yamunâ, they all went away from there to their own places.


Chapter 3 

Talks Between Lord S'iva and Satî

(1) Maitreya said: 'Thus for a long time one had the constant tension, in this manner continuing, between the son- and father-in-law. (2) When Daksha was appointed the chief of all the progenitors of mankind by Brahmâ, the supreme teacher, he became very puffed up. (3) Neglecting S'iva and his followers he, after first performing an Vâjapeya ['the drink of strength or battle'] sacrifice, began the best of sacrifices called the Brihaspati [the chief offerer of prayers and sacrifice]-sacrifice. (4) To that all the godly and learned of wisdom, the ancestors and the demigods and the nicely decorated wives accompanying their husbands, assembled. (5-7) Satî, the daughter of Daksha and wife of S'iva, heard the denizens of heaven talk about the great festival to be performed by her father and when she saw near her residence the beautiful wives of the godly ones with glittering eyes and earrings from all directions in nice dresses and fully ornamented fly about along with their husbands to go there, she highly anxious addressed her husband, the Lord and master of the Bhûtas [the ones of matter and the dead]. (8) Satî said: 'Your father-in law, Daksha, is about to begin a great sacrifice where all the godly ones are going and where we surely thus also may go to, my dearest, if you desire so. (9) Surely my sisters with their own husbands will also be going there eager to see their relatives; could you please accept to attend to that assembly with me and all the ornaments given to me? (10) Surely I will meet there with my sisters and their husbands and my affectionate aunts and my mother; for a long time I've been waiting to see them as well as the sacrificial flags raised by the great sages, o merciful one. (11) By you, as the unborn, this external manifestation created from the soul as an interaction to the three modes, appears so wonderful, nevertheless I consider myself, as a woman to your pleasure, not conversant with the truth and as your poor one, I would like to see my place of birth, o Bhava [S'iva as the Lord of existence]. (12) O immaterial, blue-throated one, surely other women ornamented and with their husbands and friends are in large numbers flying there, beautifully in the sky with their white swans carrying them high. (13) How can I be physically unaffected, o best of the demigods, as a daughter hearing of the festival taking place in the house of my father; even being uninvited one can go the house of a friend, one's husband, one's father or spiritual master, isn't it? (14) Be therefore kind unto me, o immortal one and fulfill my desire, your honor, o compassionate Lord, in the full of seeing me as the other half of your body, please be so gracious to answer my request'.

(15) The sage said: 'The deliverer from mount Kailâsa [Lord S'iva], thus adressed by his dearest, replied, being dear to his relatives, smilingly, while remembering the heart-piercing malicious words that Daksha had spoken in the presence of the guardians of the creation. (16) The great Lord said: 'What you said, my dear beauty, is certainly true: one can, even uninvited, go to friends, provided they are not finding fault or, more important, are not of anger being proud in their identifications. (17) By the six qualities of the pious of education, austerity, wealth, beauty, youth and heritage are the ones who are arrogant blinded; not looking for the glories of the great souls they lose their good sense and do they get estranged in untruth. (18) One should not go to the house of relatives and friends who, dependent in that, are disturbed like this in their minds and give their guests a cold reception regarding them with raised eyebrows and anger in their eyes. (19) One is not as hurt by the arrows of an enemy as one aggrieves in a part of one's heart because of the deceitful of the harsh words of relatives of which the one whose feelings are hurt suffers day and night. (20) It is clear that you, being of the best behavior, with your pretty face, are considered the darling of the daughters of the Prajâpati [Daksha], yet, with me not being honored by your father, will you, from being connected with me, meet with pain from him. (21) One who is distressed with a heart burning about the pious reputation of those who in their minds are always looking for the original person, is not able to rise directly to merely the standard of them as much as demons can't who envy the Lord. (22) O dear young wife of mine, the intent to mutually stand up and welcome one another with obeisances is proper, but certainly do the ones of wisdom with the intelligence unto the Supreme direct themselves to the Original Person that sits within the body and certainly not to the one who has set his mind on the body. (23) The pure consciousness known as Vâsudeva is revealed there [within] because the person is then in goodness and without covering; the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva is by me always in name respected in that because He is the transcendental. (24) Therefore your father, Daksha, and his Vis'vasrik followers present at the sacrifice are not to be met, although he gave you your body, o Satî, as he has enviously insulted me, who was innocent, with cruel words. (25) If you decide to go in neglect of my words, then things will not turn out good for you; when you are insulted by your relative, will that insult directly equal death.


Chapter 4 

Satî Quits Her Body

(1) S'rî Maitreya said: 'After saying this about the end of the body of his wife was Lord S'iva silent. Since she of S'iva saw it the both ways of being anxious as well as being afraid of seeing her relatives was she, being divided, unsure where to stand. (2) Denied in her desire to see her relatives she felt very sorry and had to shed tears out of affliction; shaking she looked at her Bhava, the unequaled one, with anger as if she would blast him. (3) Then breathing heavily she left him, the saintly one dear to her whom she had given half of her body; from her bereavement and her anger emotional she, with her heart set to her father, went to the family home in love for his embodiment, in her intelligence deluded by her womanly nature. (4) Rapidly leaving alone was Satî, who had no fear, quickly followed by Manimân and Mada with the bull Nandî in the company of the thousands of associates and Yakshas of the three eyed one [Lord S'iva] whom they understood. (5) Placed on the decorated bull, were her pet bird, ball, mirror, lotus flower, white umbrella, insectnet, garlands and other stuff taken along with her under the guidance of the music of drums, conchshells and flutes. (6) She then arrived where the sacrifice brightened by the sounds of vedic hymns was held that was attended by all the great sages and great minds that had come from everywhere for the offering with all its sacrificial animâls, pots, clay, wood, iron, gold and the grass and skins to sit on. (7) As she arrived there she was not respected in reception out of fear for the performer of the sacrifice [Daksha], except by indeed her own sisters and mother, who embraced her with reverence, gladdened faces and throats choked with tears of affection. (8) But Satî not being welcomed by her father, could not accept to be honored by the greetings of her sisters, mother and aunts who with due respect properly informed her and offered her gifts and a seat. (9) Seeing that her father was not having any oblations for S'iva and that the place of sacrifice was in contempt with the god, not receiving the Lord in the assembly of sacrifice, became Satî very angry, looking incensed as if she was going to burn the fourteen worlds with her eyes. (10) The goddess began, in the presence of all being heard, to condemn with words indistinct of anger, S'iva's opponents so proud with their troublesome sacrifices, meanwhile ordering his Bhûtas, who were ready to attack, to hold back. (11) The blessed one said: 'Having none in this world as his rival, there is no one embodied that is dear to him or his enemy; towards S'iva, the most beloved universal being, who is free from enmity there is, except for you, no one who would be envious. (12) Unlike you, o twice born one, he doesn't find fault in the qualities of the seekers of truth, with others he greatly magnifies any little good he finds; and with him, the greatest of all persons, it is you that finds fault. (13) This deriding of the glorious by the ones who hold the transient body for the true self is an ugly evil, that is an envy with great personalities that will surely be very good in bringing them down themselves by the dust of those holy feet. (14) Persons only once pronouncing from the heart the two syllables of his name, see their sinful activities immediately defeated; that S'iva whose order is never neglected and who is of an impeccable renown you so strangely envy. (15) Engaged at his lotusfeet do the higher personalities aspiring transcendental bliss exercise their minds and of the common man he is the nectar sought fulfilling all desires; towards him, the friend of all living entities of all the three worlds, it is of all people you that is so. (16) Do you really think that others than you like Brahmâ and his brahmins do not know that this one as inauspicious associated with the demons, that with his scattered, matted hair of the crematorium is garlanded with skulls and is smeared with ashes, by them is called auspicious or S'iva, taking on their heads the flowers that fell from his feet? (17) One should block one's ears and go away if nothing else can be done being confronted with people irresponsibly blaspheming the controller of the religion and if one is able, one should by force cut out the tongue of the vilifying blasphemer after which one should give up one's own life; that the way to deal with that! (18) Therefore I shall no longer bear this body I received from you who are of blasphemy; to purify oneself from mistakenly having eaten poisonous food it is best to vomit. (19) The ways of man and the gods part when the mind indeed, of the great wise, enjoying its own self, is not able to follow the dictates of the Veda and standing alone in one's own duty one should then not criticize another. (20) Verily are in the Vedas in truth activities in attachment and activities in detachment [pravritti and nivritti dharma] distinguished; to be directed by both is contradictory, both the two activities so found in one and the same person can be neglected by the one who is in the spirit. (21) O father, are not your opulences possessed by us, acquired by the path of the sacrifices? In being satisfied by the foods and necessities offered was the praising of the one whose cause is the unmanifested achieved by the selfrealized! (22) By this body of yours that is not to Lord S'iva in having committed these offenses, enough is enough with such a contemptible birth; I feel deeply ashamed to be related to such a bad person by that birth; it is so shameful to be of one who is an offender of great personalities. (23) Having this family relationship with you I grow very morose as soon as my great Lord S'iva calls me 'daughter of Daksha', all my joy and smiles vanish immediately then; therefore I shall give up this bag of bones produced from your body.'

(24) Maitreya said: 'Speaking thus to Daksha in the arena of sacrifice, she sat down in silence on the ground facing the north and after touching water, she, dressed in saffron garments, closed her eyes finding absorption in the process of yoga. (25) Balancing the inward and outward going breath in the control of the yogîc posture did she, the blameless one, lift her life's air, raising it by intelligence gradually up from the navel to the heart towards the windpipe and throat and from there to between her eyebrows. (26) Thus she, who time and again full of respect sat on the lap of the most worshipful of all saints, out of her own will concentrated herself on the air and fire within her body in her wish to give it up as a result of her anger towards Daksha. (27) There by the mere thinking of nothing but the nectar of the lotusfeet of her husband, the supreme spiritual teacher of the universe, one saw that the body of Satî, purified by the action, soon was ablaze of the fire that came from her absorption.

(28) Of those who witnessed that there, resounding in the sky and earth, occurred a tumultuous great and wondrous roaring ohhh: 'Alas, Satî the beloved goddess of the most respectable demigod, has given up her life in anger about Daksha. (29) Oh, just see the great soulless of him, the Prajâpati of whom all the generations sprang; by his disrespect she voluntarily gave up her body; his own daughter Satî, that deserves our respect over and over. (30) He so hardhearted and unworthy the brahminical will gain extensive ill fame in the world, because of his offenses as an enemy of Lord S'iva not having prevented the preparing for death of his own daughter!' (31) While the people were thus talking among themselves after witnessing the wonderful death of Satî, stood the attendants of S'iva with uplifted weapons up in order to kill Daksha. (32) On the impulse of seeing them approaching Bhrigu though forthwith offered oblations in the southern part of the fire, reciting hymns from the Yajur Veda against the destroyers of a sacrifice. (33) From the oblations being offered by Bhrigu the demigods named the Ribhus manifested by the thousands that by the moon [Soma] and penance had achieved great strength. (34) The ghosts and Guhyakas [guardians] being attacked by them with weapons from the fuel of the fire, thus, from the glow of sheer brahminical power, fled in all directions.


Chapter 5 

Frustration of the Sacrifice of Daksha

(1) Maitreya said: 'When Lord S'iva heard from Nârada about the death of Satî because of being insulted by Daksha and that the soldiers of his associates had been driven away by the Ribhus produced from Daksha's sacrificial fire, he showed an unbounded anger. (2) Very angry pressing his lips with his teeth he snatched from a cluster of hair from his head one hair blazing terribly like electricity or fire and immediately standing up Rudra laughed with a deep sound and dashed that hair on the ground. (3) Then a great black man with a sky-high body as bright as three suns combined together appeared that had a thousand arms upholding several kinds of weapons, fearful teeth, a garland of skulls and hair on his head that looked like a burning fire. (4) Upon asking him, the Great Lord, with folded hands: 'What can I do for you, O Lord of the Ghosts?', he was told: 'You as the chief of my associates, o Rudra, o expert of combat born from my body, go and put an end to Daksha and his sacrifice!'

(5) Ordered this way he, angry by the very personification of anger that is worshiped by the godly, circumambulated him, the mighty one, considering himself, endowed with his unopposable power, to be of the greatest power, my dear Vidura, capable of coping with any force against him. (6) Followed by the soldiers of S'iva who roared with a tumultuous sound, he hurried there carrying a trident fearful enough to kill even death and bangles on his ankles that made a loud sound. (7) At that moment the priests, Daksha the leader of the Yajña and all the persons assembled saw, coming from the north, the darkness of a duststorm, upon which the brahmins and their wives began to speculate on where this dust came from: (8) 'The winds don't blow, it can't be plunderers since old King Barhi is still alive to punish them, the cows aren't driven out; so where does this dust come from - does this mean that the world is about to end?'

(9) The women of Daksha headed by Prasûti being very afraid said: 'This is indeed the danger resulting from the sin of, as her Lord and creator, having insulted his completely innocent daughter Satî in the presence of her sisters. (10) But he who at the time of dissolution dances with the bunch of his hair scattered, pierces the rulers of all directions on his trident and laughs aloud dividing those directions with the sound of thunder while raising the weapons in his hands like flags. (11) How could there be good fortune having of Brahmâ caused the anger of him who with an unbearable effulgence full of anger now scatters the luminaries with the unbearable sight of his fearful teeth and the movement of his eyebrows.' 

(12) While the people assembled at Daksha's sacrifice were all talking like this, looking around nervously, everywhere and repeatedly could of the great soul countless fearful omens be observed in the sky and on the earth. (13) Quickly, o Vidura, was the arena of sacrifice surrounded by the followers of Rudra with his choice of weapons and were running all around with their short blackish and yellowish sharklike bodies and faces.

(14) Some pulled down the pillars of the pandal while others invaded the female quarters, the sacrificial arena, the residence of the priests and the place where one was cooking. (15) Some shattered the pots used for the sacrifice, some extinguished the fires burning for the sacrifice, some urinated and some tore down the boundary lines demarking the arena. (16) Others blocked the sages their way and some threatened the women and arrested the godly ones nearby in their flight. (17) Manimân got hold of Bhrigu Muni, Vîrabhadra [the great one] caught Prajâpati Daksha, Candes'a arrested Pûshâ and Nandîs'vara arrested the demigod Bhaga. (18) Suffering a hail of stones indeed all the priests, godly ones and other members of the sacrifice seeing this all happening were in great agony and thus had begun to disperse in all directions. (19) Of the muni Bhrigu who held the sacrificial ladle doing oblations did the Lord of S'iva in the midst of the assembly tear of the mustache as he had dared to smile at them. (20) Of Bhaga then that warlord, who had thrust him to the ground with great anger, pluck out his eyes in the presence of the Vis'vasriks, as he had encouraged the cursing of lord S'iva moving his eyebrows. (21) Like Baladeva did with the king of Kalinga [during the gambling match at the marriage ceremony of Aniruddha], he knocked out the teeth of Pûshâ who had shown his teeth smiling during the cursing of S'iva. (22) Though sitting on the chest of Daksha with a sharp blade in order to sever his head, was the three eyed big one not able to succeed. (23) Nor with weapons nor with the help of mantras not even able to cut his skin, he was struck with great bewilderment and thus had Virabhdra to give it a lot of thought. (24) Then he saw the device used for killing the sacrificial animâls and with the help of that he severed the head from the body of the Lord ruling over the sacrifice being an animâl of sacrifice now himself.

(25) At that time seeing him doing that they all, the Bhûtas, Pretas and Pis'âcas of S'iva, cheered joyfully while the followers of Daksha suffered the opposite. (26) Vîrabhadra out of his great anger with Daksha, threw the head as an oblation in the southern part of the sacrificial fire and set fire to all the arrangements of the godly for the sacrifice. Then they departed for Kailâsa, their masters abode ['where the Guhyakas reside'].



Chapter 6 

Brahmâ Satîsfies Lord S'iva

(1-2) Maitreya said: 'After all the demigods had been defeated with tridents, spears, swords, bludgeons and hammers by the soldiers of Rudra, they together with all the priests and other members of the assembly in great fear reported the events to Lord Brahmâ offering him obeisances. (3) Knowing beforehand of the certainty of these events did the Lord born from the lotus flower [Brahmâ] and Nârâyana, the Supersoul of the entire universe [Vishnu], not attend to the sacrifice of Daksha. (4) Hearing of what had happened Lord Brahmâ said: 'A great personality has been offended and that is, in desiring to exist thus, generally not conducive to your happiness. (5) Having committed these offenses denying Lord S'iva his share of the offerings, still all of you should, without mental reservation, satisfy him and quickly find mercy in taking to the shelter of his lotus feet. (6) You cannot expect to continue with the sacrifice if you do not immediately beg the God of all worlds and their controllers whom you have angered his pardon; being deprived of his wife he was in his heart very afflicted by the unkind words. (7) Nor I, nor Indra, nor all of you and others who have a material body or the sages who know the truth of the extent of his strength and power have an idea of what it means to try something like that with him, who relies on the soul only.'

(8) After he thus instructed the godly ones then Lord Brahmâ followed by the forefathers and the leaders of the people went from his own place with them to the abode of Lord S'iva, Kailâsa, the best of all mountains so dear to the master. (9) There one lives with the herbs and the austerity of the vedic hymns of yoga, is one together with the perfected ones appreciated by other people and always full of the Kinnaras, Gandharvas, and Apsaras [the indwellers and singers of heaven and their wives]. (10) The mountain range is filled with all kinds of precious jewels and is grown by trees, creepers and a diversity of plants and inhabited by groups of deer. (11) The summits with their crystal-clear waterfalls have various caves that accommodate the mystics sporting there with their loving wives. (12) Resounding with the cries of peacocks and the humming of bees blind of intoxication, there is the ever singing of cuckoos and the chirping of other birds. (13) It is as if the trees, yielding all desires, stretch their hands out calling for the birds while moving like elephants and sounding like waterfalls. (14-15) The mountain is further decorated with mandâra, pârijâta, sarala and tamâla trees, sâla and tâla, kovidâra, âsana and arjuna trees, âmra-jâti (mango), kadamba, dhûli-kadamba and nâgas, punnâgas and campakas and one also sees there trees like pâthalas, as'oka's, bakulas, kundas and kurabakas. (16)  It is golden colored with the lotus and the cinnamon tree and beautified by the mâlatî, the kubja, the mallikâ and the mâdhavî flowers. (17) With kata, jackfruit, julara and banyan trees, plakshas, nyagrodhas and trees producing asafoetida there are also betelnut trees, pûgas, râjapûgas and jambus [black berries and greenery alike]. (18) With the variety of trees like kharjûras, âmrâtakas, âmras and such and others like priyâlas, madhukas and ingudas, it is as well rich with venu-kîcakaih and kîcaka [different sorts of bamboo]. (19-20) Kumuda-, utpala-, and s'atapatra-lotusses cover the lakes of the forests that are full of the sweet whispers of groups of birds and have deer, monkeys, cats, bears, s'alyakas, forest cows and asses, tigers, smaller deer and buffalo's and such in them. (21) It is enjoyed by the different types of deer like the karnântras, ekapadas, asvâsyas, vrikas and kastûrîs and has groups of banana trees at the beautiful lotus ponds which have sandy banks. (22) The devoted ones saw the special waters of lake Alakânandâ where Satî had bathed and they were struck with wonder about that mountain of the Lord of Ghosts. (23) There they saw indeed at Alakâ ['uncommonly beautiful'] the abode of the forest named Saugandhika ['full of fragrance'], which was called that way because of that species of lotus flowers. (24) Even more sanctified by the dust of the lotus feet were the two rivers the Nandâ and Alakânandâ streaming outside from the abode of the feet of the master. (25) Dear ruler, in the both of them did the celestial damsels descend from their own dwellings to play with their husbands after their lovemaking, sprinkling oneother once in the water. (26) Both the streams yellow of the kunkum powder because of their bathing made the elephants and their females drink the water even though they weren't thirsty. (27) The heavenly abodes enjoyed by the wives of the virtuous were bedecked with countless valuable jewels, pearls and gold which made them look like clouds brightened by the flashes of lightening.

(28) Passing through the Saughandika forest attractive with its variety of trees yielding with flowers, fruits and leaves to all desires, they reached the abode of the Lord of the Yakshas. (29) There they saw the beauty of many rednecked birds who's sounds mixed with the humming of the bees and also lakes with groups of swans and the dearest of lotus flowers. (30) The breeze of the sandalwood trees made the wild elephants flock together and stimulated the minds of the wives of the virtuous over and over. (31) The staircases to the bathing places full of lotuses, used by the loyals of the divine personality [the kimpurushas], were made of vaidûrya and having seen those they not far away from there spotted a banyan tree. (32) At a height of thousands of feet it spread out its branches over a quarter of the foot of the mountain casting a fine cooling shadow having no birds nesting in it. (33) Underneath it the godly ones saw Lord S'iva, the shelter of many a great sage desiring liberation, sitting there as grave as eternal time in having given up his wrath. (34) Saintly liberated souls like the Kumâras headed by Sânandana and Kuvera, the master of the Guhyakas and Rakshasas sat their in praise around the solemn and serene Lord. (35) There they saw him as the master of the senses, the knowledge of austerity and the path of yoga; the friend of the whole world, who out of his full affection is the blessing for all. (36) He could be recognized as he is desired by the ascetics: with ashes, a staff, matted hair, seated on an antelope skin and with his reddish colored body bearing the crest of a half moon. (37) Sitting on a mattress of straw he was, being overheard by the sages, conversing with Nârada about the eternal and the Absolute Truth. (38) With his left foot placed over his right thigh and with his right hand resting on his knee holding his prayer-beads, he was making a gesture of argument. (39) He, leaning with his knee thus fixed and absorbed in the trance of spiritual bliss as the prime thinker of the wise, received there the respects from all the other sages present with their hands folded. (40) But Lord S'iva, seeing that the selfborn one, Lord Brahmâ, whose feet are worshiped, had arrived accompanied by the best of the enlightened and unenlightened, stood up and respectfully bowed his head just like Vâmandeva as Vishnu did welcoming Kas'yapa. (41) And so also did the other perfected ones and the great rishis, who verily from all sides followed their Lord in offering obeisances. After that demonstration of respect Lord Brahmâ smilingly began to address Lord S'iva.

(42)  Brahmâ said: 'You I know as the controller, as the potency of both the father and the mother of the entire cosmic manifestation and as the One auspicious and supreme which is unchanging and immaterial. (43) You certainly from the favorable of your energy, by your personal expansion, o Fortunate One, create, maintain and annihilate this universe that works like a spiders web. (44) Truly of you do the loyal and vowed brahmins derive the benefits of religion and economy instituted by means of Daksha in preparing the sacrifices for you in this world and regulating the necessary societal respect. (45) O most Auspicious of the auspicious, to your Lordship do the prescribed duties of the performer lead to higher worlds, the heavens and the transcendental and does one wonder why there is also for someone the opposite and the unfortunate of a ghastly hell. (46) But with the devotees in full surrender at your feet who perfectly see yours in all sorts of living beings and see in the Supreme no difference between living beings, there is practically never any anger, like one sees it with animâls, to be found. (47) Those who think everything is different, look for results and can't stand it when others are doing well, who have given up on the heart and in constant anger with others inflict pain with harsh words; they do not need to be killed by you as they are killed by providence already. (48) When at some places persons bewildered by the insurmountable illusory energy of the Great Blue One [the Lord as Pushkaranâbha], have a different idea, will saintly persons out of compassion never use their prowess but have mercy instead as everything is settled by providence. (49) O your Lordship, but of the great potency of the supreme person his material energy is the intelligence that sees and knows everything, by the same illusory energy unaffected, so in this case o Lord you have to be of mercy with those who out of their being enslaved are bewildered at heart. (50) O Lord S'iva, you did what you had to do, putting an end to the complete of the sacrifice of the bad priests of Daksha who would get the result of the now unfinished sacrifice he held; from that sacrifice, not being granted your share, you have the right to take what's yours. (51) Let the performer Daksha get his life back, Bhagadeva get his eyes back, Bhrigu grow his mustache back and let Pûshâ as before have his row of teeth. (52) Let the godly whose limbs were broken and the priests who suffered from the weapons and stones at once by your favor, o angered one, recover from their injuries. (53) O Rudra, let the portion of whatever is left of this sacrifice be yours dear Lord so that that offering today may find its completion, o destroyer of the yajña.


Chapter 7 

The Sacrifice Performed by Daksha

(1) Maitreya said: 'Lord S'iva thus pacified by Lord Brahmâ was fully satisfied, o mighty one; listen to what he then smiling said. (2) Mahadeva said: 'O Lord of the created, I do not take offense in those whom I regard as children, I used the rod there for them who were deluded by the external of God. (3) Let there be a head of a goat for the Prajâpati who's head was burnt to ashes and let Bhaga see his own share of the sacrifice with the eyes of Mitra. (4) Pûshâ who led the sacrifice will have to eat chickpea dough or food chewed for him, but the godly ones who did grant me a share of the sacrifice will fully recover. (5) The two arms of the As'vins [the twin protectors of medicine] and the hands of Pûshâ are there for them who have to miss those limbs and Bhrigu and the other priests may have the beard of the goat.'

(6) Maitreya said: 'All who at that moment heard what the best of the benedictors had said were in their hearts and souls satisfied, o dear one, and thus showed, like we do, their appreciation. (7) Thereafter was Lord S'iva invited by the godly ones and the sages headed by Bhrigu again, to attend to the sacrifice for the divinity and together with him who was discontented and the one of the Veda [Brahmâ] they went there. (8) Then they did it all as was said by Lord Bhava to be done with the body of the living [Daksha] and the head of the animâl of sacrifice. (9) Proceeding thus was with that head king Daksha, under the supervision of Rudra, reawakened from his apparent state of unconsciousness, verily seeing the Lord of Death in front. (10) At that time became the polluted heart of the Prajâpati by seeing him, the Lord who rides the bull, as clean as a lake [just filled by the rains] in autumn. (11) Although decided to pray to Bhava, it could, with eyes full of tears, not be so from the great surge of feeling remembering the dead daughter. (12) With great endeavor pacifying also the mind bewildered by the love and affection, prayed the one Prajâpati who had come to his senses in praise and with straightforward feelings to him. (13) Daksha said: 'How great is the favor for me to be punished by you for the ill I did; although you defeat, you never deny not even an unqualified brahmin. Nor from you nor from Vishnu, my Lord, there is neglect and thus there is certainty for the one engaged in sacrifice. (14) O great one you, as the one who was created first from the mouth of Brahmâ in order to disseminate the teachings of selfrealization, the vows and the austerity, do protect with a stick in your hand, like one who protects his herd, all the brahmins. (15) You who by me, ignorant of your reality, was abused in the assembly by the arrows of unkind words, do not really take heed of that; seeing me sliding down to hell by defaming the most respectable, you saved me out of compassion and about that what you did out of your own mercy, your Lordship, I wish you to be pleased.

(16) Maitreya said: 'Thus receiving forgiveness he, by Lord S'iva and Lord Brahmâ permitted the sacrifice, again began with it together with the priests, the ones of learning and the others. (17) To perform the sacrifice meant for Vishnu, did the brahmins settle for three kinds of offerings and did they offer the oblation called purodâ in order to purify from having been in touch with Vîrabhadra and his men. (18) O Vidura, the moment the leader of the Yajña thus managed to sacrifice with the help of clarified butter and hymns from the Yajur Veda and in meditation was sanctified, appeared Lord Hari, the Supreme Personality. (19) At that time did all of them see the effulgence diminished of the ten directions because of the brightness of the effulgence of Him Himself, who was brought by Garuda [or Stotra] on his enormous wings. (20) With a dark complexion, garments like gold, a helmet dazzling as the sun, curling hair bluish like black bees, a face decorated with earrings, a conchshell, a lotus flower, a disc and arrows, a bow, a club, a sword and shield and many golden ornaments, did He, with all He had in his hands, look like a blossoming tree. (21) Garlanded with forestflowers He had the woman [Lakshmî] on His chest and only a small part of His lofty smiling glance was enough to please the whole world; at His side there were white fans waving and above Him one saw a royal canopy as white as the moon. (22) After they saw Him arriving, all the demigods and the others led by Brahmâ, Indra and the three-eyed S'iva, immediately proved their respects by standing up from their seats. (23) Outshone by the luster of His glaring effulgence they all fell silent and filled with awe they touched their heads bowing to pray for Adhoskaja, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. (24) Though His glory is beyond the comprehension of even the powerful ones of the soul in their different capacities, they could now by His grace offer their prayers seeing His transcendental form. (25) Daksha, who, taking shelter, was accepted with his rightful oblations of sacrifice unto the master of all sacrifices, the supreme preceptor of all progenitors of mankind who is attended by Nanda and Sunanda [the most important servants of Nârâyana in Vaikunthha], then with great pleasure, a subdued mind and with folded hands offered Him his prayers. (26) Daksha said: 'You Lordship now present, from the purity of Your own abode in full having returned here in perfect transcendence above all mental speculation, are the one without a second, the fearless controller of all matter, who, with her [Mâyâ] having entered the impure, is for sure the overseer and self-sufficient One.'

(27) The priests said: 'All of us, not knowing about the truth of Your Lordship who is free from the influence of the material world and being of an intelligence of too great an attachment to fruitive activities from S'iva's curse, o Lord, know now of the name [Yajña] of this symbolic arrangement of religious sacrifice that goes in three departments for the matter of which we are in worship of the demigods.'

(28) The members of the assembly said: 'On the path of repeated birth and death we have no place to take shelter; we are greatly troubled in this formidable fort of being timebound, that is infested by ugly snakes and in which the mirage of the material happiness of a home and a body forms a heavy burden. When we have to live by the dual ditch of distress and so-called happiness, the fear for wild animâls, the forestfire of lamentation over the interest of ignorance and are afflicted with all sorts of desire, do we, with You who gives shelter, have the protection of the lotus feet.'

(29) Rudra said: 'O supreme benefactor, if I, desiring fulfillment in the material world, have my mind fixed on Your precious lotus feet that for sure are cared for and worshiped by the liberated sages, do I, with a compassion like that of Yours, not attach any value to it when ignorant people complain about a lack of regulation.'

(30) Bhrigu said: 'From Lord Brahmâ down to all other embodied beings are those, who, under the influence of the insurmountable material energy, are bereft of the knowledge of their original self, submerged in the darkness of illusion and not situated in the one soul; they cannot understand Your situation as the absolute of the reality. O lord, You, as the friend of the surrendered soul, be kind to this.'

(31) Brahmâ said: 'Trying to see Your person, this eternal form of You cannot be known through the different virtues of respect for acquiring knowledge, as the objective of the instruments of knowledge and their material basis is all distinct in regard of You.

(32) Indra said: 'Surely is this transcendental form, o Infallible One, there for the welfare of the universe and is it a cause of pleasure to the mind and eye as You, in the possession of the eight weapons uplifted by Your arms, punish those who are envious of Your devotees.'

(33) The wives of the attendants of the sacrifice said: ' This worshiping in sacrifice arranged by Brahmâ was devastated by Lord S'iva; may today the beauty of Your lotuslike vision, o Lord of sacrifice, sanctify what from the anger with Daksha became the stillness, alike that of the dead bodies of the sacrificial animâls.'

(34) The sages said: 'How wonderful o Supreme Lord, are Your activities to the labor of which for certain You are in the execution of Your potencies never attached; nor is Your Lordship so with the mercy of Your obedient servant, the Goddess of Fortune Lakshmî, one is in worship for.'

(35) The perfected ones prayed: 'Immersed in the river of the mind of the pure nectar of Your pastimes do we as an elephant thirsty from the heat of a forest fire no longer remember that misery of being afflicted and do we as we are merged in the Absolute of it never wish to leave.

(36) The wife of Daksha said: 'Be pleased my Lord with my respects for Your auspicious appearance, o abode of the Goddess; with Lakshmî as Your wife, You protect us. Our arena knows no beauty without your arms, o controller, just like a headless person with a body only.'

(37) The local rulers said: 'In doubt of whether we have seen You with our material senses, You are, revealing Your eternal form, certainly seen as the inner witness from whom the entire world of illusion finds its certainty of existence, o possessor of all, as You with the elements appear as the sixth to the five of the senses.'

(38) The great ones of yoga said: 'Those who, from seeing no one as dear as they see You, see themselves as existing in You and not as being apart from You, the Supersoul of all beings, o master, are very dear to You; so much more You without fail favor those souls, o Lord, who with that are with devotion in worship, o loving parent. (39) Unto Him in His personal form, who produced from His material energy in the living entities the destiny of their different inclinations, variegated by the many material qualities to the creation, maintenance and annihilation in the material world and who by His internal potency caused that interaction of the modes to stop, we offer our obeisances.'

(40) The Vedas in person said: 'Our respects unto You who are the shelter of the quality of goodness and the source of the austerity and penance in all religions transcendental to the modes of nature; I nor anyone else does really know You or Your situation.

(41) Agni, the fire-god said: 'By Your effulgence I am luminous as the greatest fire and may I accept in sacrifice the five kinds of offerings mixed with butter; I offer my obeisances to Yajña, the protector of the sacrifices, worshiped by the five kinds of hymns of the Veda.'

(42) The godly said: 'Formerly at the devastation of the era [kalpa] did the liberated souls in their hearts meditate in philosophical speculation and conserving them, withdrawing them in Your abdomen, You in effect were certainly the original personality lying on the snakebed Ananta S'esha in the water taking rest; and now we see with our both eyes You moving on the path for the protection of us Your servants.'

(43) The indwellers of heaven said: 'Marîci and the great sages under the direction of Brahmâ and Indra and the divinity led by S'iva, are to be seen as parts and parcels of Your body, o God; may we unto the Supreme Almighty for whom this whole creation is just a plaything, o Lord, always be in respect and offer You our obeisances.'

(44) The Vidyâdharas [lovers of knowledge] said : 'After, by Your external potency having obtained the human body and having misidentified himself being in the body thinking in terms of I and mine, does the ignorant person taking the body to be himself, follow even the wrong roads in distraction of material possessions, seeking his happiness in sense objects; but relishing the nectar from Your topics he can, even having drifted far away of that, be delivered.'

(45) The Brahmins said: ' You are the sacrifice, the offering of the clarified butter, the fire in person; You are the mantras, the fuel, the kus'a grass [to sit on] and the pots; You are the members of the assembly, the priests, the leader of the yajña and his wife, the demigods and the sacred ceremony to the fire, the offering to the forefathers, the soma-plant, the clarified butter itself and the sacrificial animâl [see also: B.G. 4.24]. (46) In the past it was You who from within the waters, like an elephant does pick up a lotus, uplifted the world on Your tusks as the great boar incarnation [see canto 3 ch 13]; playfully the vibrating was picked up by great sages like Sanaka as an offering of prayers in the form of a sacrifice, o knowledge of the Vedas in person. (47) You as that same person, we ask to be pleased with us who are awaiting Your audience, having fallen down from performing the sacrifice. By the singing of Your holy names do persons, o Lord of sacrifice, attain the destruction of obstacles; unto You our respectful obeisances.'

(48) Maitreya said: 'O blessed one, with Hrsikesa [Vishnu as the Lord of the senses], the protector of sacrifices, thus being glorified, did Daksha, purified, arrange to resume the sacrifice devastated by Vîrabhadra. (49) O sinless one, Lord Vishnu, the Supersoul of all beings and enjoyer of all sacrifices, having His share, was satisfied and then addressed Daksha. (50) Lord Vishnu said: 'I, Brahmâ and Lord S'iva as well, do not differ in being the supreme cause and Supersoul, the witness and the self-sufficient one of the material manifestation. (51) I myself having entered my own external energy composed of the modes of nature, o twice born one, create, maintain and annihilate the cosmic manifestation and, according the activity, have a name to the cause for which I manifest. (52) Him the Supreme Brahmân that is without a second, is as one Supersoul with both Brahmâ and S'iva, but the living ones who are not conversant with this, think of them as being separate. (53) The way a person sometimes does not make a difference between the head, hands and other parts of his own body, so does My devotee thus make no difference between living beings. (54) He who having the one nature of the three, verily does, of the Supersoul in all beings, not see the separateness, o brahmin, realizes the peace.'

(55) Maitreya said: 'The foremost of all progenitors thus being addressed by the Supreme Lord Hari then, after worshiping His own with the necessary ceremony, separately worshiped the demigods. (56) Since he with a concentrated mind had worshiped Lord S'iva to his own share and by the act of performance together with the priests had completed it as well for the godly ones and the others assembled, then took the concluding [avabhrtha] bath. (57) By as well granting the Supreme One His share was thus for sure the perfection of the religious duty attained and did those three of divine service, so for certain having given the intelligence, leave for their abodes. (58) Satî, the daughter of Daksha, after formerly having given up her body, was born from the wife of Mena [or Menakâ] who lives in the Himalaya's, so I have heard. (59) As His beloved did she Ambikâ [Durgâ or Satî] being attracted to no other, for certain accept him [S'iva] again as her husband, as the one goal, the original masculine of the person that lies dormant in the external feminine energy. (60) This story about Sambhu [Lord S'iva as the one of all beings] who devastated the sacrifice of Daksha, I heard from a great devotee and disciple of Brihaspati: Uddhava. (61) The person who after hearing this pure pastime about the way of the Supreme, always with faith and devotion tries to recount it, will find fame, longevity and the destruction of his sins, being cleared of all material contamination, o descendant of Kuru.



Chapter 8 

Dhruva Leaves Home for the Forest

(1) Maitreya said: 'None of the ones headed by Sanaka or the other sons of Brahmâ Nârada, Ribhu, Hams'a, Aruni and Yati, stayed at home; they for sure lived the celibate life [ûrdva retasah, sending their seed upwards]. (2) O slayer of enemies, Mrisa, the wife [and sister] of [another son of Brahmâ called] Irreligion produced the two [sons] Bluffing and Cheating, but they were taken by [a demon called] Nirriti who was without children. (3) From those two were born Greed and Cunning and, o great soul, from the both of them there were Anger and Malice. On turn from the both them there were Kali and the sister called Harsh Speech. (4) O best of the truthful, from Harsh Speech did Kali produce Fearfulness and Death and of those two combined were produced Excessive Pain as well as Hell. (5) In short I so explained to you the cause of devastation; your soul its contamination will be washed off if you, as one of piety, hear of this description three times, o pure one.

(6) Now following, I will describe the dynasty famous for its virtuous activities, o best of the Kuru's, that evolved from the Manu called Svâyambhuva, who was a part of a plenary portion [knowing Brahmâ] of the Personality of Godhead. (7) Uttânapâda and Priyavrata, the two sons of Queen S'atarûpâ and her husband, as being part of the plenary expansion [Brahmâ] of the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva, were there for the protection and maintenance of the world. (8) Of the two wives of Uttânapâda, Sunîti ['the one of good conduct']and Suruci, was Suruci [the one delighting'] far more dear to the husband than the other one who had a son called Dhruva [the immovable one']. (9) When once the king was patting the son of Suruci named Uttama ['the one of excel'], whom he had placed on his lap, did he not welcome Dhruva who also tried to get on his lap. (10) Queen Suruci who, being too proud, was envious, made the child of the co-wife, Dhruva, who tried to get up to him, listen to her, speaking so that the king could hear it. (11) 'My dear child, you do not deserve to seat yourself where the king sits, that place belongs to me because, although you were born as a son of the king, you were not born from my womb. (12) O child, try to understand of yourself that, because you are not my own but from the womb of another woman; the matter you desire is out of your reach. (13) If you so desire, you can only by means of penance, having satisfied the Person of God and by His mercy having found yourselves a place in my womb, seat yourselves on the throne of the King.'

(14) Maitreya said: 'Pierced by the harsh words of his stepmother, he out of anger began to breathe heavily, as a snake struck by a stick, seeing his father looking on as a silent witness, upon which weeping he went to where his mother was. (15) Having heard from the others what had happened did Sunîti lift her heavily breathing son, who's lips were trembling, on her lap and did she grieve about what was said by her co-wife. (16) Losing her composure the woman lamented with a fire of grief that burnt like dry leaves in remembrance of the things said by the other wife and looking through the tears falling from her beautiful lotus face she spoke. (17) Gasping for air the lady found no way to avert the danger and said to her son: 'Do not wish others anything inauspicious, my dear son, a person will have to suffer himself from the ill he wishes to happen to others. (18) The truth of what mother Suruci has told you about having taken birth from the womb of me the unfortunate one and having grown up from the milk of that breast, is that the king has become ashamed or in other words, that he regrets having accepted me for his wife. (19) If you desire to occupy the throne as also Uttama does, then just engage yourselves in the worship of the lotus feet of Adhokshaja, the Transcendence, my dear son, without being envious, as all that your stepmother has told you is factual. (20) The unborn One [your great-grandfather, Brahmâ] no doubt acquired his supreme position in the universe receiving the qualifications to create, from worshiping the One of whom we know the lotusfeet and who can be approached by the ones who conquered the mind in selfregulation. (21) Likewise, found the Manu, your worshipable grandfather, who in worshiping with unflinching devotion and by great charity in executing sacrifices, achieved the divine in earthly happines, that is difficult to achieve by other means, his liberation thereafter. (22) Of Him, the Kind One taking care, my dear boy, you should take shelter as also persons desiring liberation have to seek the lotus feet; when there is no room for doubt there should, from one's original nature, be a systematic engaging of one's mind in devotional service to the Original Personality of God. (23) Looking for others who could mitigate your difficulties I know of no one else to go for but for Him, the lotus-eyed One, my dearest, who, among all others, is sought by the Goddess of Fortune, with a lotus flower in her hand, herself.'

(24) Maitreya said: 'Thus having heard the purposeful words of the mother he, carefully considering it to himself, left his fathers house. (25) Nârada who came to hear about it and knew of what he was about to do, was surprised and with the hand, that could expel all sin, touching his head, he exclaimed: (26) 'Oh that might of the rulers! Unable to tolerate any infringement on their prestige, this one being only a child, has taken at heart the unpalatable words that came from his stepmother.' (27) Nârada then said: 'Why is it my dear boy, that presently finding no respect being insulted I cannot see the attachment to sports and games normal for boys like you? (28) There is no reason to be so dissatisfied for a person free from illusion; each is different in this world according his own karma and thus there are different choices. (29) Therefore you should be satisfied, dear one; whatever the nature of what destiny prepares a person, is by an intelligent person seen as a way towards the Supreme. (30) Therefore isn't it, as I am convinced so, that the yoga your mother told you to do for elevating yourself to His mercy, is too difficult for a person like you? (31) The greatest sages who were on the path of detachment for many births never came to understand what they were looking for, despite of being in the full of the severest austerities. (32) So now, stop with this resolve of yours, it will take you nowhere. Just reserve that for the future, you will see that there will then be ample opportunities for yourself. (33) Any person who is satisfied with whatever happiness or distress that is set for him by destiny, can reach with his embodied soul the other side of darkness. (34) To what is better one should feel pleased, to what is of a lesser quality one should be compassionate and to what is equal one should be friendly; thus fostering no desires one is never affected by tribulation.'

(35) Dhruva said: 'This balance of mind you talk about o Lordship, is of those who are merciful to people who are affected, but for persons like us it is very difficult to see it the way you said it. (36) The spirit of the ruler is not so much of submission, considering the intolerance I met with Queen Suruci; thus I cannot tolerate it to be pierced by the arrows of the harsh words. (37) Please tell me an honest way that fits with my desire for a superior position in the three worlds, o brahmin, that not even others like my father, grandfather and forefathers could acquire. (38) Your Honor, of Lord Brahmâ you are born as a true part playing the vîna traveling like the sun all over the world for its welfare.'

(39) Maitreya said: 'Thus hearing of what he told him, was Nârada very pleased, whereupon he compassionately replied to give the boy good advice. (40) Nârada told him: 'That path your mother told you about is certainly your ultimate destination; render the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva your service by fully absorbing Him in your mind. (41) One who in the name of duty, virtue, gratification and liberation desires after the goal of life of the soul, should in that only be for the cause of serving His feet. (42) To that, my dear, with my blessing, go to the bank of the Yamunâ and be purified by the holy of the Madhuvana forest where one is always nearer to the Lord. (43) When you have taken a bath in that river there, the Kâlindî [the name of the mountain where the Yamunâ rises], three times a day, which is very auspicious performed the right way, you should seat yourself having prepared a sitting place. (44) Through the threefold of breathcontrol [prânâyâma: controlling the in-, the outgoing and balanced breath] gradually giving up the impurities of one's thinking to the life's air and the senses, one should with an undisturbed mind meditate upon the supreme spiritual master. (45) Always willing to grace, with His pleasing mouth and way of looking, his straight nose, high brows and intelligent forehead, he is the beauty of the demigods. (46) Youthful, attractive in all his limbs and with lips as red as a rising sun, He is the shelter of the surrendered, transcendental in every respect; the worthy one merciful like the ocean. (47) Marked with the s'rîvatsa [a few white hairs on His chest]and of a deeply bluish color, He is the original Personality, garlanded with flowers, showing the conchshell, the disc, the club and lotus flower in His four hands. (48) His helmet, pearl earrings, necklace, bracelets and the Kausthuba jewel, He wears to garments of yellow silk. (49) He has small bells of gold around His waist and His ankles and is of a superior calm, peace and quietude pleasing as well the eye as the mind. (50) He takes His place on the whorl of the lotus of the hearts of those who in worship unite in the light of the glittering of the nails of His lotus feet. (51) One should this way regularly see the Lord His smiling, so affectionate with the devotees and thus in full attention with one's mind meditate on the greatest of all benedictors. (52) The mind thus meditating the very auspicious form of the Supreme Lord is, being enriched, very soon freed from all material contamination and will never come down from that.

(53) Please hear from me the very, very confidential mantra to chant, o prince, from which, done for a seven nights, a person can see the beauty of the beyond. (54) 'Om namo bhagavate vâsudevâya' [my respects for Vâsudeva, the Supreme Lord]; with this mantra [called the dvâdasâksara-mantra] should the learned one exercise respect for the physical of the Lord, the way it should be done, with the diverse paraphernalia and as someone conversant with the differences to place and time [des'a-kâla-vibhâgavit]. (55) One purifies with the help of water, garlands of forest flowers, roots, the diverse fruits and vegetables, fresh grass, buds, bark and with the respect of tulsi-leaves, which are very dear to the Lord your master. (56) One can begin with getting oneself and worshiping a deity made of physical elements like earth and water [clay], or, as a great personality, be of full self-control and in peace control your speech and eat frugally from whatever the forest offers. (57) To that one should meditate on the intriguing activities performed by the Supreme Lord of Wisdom, the way He, by His own potency, so inconceivably incarnates out of His own will. (58) To be in service of the Supreme Lord as I told you is the recommendation of the previous teachers of example who one, within one's heart, for sure should respect with the mantras, as they are the embodiment of them. (59-60) Thus with one's body, mind and words simply thinking of the Lord engaged in the service is the Supreme Lord to the regulations of bhakti worshiped. The devotees engaged sincerely and seriously does the Lord who brings love, reward what they desire in regard of the spiritual life and benefits [the so-called purusârtha's] of conditioned souls. (61) In complete detachment from all sense-gratification must one, being serious in bhakti-yoga about one's liberation, unrelenting exercise respect that is steeped in love for Him directly.'

(62) Thus being addressed by him, circumambulated the son of the king him offering his obeisances and did he go to the Madhuvana forest which, imprinted by the feet of the Lord, was the right place to be. (63) When he thus had withdrawn himself entering the forest, thought the respected sage it wise to pay the king a visit in his palace and seated there comfortably, he spoke to him. (64) Nârada said: 'Dear King, what are you thinking so deeply about with a wry face - have you lost your grip on the gratification, the religion or the economy?

(65) The king replied: 'O brahmin, my sweet boy, my son, although he is only five years old and actually a great personality and devotee, I have, being too attached to my wife and too hard of heart, banished from here together with his mother. (66) I worry whether, without being protected by anyone in the forest, o brahmin, the helpless boy who's face is like a lotus, hasn't, emaciated of hunger, in fatigue lying down, been devoured by wolves. (67) Alas, how cruel I was, being conquered by a woman; just imagine how most hard hearted I refused him the affection when he out of love tried to climb on my lap.'

(68) Nârada said: 'Do not, I say, do not be aggrieved about your son. He is well protected by the Godhead, o master of men, you don't know how widespread his influence is over all the world. (69) The boy is quite capable; after performing what is impossible for even the greatest around, he will, to the better of your reputation, directly come back to you, my dear King.'

(70) Maitreya Muni said: 'The king, hearing of what Nârada had told him, began to think about him and fell in neglect about his opulent kingdom. (71) Meanwhile was, after taking a bath, fasting that night, the Original Personality worshiped [by Dhruva] with perfect attention as Nârada had advised it. (72) For the first month worshiping the Lord, he only ate, to the bare necessity of preserving his body, fruits and berries in the morning after every third night. (73) The next month the innocent boy continued his respect for the Almighty, eating every sixth day as mentioned, having daily food prepared from grasses and leaves gone dry. (74) The passing third month long he drank each ninth day water only, fully absorbed in his respect for the Lord of Wisdom, Uttama Sloka. (75) That way continuing into the fourth month, each twelfth day he ate air only, controlling his breath, meditating in worship of God. (76) By the fifth month still in control of his breath, did the son of the king, meditating on the Creator, stand on one leg like a column without moving. (77) In all respects concentrating the mind in the heart, meditating the resting place for the senses and their objects, did he not look for anything else but the form of the Supreme Lord. (78) Finding his repose, having taken into the heart the Absolute, the complete of the reality, the primary principle and person of all, all the three worlds began to tremble. (79) As he remained standing on the one leg did he, the child of the king, press half the earth down with his big toe bent, just like the king of elephants does who as a boat balances left and right with every step. (80) Thus he, in the full of his meditation having stopped his breathing, closing all gates of the body confining the life's air, suffocated all the worlds and soon all the great ones from all places sought their refuge with the Lord.

(81) The godly said: 'We never saw anything like this, o Supreme Lord, seeing the flow of the universal breath obstructed; You as the reservoir of all existence, so kind to the needy, we all, taking shelter with Your Honor, therefore approach to save us from the calamity.'

(82) The Supreme Lord replied: 'Fear not, this choking of the life's air happens on account of the son of King Uttânapâda who is in deep thought of Me; I will ask the boy, strong in his determination of penance, to stop with this. Please return to your homes.'  




Chapter 9

Dhruva Returns Home from the Forest

(1) Maitreya said: 'They, thus being freed from all fear, offered the Lord of the extraordinary their obeisances, upon which they returned to their three worlds. The Lord with the thousand faces [Sahasrasîrsâ, the original Vishnu] then from there went away to the Madhuvana forest desirous to see him, His servant [Dhruva]. (2) He who from the maturity of his meditation was seeing Him, brilliant as lightening manifested on the lotus of his heart, all of a sudden noticed that He had disappeared, but looking around he could see Him there outside of him in the same form. (3) With Him present before him, he, confounded, fell to the ground; prostrating his body like a rod offering Him his obeisances and while looking at Him, was the boy as if he was drinking Him, like he was kissing Him with his mouth and embracing Him with his arms. (4) Seeing that he wanted to glorify Him, but lacked in experience to do so, did the Lord, who is the prayer in accord with the scripture in the heart of each, understanding the boy, mercifully touch his forehead with His conchshell. (5) By that receiving the inspiration to be able to say just what he wanted, could he, offering his prayers in the love of his devotion, understand what the supreme of the soul was all about and that, without jumping to conclusions, he would be the Dhruva of renown and fame who could not be denied his own world.

(6) Dhruva said: 'Let me offer my obeisances to You, the Supreme Lord and Original Person, who as the One within, from His internal potency commanding the universal energy, entering my words and breath has brought to life my passive senses as well as my other limbs, my hands, legs and skin. (7) Certainly You are the One, Supreme Lord, who, after by his own potency creating this vast outer world called mâyâ - that unlimited complete of the reality with its modes - has entered as the Original Personality, appearing in the temporary qualities variously the way fire does in fire wood. (8) Like a man rising from his sleep, could the one [Brahmâ] of surrender to You, see this whole universe through the knowledge given by You, o my Lord; in relation to You as the shelter of all who desire liberation, how can anyone who is of learning forget about Your lotusfeet, o friend of the distressed? (9) It suffers no doubt that for those, who under the influence of the outer world are missing the right conception and worship You for other purposes, You are, as the cause of liberation from birth and death, like a desire tree; and You are that even for persons in hell who desire a gratification that is only appealing to their senses. (10) That which is the bliss of the embodied, derived from the impersonal spirit can't compare to the bliss derived from meditating on Your own, You Magnificence, Your lotus feet and the hearing of the topics from the ones who love You. And what to say comparing it to the bliss of those who from their high positions have to fall down destroyed by the sword of death? (11) I pray to enjoy the intimate association of those who are constantly engaged in your devotional service, o Unlimited One; of those great devotees by whose purified hearts one can easily cross the terrible and vast ocean of dangers that is the material existence; that I go mad of drinking the nectar of the stories about Your qualities. (12) They, so high, my dear Lord, never think of the material body, their relating to their sons, friends, home, wealth and wife; they, o One of the Lotus Navel, have achieved the association with those who in their hearts are always after the fragrance of Your lotus feet. (13) The animâls, trees, birds, reptiles, gods, demons and men, driven by the material energy are found throughout the gross of the universe in varieties of existence and are for several reasons seen and not seen, o Unborn One, that I know, but this I do not; from this transcendental form, O Supreme One, I do not know but the end of my argument. (14) At the end of each epoch is all of this universe withdrawn in the belly of the Supreme Person lying down in retrospect in the company of Ananta S'esha as His bed; from the ocean of His navel sprouted the golden sphere, with Brahmâ on the whorl of the lotus. Him, that Supreme Lordship I do offer my obeisances. (15) You are the eternal of liberation, the uncontaminated, the Supreme Soul full of knowledge, the changeless, the authentic Original Person, the Supreme Lord and ruler of the three modes, the continuing intelligence through all actions of the intellect, the transcendental vision and witness, the maintainer, enjoyer and the one that is different from all. (16) You, in whose opposite nature the various energies of knowledge and ignorance are always found and who is that continuing Brahmân, the cause of the material manifestation, the original one and unlimited that is simply blissful, I offer my respects. (17) Compared to other benedictions are Your lotus feet for sure the true one, o my Lord, and although as such You are thus the personification of the goal of life of each person, o beloved Fortunate One, you do, eager to bestow your mercy, maintain the poor of heart like I am, the way a cow does a calf.'

(18) Maitreya said: 'Then, thus truly being worshiped by the fine intelligence of his good intentions only, did the Supreme Lord who is always in favor of his devotees, speak after first having congratulated him. (19) The Supreme Lord said: 'I know of the determination within your heart, o Son of the King. Since you are sworn to piety, I shall give to you, although it is difficult to fulfill, all that good fortune. (20-21) Never, My good boy was there such a brightly glowing place known as the planet of Dhruva, around which all the other planets and constellations of stars are circling like a group of bulls does stationary around a central pole [for crushing grain]. It is the planet around which, keeping it to their right, along with the stars, all great sages of the forest, whose lives stretch beyond a millennium, like Dharma, Agni, Kas'yapa and Sukra, move circumambulating. (22) As soon as your father has left for the forest, will you be awarded the whole world. It will be under the pious protection of your rule for thirty-six thousand years without decay in the full sense of power. (23) When your brother Uttama, being killed in hunting, is sought in the forest by the all too afflicted mother, will she run into a forest fire. (24) After performing great sacrifices for Me, the heart of all sacrifice, and having distributed great charities, you will also, after having enjoyed the blessings within this world, at the end of your life be able to remember Me. (25) Thereafter you will head for My abode that is worshiped on all planets and is situated above those of the rishis and having gone there, you will never come back.'

(26) Maitreya said: 'Thus, after assuring the boy His personal protection, did He the honored and worshiped Supreme Lord who has Garuda in His flag, with him looking on, return to His own place. (27) Although with the result of service Dhruva had of his determination achieved the feet of Vishnu, was he not very pleased with the satisfaction obtained and did he return home.'

(28) Vidura said: 'Why is it that he, with the very affectionate worship of His lotus feet obtaining the in one lifetime rarely achieved supreme position of the Lord, having reached that far, being so wise, felt not fulfilled within his heart ?

(29) Maitreya replied: 'Of his stepmother her harsh words he was pierced in his heart and remembering them all he did not desire liberation from the Lord of salvation and thus he suffered grief. (30) Dhruva said to himself: 'What by their trance the four Kumâras, those infallible celibates, never could achieve in one birth, I've understood within six months, but achieving the shelter of His lotusfeet I fell down because I had my mind on other things than Him. (31) Oh alas, just see the unfortunate of my bodily consciousness; having approached the lotus feet of Him who can cut all bonds, I have prayed for that which is perishable. (32) My intelligence was contaminated by those intolerant ones of God who are doomed to fall down and so I most ignorantly could not accept the truth of the instructions of Nârada. (33) Like dreaming in my sleep I sought my refuge with the illusory energy of the divine, complaining from within my heart; seeing it in opposition I, under the influence of the outer world, lamented that my brother was my enemy, although he is just of the temporary. (34) This, what was prayed for by me, is as useless as treatment given to someone whose life has already ended; after satisfying the Soul of the Universe by austerities, which is very difficult to do, I prayed with the One of Cutting with the World, for a repetition of birth and death and are thus without fortune. (35) From Him, willing to offer me His full independence I, alas, of material foolishness, asked for material prosperity; it is like a poor man who asks a great emperor that is impressed by his virtue, for a few broken grains of husked rice.'

(36) Maitreya continued: 'My dear Vidura, for sure are persons, like yourself, who are eager to taste the dust of the lotus feet of the Lord of Liberation, in serving Him, of no interest for themselves after that which is automatically achieved by it; they consider themselves very rich. (37) Having heard that his son had returned as if he came back after dying, could king Uttânapâda, not believe it why a sinner like him would befall such a good fortune. (38) Keeping faith in the words of devarishi Nârada, he was overwhelmed by the tidings the messenger brought and being very satisfied, he offered him a highly valuable pearl necklace. (39-40) Very eager to see his son, he in great haste got on a gold ornamented chariot drawn by the finest horses and left, accompanied by the sound of conchshells, kettledrums, flutes and the chanting of hymns, the city together with brahmins, the elderly and his officers, ministers and friends. (41) Both his queens Sunîci and Suruci got, hung with gold, together with Uttama on a palanquin and joined the procession. (42-43) Seeing him approaching a small forest nearby, the king hurried down from his chariot and was immediately overwhelmed with love as he came near him. Emotional of his great anxiety he with both his arms for a long time embraced his son, whose bondage of endless material contamination was destroyed by the Lord His lotus feet. (44) Thereupon smelling his head over and over, he, seeing his greatest desire fulfilled, bathed his son with the water cool from his eyes. (45) After respecting his fathers feet receiving his blessings, he bowed his head to his two mothers and was honored by the foremost of the nobles. (46) Suruci, having picked him up as the innocent boy fell at her feet, embraced him and spoke, choked up with tears, to him the words: 'May you live long'. (47) Anyone with whose qualities and friendship the Supreme Personality, Lord Hari, is pleased; unto him do all living beings, like water of itself flowing to the lowest position, offer respect. (48) Uttama and Dhruva both overwhelmed with affection embraced one another over and over, with their hairs standing up, while they let their tears run freely. (49) Sunîti, his mother, embracing her son more dear to her then her life air, gave, being satisfied touching his body, up all grief. (50) There and then, o heroic one, he was wetted auspiciously by the incessant tears from the eyes and the milk that started flowing from the breasts of the mother of this hero. (51) The people around offered her, the Queen, praise: 'The fortune of your son will vanquish all your pains now he has returned in order to protect the face of this earth, after being lost for such a long time. (52) The Supreme Lord, who can deliver one from the greatest danger, must have been honored by you, conquering death so difficult to overcome, as do great saints meditating constantly on Him.'

(53) Dhruva, thus praised by the people around, was by the king together with his brother placed on the back of a she-elephant and that way pleased and glorified, he returned to his capital. (54) Here and there, from rows of banana trees and young betel nut trees, were set up brilliant arched gateways that looked shark-toothed with bunches of flowers and fruits. (55) At each gate there was the decoration of hanging mango leaves, cloth, flower garlands and strings of pearls together with pots filled with water and burning lamps. (56) With its surrounding walls, city gates and houses, were the domes of the palace glittering on all sides, beautifully decorated with golden ornaments. (57) The squares, lanes and rooftops were thoroughly cleansed and sprinkled with sandalwood water and provided with auspicious presentations of fried rice, barley, flowers and fruits. (58-59) Seeing Dhruva on the road here and there the women of the houses, uttering affectionate blessings, showered him with white mustard seeds, barley, curd, water, fresh grass, flowers and fruits and thus hearing their very pleasant songs he entered the palace of his father. (60) In that fine mansion bedecked with inlays of precious stones he, always being lifted up to the divine by his father, lived there like a god. (61) It had seats and furniture of gold with very valuable ivory beds with golden embellishments and bedding white like the foam of milk. (62) The walls, made of marble, had precious gems in them and also the lamps that shone with jewels were held by female figurines made of precious stones as well. (63) Also the gardens were very beautiful with various heavenly trees, pairs of singing birds and the humming of mad bumblebees. (64) Emerald staircases lead to ponds full of lilies and blue lotuses, swans and ducks and flocks of geese and cranes dwelt nearby.

(65) The saintly king Uttânapâda under the influence of hearing and seeing his totally wonderful son, felt extremely happy about the supreme of his wonder. (66) When he saw that Dhruva was mature enough of age made the king him, with the approval of his loving subjects and ministers, the master of the world. (67) He, this king of Vishnu, pondering over the salvation of his own soul, considered himself also old enough and went detached into the forest.  


Chapter 10 

Dhruva Mahârâja's Fight with the Yakshas

(1) Maitreya said: 'Dhruva ['the immovable one'] married Bhrami [meaning: turning around], daughter of the Prajâpatî Sisumâra ['the dolphin', 'the galaxy'] and named her sons Kalpa ['epoch'] and Vatsara ['tropical year']. (2) With another wife called Ila ['the comfort'], a daughter of Vayu [the demigod of the air], did the powerful one beget a son called Utkala ['the one who carries the load'] and a jewel of a girl. (3) But Uttama ['the one of excel'], Dhruva's brother who did not marry, was during a hunt in the Himalaya range killed by a very powerful Yaksha [an evil spirit]; his mother [Suruci] followed thereafter. (14) Dhruva hearing about the death of his brother swore, filled with lamentation, angered revenge and got on his chariot of victory to head for the city of the Yakshas.

(5) Going in the northern direction the king saw in a valley of the Himalaya's inhabited by followers of Lord S'iva, a city full of ghostly people. (6) There the mighty-armed one blew his conchshell resounding, o ruler, fearfully in the sky in all directions and from that the wives of the Yakshas became very afraid. (7) Thereupon the very powerful soldiers of Kuvera, who couldn't tolerate the sound of the conchshell, came out and attacked with all kinds of weapons. (8) He, the hero and powerful bowman, with all of them falling over him, could fight many adversaries simultaneously and killed them one after another, shooting his arrows three at a time. (9) By those arrows intent upon their heads, they, thinking that they without fail all would surely be defeated, lauded that action of him. (10) Unable to bare to be trampled like serpents under his feet, they tried to retaliate, striking back with twice as much arrows at the same time. (11-12) Eager to counter the actions of him and his charioteer, they, 130.000 men strong, very angry showered thereupon all kinds of feathered arrows, bludgeons, swords, tridents, pointed lances, spears and fire weapons. (13) By that constant showering of weapons disappeared the master of war, like a mountain covered by an outpour of rain, completely out of sight.

(14) In the sky resounded a tumult of disappointment from the perfected ones witnessing the fight who thought this grandson of Manu was killed, setting like the sun in the ocean of Yakshas. (15) The Yakshas exclaiming proclaimed the victory, but then from the fighting appeared his chariot like the sun does from the mist. (16) His twanging divine bow created the lamentation of his enemies, scattering the different weapons with his arrows just like the wind scattering an array of clouds. (17) The sharp arrows released from his bow had pierced the shields and entered the bodies of the demons, just like thunderbolts do over mountains. (18-19) The battlefield, as it bewilders the mind of heroes, began to glimmer from the heads with garlands and turbans, beautiful with earrings and helmets who were severed by the arrows and the cut thighs and arms that with beautiful bracelets and armlets were like golden palm trees. (20) The remaining soldiers of whom most of them had injured limbs by the arrows from the greatest of warriors, fled in all directions, like elephants defeated by a lion.

(21) At that time seeing that none of the soldiers opposing were left standing, did the best of all men wish to see their city, but he did not enter it as one can't be sure of the plans of a mystical enemy. (22) As the one with the finest chariot was talking to his charioteer being apprehensive about a counterattack from his enemies, a loud sound as from the ocean was heard that could be recognized as made by the wind of a duststorm coming from all directions. (23) In a moment the sky was covered by a mass of dense clouds that everywhere glittered with lightening with a threatening thundering from all sides. (24) O faultless one, there was an inundation of blood, mucus, pus, stool, urine and marrow and trunks of bodies falling from the sky in front of him. (25) Then in the sky could be seen the falling down from all directions of a mountain of clubs, bludgeons, swords, maces and a rain of big stones. (26) Serpents breathing like thunder vomited fire with angry eyes and groups of mad elephants, lions and tigers were encroaching. (27) As if the last of days had arrived did the sea flooding in all directions the earth with fierce waves come forward, making a tremendous sound.

(28) These kinds of phenomena are created by the demons, heinous of their demoniac nature, to frighten the less intelligent. (29) The great sages cognizant of the highly dangerous mystic power by the demons directed against Dhruva then united to support him and help him out. (30) They said: ' O son of Uttânapâda, may the Supreme Lord carrying the bow called S'ârnga be the Godhead that kills all the enemies of the surrendered souls in order to remove their distress; it is also the hearing and chanting of His holy name that immediately helps men fully over the insurmountable death, o Dhruva.'


Chapter 11 

Svâyambuva Manu Advises Dhruva Mahârâja to Stop Fighting

(1) Maitreya said: 'After having heard the words of the sages, touched Dhruva water and fixed he on his bow an arrow made by Nârâyana. (2) As he joined this weapon of Nârâyana to his bow, quickly the illusions created by the Yakshas were vanquished, o Vidura, just like pleasures and pains are upon the rising of knowledge. (3) With the weapon given fixed on his bow, there sprang out golden arrows with feathers like the wings of swans that, with the tumultuous sound of peacocks entering a forest, entered the enemy soldiers. (4) From those sharp pointed arrows were the Yakshas, here and there on the battlefield, terribly agitated and rushed they towards him in anger, with upraised weapons, like serpents with upraised hoods against Garuda. (5) By his arrows he cut through the arms, legs, necks and bellies of all the Yakshas coming forward in battle and sent them to the abode above the sun to which at all times the ones who send their seed upwards [the celibates] go. (6) Seeing those Yakshas by the one of the finest chariot being killed, while they factually were without offense, approached the grandfather, the Manu, together with the great sages, from his mercy the son of Uttânapâda to instruct him. (7) Manu said: 'Enough My son, with an escalation of anger you're on the path of ignorance and sin, the way you 're killing these Yakshas who did nothing wrong to you. (8) O dear, this undertaking to kill the Yakshas who didn't sin, is not befitting our family and is in truth forbidden. (9) Surely my best, you are aggrieved by the death of the brother you care about, but now the offense of one Yaksha has lead to the killing of the many of his associates. (10) Never for sure is this killing of living beings, the way of those who are honest in following on the path of the Lord of the Senses; holding the body for the self one is like the animâls. (11) With meditation on the Supersoul within all living beings, you have reached the abode of Lord Hari, who is so difficult to propitiate and attained the supreme position of Vishnu. (12) Being such a person, by Him always in remembrance of what is His and also esteemed by the devoted ones, how then vowed to the saintly an example, can you have undertaken such an abominable thing?

(13) Being of universal tolerance, friendship and mercy towards all living beings, one is also balanced and with that is the Soul of All, the Supreme Lord very pleased. (14) Pleasing the Supreme Lord is a person liberated from the modes of material nature and freed from the worries of his individual existence; he achieves the spiritual bliss of the Unlimited [brahmâ nirvanam]. (15) From the five elements of matter man and woman evolved and of them by sexuality there came about even more men and women in this world. (16) Thus, o King, does certainly, by the illusory energy of the Supreme Self, the creation, maintenance and annihilation and the interaction of the modes take place. (17) Like iron moved by a magnet then must this manifested world be considered as moved by the remote cause of the unmanifest, uncontaminated, Original Person of Wisdom. (18) Divided by the force of Time, the Supreme lord, who, although His potency acts upon the three modes, is the non-doer and who is never the killer although He kills, is no doubt however this all the inconceivable energy of the Almighty. (19) He the infinite Time puts everything to an end; without a beginning He is the beginning of everything; without decreasing He causes the living to be born and the finite to be killed by death. (20) No one is really His ally or His definite enemy; of the Supreme in the form of Time, entering equally the living beings, are of His moving the ones of karma and other material elements following behind, like particles of dust moved by the wind. (21) Free from both the diminution and likewise increase of the duration of life of the beings of birth, is the Almighty always situated in His own transcendence and awards He the living beings subject to the laws of karma. (22) Some explain that karma [or being divided in fruitive action] as arising from one's particular nature or as brought about by others, o protector of men; some say it's due to Time, others refer to fate, while still others ascribe it to the desire of the living entity. (23) Dearest one, for sure therefore no one can ever know the grand design of the original cause, the Unmanifested of the Transcendence of Him who gives rise to the various energies.

(24) Never, my son, are also all these who are followers of Kuvera [the divine treasurer] the killers of your brother; the cause of birth and death of a living entity, my dear, unfailing lies with God. (25) He certainly creates the universe and for sure maintains and annihilates it also; moreover no doubt He from being without ego, does not get entangled by the activities of the modes of nature. (26) This Supersoul, controller and maintainer of all beings, making use of the force of His own external energy, brings forth, devours and fosters. (27) Unto Him, so sure the Supreme of death and immortality, my dearest, that is in all respects the ultimate goal of surrender of the world, do all the devoted ones bear offerings, without fail being controlled therein like bulls by a rope through their nose. (28) As one of five years of age only you left your mother aggrieved at heart by the words of your stepmother and went to the forest to worship the Lord by austerities and thus you achieved a top-position over the three worlds. (29) With that of Him in mind, my best, turn yourselves free from anger to the one infallible spiritual self [the Brahmân] situated in the transcendental and try to discover the uncontaminated from which all of this dividedness appears to be untrue. (30) By at that time rendering service to the Supersoul of the Supreme Lord, who is the unlimited reservoir of all pleasure having all the potencies, you will very soon untie the knot of illusion of 'I' and 'Mine' and thus be firmly fixed.

(31) Just control your anger - it is the enemy of all goodness - and all good fortune will be yours; the constant hearing of this, my dear King, will act as a medicinal treatment on a disease. (32) Never should a learned person who desires the soul its freedom from fear, be under the control of anger; from the person that is overwhelmed by it everyone becomes terrified. (33) You have been in offense towards the brother of S'iva, Kuvera, angrily killing the Yakshas whom you thought to have killed your brother. (34) Forthwith pacify him, my son, offering him your obeisances respectfully with gentle words, before the wrath of the great ones will affect our family.'

(35) Manu Svâyambhuva after thus giving instruction to his grandson received from him his obeisances and went together with the sages to his abode.



Chapter 12 

Dhruva Mahârâja Goes Back to Godhead

(1) Maitreya said: 'Having learned that Dhruva, with his anger lingered, had refrained from killing, did Kuvera, the master of the treasury, worshiped by the Cârana's, Kinnaras [singers and indwellers of heaven] and Yakshas, then appear there and speak to Dhruva who stood with folded hands before him. (2) The master of the treasury said: 'O son of the ruler, I am very glad with you o sinless one, because under the instruction of your grandfather you gave up the enmity that is so difficult to avoid. (3) Nor did you kill the Yakshas, nor did the Yakshas kill your brother; for it is the Time that is really the master of annihilation and generation of all the living. (4) With the misconceptions of 'I' and 'You' it from ignorance appears to the intelligence of a person following the bodily concept just to be like in a dream; it is that which is the cause of bondage and misery. (5) Therefore come Dhruva - all good fortune to you - to the respect for the Supreme Lord Beyond the Senses of all living beings and think of Him as the form of the one Supersoul in all that lives. (6) Be in devotion unto Him whose lotus feet are worth the worship, as they deliver from the material existence and cut the knot of material entanglement; although to His potency of the modes He is connected with it, He is aloof by His inconceivable potency. (7) O King, please ask without hesitation from me whatever you think to be desirable, o son of Uttânapâda; since having heard, o dearest, about your enduring at the lotusfeet of Him from whose navel the lotus sprouted, you are worthy the benediction. '

(8) Maitreya said: 'He, by the king of the Yakshas being offered a benediction, asked, as a first class intelligent and thoughtful devotee of the Lord, for the continuous remembrance by which one without difficulty crosses over the unsurpassable ocean of nescience. (9) Kuvera, the son of Idavidâ, being very pleased with Dhruva's mentality, granted him that remembrance and thereafter disappeared out of his sight, after which Dhruva also returned to his capital. (10) He subsequently, by sacrificial ceremonies and great charities, worshiped, with all he had, could do and find support from, the Ruler of all Sacrifice, the objective who awards all results. (11) Unrelenting rendering service unto the infallible and unlimited Supersoul, he saw situated in the Supreme spirit in all living beings only Him, the Almighty One. (12) He thus endowed with godly qualities, of respect for the brahmins and the poor and being the kind protector of the principles of religion, was considered the father of the people. (13) For the thirty-six thousand years of his rule over the planet Earth, he by enjoyment diminished the effects of the good deeds and by austerity diminished the consequences of the inauspicious. (14) Thus the great soul after the duration of time of many, many years, without being disturbed by agitated senses, favorably executed the three kinds of worldly action [the regulation of religion, economy and gratification] and then handed the royal throne over to his son. (15) He realized that this universe made of the external energy was to the living being a phantasmagoria prepared by ignorance like in a dream. (16) He considered all the created, of himself, his wives, children, friends, his influence, riches, the pleasuregrounds and the upkeep for the women and the complete of the beauty of the earth with its oceans, as something bound to time and thus he left for Badarikâs'rama [the Himalayan forest]. (17) There he purified his body, bathing in pure water and controlled, fixed in yogîc postures, the breathing process by withdrawing the mind from his physical senses. Concentrating on the exact form of the Lord he in his mind meditating that way without stopping, became fully absorbed. (18) Engaged in constant devotion unto Lord Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he was in an everlasting bliss and again and again overcome by a stream of tears that made his heart melt and all the hairs of his body stand on end; he no longer remembered he had a body and was thus liberated from [also the subtlety of] the material bond [mukta-linga].

(19) Dhruva saw a very beautiful chariot descending from the sky that illumined him and the ten directions as if the full moon itself was appearing. (20) There he then saw two beautiful demigods in it with four arms, a blackish skin, being quite young and with eyes reddish like a lotus flower, holding clubs, attractively clad with helmets, bracelets, necklaces and earrings. (21) Understanding them to be two servants of the One of Renown, he stood up but being puzzled he forgot the proper way to behave and thus respectfully joined his hands offering his respects by chanting the names of the chief of these associates, the Enemy of Madhu. (22) He whose heart was always absorbed in thoughts about the feet of Lord Krishna very humbly with the folding of his hands bowed his neck while they, Nanda and Sunanda, the two confidential servants of the One of the Lotusnavel, smiling approached and addressed him. (23) Nanda and Sunanda said: 'O best of kings! All good fortune to you. Listen attentively to our words. You are the one who, being five years old, greatly satisfied God by penance. (24) As the associates of the creator of this entire universe, of the Godhead who carries the bow named S'ârnga, we have approached you to take you with us to where the Lord resides. (25) The position of Vishnu so difficult to reach that not even the greatest of enlightenment can achieve it, has been conquered by you. Come and simply see the supreme that the moon, the sun, the other planets and the stars circumambulate to the right. (26) Never ever was this achieved by your forefathers or even others, o dear one; come and live there in that supreme position of Lord Vishnu who is so worshipable for the inhabitants of the universe. (27) O immortal soul, you are worthy to board this unique heavenly chariot that was sent to you by the Praised One, the head of all living beings. '

(28) The sage Maitreya said: 'After hearing the speeches pouring like honey from the chief associates of the Lord, took the one so dear to Him, offering the sages his obeisances and accepting their blessings, a purifying bath and did he perform his daily duties. (29) In worship having circumambulated that best of positions and also having proved his respects to the two of them, he with his form lighting up like gold, was ready to board the heavenly vehicle. (30) Then the son of Uttânapâda could see death personified approaching him and putting his feet on his head, he ascended that wonder as big as a house. (31) At that moment kettledrums and mrdanga's [drums of worship] and small drums and such resounded while the singers of liberation sang and flowers showered like rain. (32) As he was about to ascend to the abode of heaven, Dhruva instantly remembered Sunîti and thought: 'How can I go to the world over the worlds leaving behind my poor mother?' (33) Understanding what Dhruva was concerned about, did the two superior ones of enlightenment show him how she before him was on the path of reaching her divinity. (34) On his way passing one after another all the heavenly spheres around he was covered by even more flowers that the enlightened ones here and there from their own elevated positions threw on him. (35) Surpassing the three worlds traveling by God, he even went beyond the great sages, after which the accomplished Dhruva then achieved the refuge of Vishnu. (36) For certain only those who constantly engage in welfare activities consequently radiate, reaching that place that by its self-effulgence illuminates everywhere all the three worlds; not the ones who have not realized to be merciful to other living beings. (37) Peaceful, equipoised, pure and pleasing to all living beings they easily reach, befriended with His devotees, the abode of the Infallible One. (38) Thus became Dhruva, the son of Uttânapâda, on the supreme path of Krishna, as pure as the summit-jewel of the three worlds. (39) With great force and speed unceasingly connected encircles the sphere of the luminaries [the galaxy] that place, o Kaurava [Vidura's family name], like a herd of bulls around a central pole.

(40) Observing Dhruva's glories was the saintly and Great Lord Nârada, playing his stringed instrument, chanting verses in the sacrificial arena of the Pracetâ's. (41) Nârada sang: 'Thanks to especially the austerity of this son of Sunîti, who is so devoted to her husband, can we see the way to that position, whereas of what one calls the followers of the Vedas one is never certain of being eligible, not to speak of the normal protectors of the people. (42) He who at the age of five years, aggrieved about the harsh words of the wife of his father, in pursuance of my instruction, so very much pained in his heart went to the forest, won over the Supreme Master, winning with the qualities of His devotees. (43) Within a short while after pleasing the Lord of Vaikunthha he attained that refuge being only five or six years old, whereas any other can not even expect to attain on earth the exalted position of this son of a kshatriya, Dhruva, after many, many of such years.'

(44) Maitreya said: 'Whatever that you asked me here about the greatly uplifting character of Dhruva, whose reputation is hailed by the great devotees, I have explained to you. (45) It bestows wealth and repute, increases one's lifespan and is so sacred and auspicious that one can even attain to Dhruva's heaven with it, pleasing as it is to the mind and glorious in counteracting all kinds of sin. (46) Hearing this repeatedly with faith one develops devotional activities dear to the Infallible One, from which there must be the full defeat of all hindrances. (47) For the hearers who desire greatness, high character and the qualities is this the process in which the prowess is found as well as the adoration so desired by those who are thoughtful. (48) One should carefully recite in the morning and the evening in the company of the converted, the sacred renown and great character of Dhruva. (49-50) On a full moon or a new moon, on the day after Ekâdas'î [the twelfth of a lunar month], when the S'ravana Star appears, at the end of the tithi [the fifteenth day], at a day called Vyatîpâta, at the end of the month or on a holiday, one should recite it to a receptive audience, taking shelter of the Lotusfeet of the Refuge of the Seeker, without desiring remuneration; then one will find one's mind pacified by the soul and will one thus become perfect. (51) It is the knowledge to the ones unaware of the reality; he who imparts it is on the path of truth and immortality and as the kind protector of the seekers he will be blessed by the gods. (52) O great one among the Kuru's, thus was my description of the activities, the fame and the very pure of Dhruva, who as a child, giving up his playthings and his mother, went away from his home and found the shelter of Lord Vishnu'."


Chapter 13 

Description of the Descendants of Dhruva Mahârâja

(1) Sûta said [to the rishis at Naimisâranya]: "The hearing of the description of Maitreya of Dhruva's ascent to the abode of Vaikunthha, made Vidura's love for the Supreme Lord, who cannot be seen by one's normal eyes, grow and again he made an effort to question Maitreya Muni.

(2) Vidura asked: 'Who where they, that you called the Pracetâ's - what was the renown of their family and who were their sons, o best among the sworn, and what sacrifice did they perform? (3) I think that Nârada is the greatest of all the devotees; he saw God in the eye and he spoke about the procedure of rendering service in devotion unto the Lord [kriya-yoga or the pâncarâtrika-method]. (4) It was by these man, doing their duties of sacrifice, that the Supreme Lord, the enjoyer of all sacrifice, as indeed described by Nârada, was worshiped. (5) O brahmin, be so kind to tell me tell me in full, what stories about the Lord were all narrated there by the Devarishi.'

(6) Maitreya said: 'Utkala, the son of Dhruva, did, after his father departed for the forest, not desire the royal seat of his father with all its lands and opulence. (7) From his very birth, he was a satisfied, unattached soul, who equipoised, saw the Supersoul spread everywhere in the world and all the world as resting in the Supersoul. (8-9) Relating to the holy spirit had for his spiritual soul ended the separation from heaven [nirvana] and by a continuing yoga-practice he had increased his bliss, that as fire burnt all the impurities of karma out his mind; thus realizing his constitutional position he then saw nothing but the Supreme Soul. (10) Out on the road to the less intelligent he appeared to be like a fool, blind, deaf, dumb and mad, but unlike that was his intelligence more like a fire of which the flames are tempered. (11) Thinking Utkala to be void of intelligence and mad, made the elders of the family and the ministers of state Vatsara, the younger son of Bhrami, the ruler of the world. (12) Svarvîthi, King Vatsara's dearest wife, gave birth to six sons: Pushpârna, Tigmaketu, Isha, Ûrja, Vasu en Jaya. (13) Pushpârna had two wives Doshâ and Prabhâ and of Prabhâ there was the happiness of seeing the sons Prâtar, Madhyandinam and Sâyam. (14) Pradosha, Nis'itha and Viyushtha were likewise the three sons of Dosâ. Viyushtha begot in his wife Pushkarinî a son named Sarvatejâ [the all powerful one]. (15-16) His wife, called Âkûti, gave birth to Câkshusha Manu who indeed was the [sixth] Manu. Free from passion he from his queen Nadvalâ gave the world the sons Puru, Kutsa, Trita, Dyumna, Satyavân, Rita, Vrata, Agnishthoma, Atîrâtra, Pradyumna, S'ibi en Ulmuka. (17) In Pushkarinî begot Ulmuka six very good sons: Anga, Sumanâ, Khyâti, Kratu, Angirâ and Gaya. (18) The wife of Anga, Sunîthâ gave birth to Vena who was very crooked and because of his bad character did saintly king Anga out of disappointment leave the city. (19-20) He [Vena] was cursed by the great sages, whose angry words struck him like thunder; after that he verily died, and being without a king, all the inhabitants of the world then suffered from thieves and rogues. They churned his right hand, upon which a partial incarnation [ams'a-avatâra] of Nârâyana called Prithu descended, who became the original Lord of the Earth.'

(21) Vidura said: 'When King Anga was such a reservoir of good character and a saintly person, a lover of brahminical culture and a great soul, how could his son be so bad that he became indifferent and left? (22) Why did the sages conversant with the religious principles, finding fault, desire to award Vena the brahmins curse while it was he himself who carried the rod of punishment? (23) The king is never to be insulted by the citizens however sinful he may be, because he maintains of all the local officials the power by his personal influence. (24) Please describe all this about the activities of the son of Sunitha to me, your faithful devotee, o brahmin, as you are well conversant with the things above and below.

(25) Maitreya answered: 'King Anga once executed a great aswamedha sacrifice, but to that great offering all the godly ones, although invited by the officiating brahmins, never attended. (26) Puzzled about it they then told the institutor of the sacrifice: ' The godly ones do not accept the priests their oblations in the fire. (27) O King, there is nothing impure with the offerings that you with great care collected, nor is there anything wrong with the proper execution of the mantras by the qualified brahmins. (28) In this connection we cannot find the least insult or neglect towards the godly ones because of which the ones of divinity, that are to witness the sacrifice, wouldn't accept their own share.'

(29) Maitreya said: 'King Anga, the performer of the sacrifice, was, after hearing what the twice-born said, very depressed about it and then with their permission he addressed the priests to be further informed: (30) 'Being invited the ones of God are not coming to accept their shares of the sacrifice; my dear priests, please tell me what the nature of the offense is that I committed?'

(31) The leading priests said: 'O God of Man, in this life you not even committed the slightest sin, but in your previous life there is a sin from which in this life you are accordingly without any son. (32) Therefore - all good fortune to you - execute the sacrifice to get a good son, o King; the Lord, the enjoyer of sacrifice, worshiped by you desiring a son, will deliver you one. (33) Thereupon will all the men of God accept their share in the sacrifice, because for the purpose of a son then directly the Supreme Personality has been invited. (34) The Lord being worshiped will award the person whatever the objects desired, when it is sure to be Him that likewise for the people is the desired outcome.'

(35) Having decided thus did the learned ones engage their means of sacrifice offering to Vishnu, the Lord of the Flames, for the purpose of the king to get a son. (36) From the sacrificial fire a person in white garments appeared with a golden garland and a golden pot in which he carried rice boiled in milk. (37) He, the king, fixed in the noble mind, with the permission of the learned took the in milk boiled rice in his joined palms and, after smelling it with great delight, he offered it to his wife. (38) She, the queen, eating from the food that would give her a child, indeed, conceiving from the husband, became pregnant and thus in due time she gave birth to the son that she needed to appear having none. (39) That child, a boy indeed, appeared partly following his maternal grandfather's irreligion of death; and of that he became an offender of the holy duty. (40) He used to take up his bow as a hunter, going into the forest to kill innocent deer and thus all the people would cry 'There he is, the cruel Vena!'. (41) While playing in the playground with boys of his age he very cruelly by force merciless killed them as if he was slaughtering animâls. (42) Seeing how cruel his son was, was the king by different kinds of punishments not able to bring him under control and thus he became greatly aggrieved thinking: (43) 'Those who are without a son must have honored God; they do not have to suffer this unbearable sorrow to live at home with such a bad son. (44) From a bad son's sinful reputation and unrighteousness will there be a great discord among men and an endless anxiety among all people. (45) Who would want such a so-called son? No doubt he is for the soul a bondage to illusion; which intelligent man would value one who puts one's home into misery? (46) I think it is better to have a bad son than a good one as from the grief one becomes detached from the home, that as the source of all grief, turns the life of a mortal man into a heap of trouble.'

(47) Thus grown indifferent did he, the king, unable to sleep, get up in the middle of the night to give up his home so opulent from the blessings of the great souls and, not seen by anyone, left he Vena's mother who was vast asleep. (48) After understanding that the king, no longer caring, had left, searched all the citizens, priests and ministers, friends and the rest of the people the earth in great bereavement, just as inexperienced yogî's are looking for what's hidden in the person. (49) Not finding a trace of their father of state, o Kaurava, returned the citizens disappointed to their city and did they with tears in their eyes, after offering their respects, inform the sages assembled about the absence of the king.


Chapter 14 

The Story of King Vena

(1) Maitreya said: 'The sages headed by Bhrigu, always aspiring the welfare of all the people, having understood of the citizens that the king was absent, also knew that they were then sure to live on the level of animâls. (2) Vena's mother mentioning the name of Vena had him by the sages enthroned as the master of the world, but the ministers did not agree with this. (3) Hearing that King Vena had ascended the throne did the thieves, knowing that he was a most severe punisher, hide themselves immediately, like rats afraid of a snake. (4) King Vena having ascended the royal seat was very proud with the eight kind of opulences [as derived from the eight perfections of yoga, the siddhi's] and began, inconsiderate, to insult the great personalities, considering himself to be the greatest. (5) Thus, blinded by power, he, proud and uncontrolled as an elephant, mounted a chariot and traveled around causing the earth and sky to tremble. (6) Not permitting any sacrifices to be performed, charities to be given or any butter to be offered in the fire, o twice-borne one, he thus stopped, by beating the kettledrums everywhere, all the rituals of religion. (7) All the sages, after observing the activities of the great rogue that Vena was, considered it dangerous to the people in general and out of compassion came to speak about it as they had always been the performers of the sacrifices: (8) 'Like a log burning from both sides, are the common people alas from both the sides of the king and the thieves and rogues in great danger. (9) Out of fear of being without a king has Vena, although not qualified for it, been crowned and now there is from him as well the danger; how can the people in general then be happy? (10) Like a snake that is maintained with milk even goes against the interest of its maintainer, has Vena, born from the womb of Sunitha, certainly grown into a mischievous nature. (11) Appointed the King there is no doubt that he desires to harm the citizens, but nevertheless we should try to pacify him, not to have the consequences of his sins touch us. (12) In spite of being aware of that impiety of Vena - we have made him King; if he is not receptive to the pacification of our words, will he, for his unrighteous doings, by the public be condemned to burn and will we fry him to our own ability.' (13) Thus having decided approached the sages Vena concealing their anger and spoke to him in sweet words, after they had put him at ease.

(14) The sages said: 'O best of the royals! Please try to understand that what we are about to tell you, o King and will increase your lifespan, strength and good repute, o best one. (15) To those persons, free from attachment, who in their words, mind, body and intelligence acted according the religious principles, will be given the worlds free from misery; they will find liberation and lasting happiness. (16) Let that spiritual life not be missed by you, o hero of the people; the king who misses that which is the cause of prosperity, will fall down from his opulence. (17) O King, the royal rule protecting the people against mischievous officials, thieves and rogues can accordingly collect taxes and enjoy this world as well as the next. (18) It is in those kingdoms in whose cities for sure the Supreme Lord, the enjoyer of all sacrifices, is worshiped, that the people will act according their own occupation in pursuance of the varna-ashrama system [of vocations and age-groups]. (19) The king, o noble one, who is with the Supreme Lord, the original cause of the cosmic manifestation, will find satisfaction, as he, in his position as a ruler, is situated as the soul that keeps the whole world together. (20) With Him, the Controller of the Controllers, satisfied, one can achieve the impossible; for this reason are the people everywhere with their preferred deities by all means with great pleasure all making offerings unto Him. (21) It is He who with all the deities in worship is the recipient. He is the sum total of the Vedas, the owner of all means of worship, the goal of all austerity; therefore you should, o King, to the greater honor of you yourself, direct your countrymen to perform worship by means of the various sacrifices. (22) When the brahmins in the kingdom engage in worship, are all the enlightened ones that are part of the Lord, properly respected and will they, very satisfied, grant the desired result; o Hero, you should not disrespect them.'

(23) Vena replied: 'Oh how childish are all of you indeed, holding irreligious principles for religious ones; you are all in fact forsaking the father in worship of an obsolete one. (24) Those who are of disrespect are not aware that the Lord is there in the form of the king; they can't experience happiness, nor in this world nor after death! (25) What is the name of that enjoyer of sacrifice unto whom you direct your devotion so great? Like with an unchaste woman to her paramour you fall short in affection for the husband! (26-27) The Creator, the Maintainer, the Destroyer, the King of Heaven, the God of the Wind and the God of Death; the God of the Sun, the Rains, the Treasury and the Moon; the God of the Earth, the Fire and the Waters; all these and other powers as well who are capable of blessing and cursing, abide in the body of the king; the king comprises all the gods. (28) For this reason o learned ones, you should worship me in your rituals and not be envious; use those means for my sake, there is no one else to be the prime enjoyer of what is offered.'

(29) Maitreya said: 'Thus deviated the most sinful one, developing a perverse intelligence, from the right path; being offered all respect with their request, he could not accept and became bereft of all good fortune. (30) Thus were all the brahmins insulted by him, who thought himself to be very learned; being broken in their polite request, o Vidura, they became very angry with him: (31) 'To death, to death, this king, this sinner, this dreadful nature who certainly will soon turn the whole world into ashes if we let him live. (32) This man, full of impiety, never deserves the exalted throne to be the God of Man; he shamelessly insults Lord Vishnu, the master of all sacrifices! (33) Who indeed, but Vena alone, born under such a bad constellation, would like this blaspheme Him, by whose mercy all opulence is received.' (34) Thus decided to put him to death they, by the manifestation of their anger, with their angry tone alone, helped Vena, dead in his blasphemy against the Infallible One, out of the world. (35) After the sages had returned to their own hermitages, preserved Sunitha, in her lamentation, the body of her son by means of chanting mantras.

(36) Once, when the sages were bathing in the waters of the Sarasvatî, offering oblations in the fire, they began, sitting at the side of the river, to discuss the matters of truth. (37) They told one another that they at that time had observed that disturbances were developing that roused fear among the people; wouldn't they, without a ruler, suffer the misfortune of having a world full of thieves and rogues? (38) Evidently, as the wise were considering this, could everywhere one looked, dust clouding the sky be seen caused by the running of criminals engaged in plundering. (39-40) They then understood that the disturbance with the people in general who had their riches plundered, was due to the death of he who was their protector; with the state full of thieves they also tried to put one another to an end and bereft of a king they, despite of seeing the fault of that, couldn't manage to subdue the thieving pack. (41) A brahmin equipoised and peaceful, grossly neglecting the poor, is sure to see his spirit coming down, just like water will from a broken pot. (42) The family line of the saintly King Anga should not be stopped; without sin had their semen the potency because of which the kings of this family would be under the shelter of Keshava [he with the beautiful curls]. (43) Thus the wise men decided to churn by their special power the legs of the dead king, whereupon a person named Bâhuka [the dwarf] was born. (44) He was black as a crow, was very short in every way with very short legs and arms, had big jaws, a flat nose, reddish eyes and copperlike hair. (45) Meek he then bowed before the sages inquiring: 'What can I do for you?'. 'Just sit down here' they replied, and thus, o best one, he became thereafter known as Nisâda. (46) His descendants were then called the Naisâda's, they inhabited the hills and forests, because, being born from Vena with Nisâda taking all the sins upon himself, they were feared.


Chapter 15

 King Prithu's Appearance and Coronation

(1) Maitreya said: 'Thus again churned the brahmins, this time, the arms of the king that had no son and from that did a couple take birth. (2) From that couple born said the sages conversant with the Vedas that they were very happy, knowing that it was an ['avesa'-] expansion of the Supreme Lord. (3) The sages said: 'This male is an expansion of the Supreme Lord, Vishnu, who maintains the world and this woman is Lakshmî, the Goddess of Fortune, who is an inseparable integral part of the Original Person. (4) This male then will be the first among the kings and will spread his reputation under the name of Prithu [the one of the earth] becoming widely renown as the great King. (5) This female child will enhance the beauty of her ornaments with the magnificence of her teeth as a goddess of all good qualities; she will be named Arci and is sure to attract Prithu with her great beauty. (6) He as a partial, direct representative of the Lord is born with the desire to protect the whole world and she took birth as the inseparable goddess, that is certainly very attracted to him.'

(7) Maitreya said: 'All the learned praised him, the singers of heaven chanted, the perfected ones showered flowers and the girls of heaven were dancing. (8) Filling the air vibrating conches, bugles, drums and kettledrums and alike, there gathered all the godly, the sages and the elderly of all sections of society. (9-10) Brahmâ, the master of the universe, accompanied by the godly arriving there together with all the leaders of the enlightened world, saw on the right hand of that son of Vena, the mark of Vishnu carrying the club. His two feet also showed the lotusflower and thus he was certain that he dealt with the part of the Lord that is His invincible disc; by that he would represent the Supreme Interest. (11) The brahmins attached to the rituals arranged for his coronation and thus collected the people, for his sake, from all sides the various means for performing the ceremony. (12) The rivers, seas, mountains, the serpents, the cows, the birds and the animâls; the sky, the earth and all living beings, were brought together by their different presentations. (13) He was thus crowned the Mahârâja; exquisitely dressed and fully ornamented he together with his nicely jeweled wife Arci appeared like a fire beyond compare. (14) The keeper of wealth, Kuvera, presented him a royal throne made of gold, o hero, and Varuna gave him an umbrella brilliant as the moon that constantly showered a mist of waterdrops. (15) Vayu also gave him two camâra's [whisks] made of hair, Dharma a garland that added to his name and fame, Indra gave a very valuable helmet and Yama gave him a scepter to rule the world. (16) Brahmâ armed him with spiritual knowledge, his wife Bharati, the goddess of learning [Sarasvatî] gave a transcendental necklace, the Supreme Personality [Hari, Vishnu] gave him the Sudarsana disc and His wife Lakshmî gifted him imperishable beauty and opulence. (17) Lord S'iva came with a sword decorated with ten moons and Durgâ gave a likewise shield showing a hundred moons. The moongod gifted horses of the finest breed and the demigod Visvakarma donated a very beautiful chariot. (18) Agni gave a bow made of horn, Surya arrows brilliant as sunlight, Bhumi [the goddess of the Earth] gifted slippers that empowered him with mystic union, and the gods above presented him flowers day after day. (19) The art of drama, singing the finest songs, playing musical instruments as well as the ability to make things appear and disappear, were given to him by the gods of the beyond; the great sages blessed him with the infallible and the god of the ocean produced him a conchshell. (20) The seas, mountains and rivers provided him passage for his chariot and professed bards and officials of prayer and praise presented themselves hailing him in verses. (21) Seeing them engaged in their offerings, spoke the greatly powerful son of Vena as follows, smiling with a voice as grave as the thunder of clouds.

(22) King Prithu said: 'O dear bards, men of prayer and men of praise, your words towards me are in vain; as I am now in this world I do not show all these possible qualities. Thus why praise the shelter of me? These words should never be applied to me. (23) Therefore offer those prayers, when in some future time, the qualities of me you spoke about, can sufficiently been appreciated, o gentle reciters. The honorable ones correctly discussing the qualities of the Supreme One glorified in the scriptures, never offer those prayers to a detestable human being. (24) A man of competence manifesting in himself the exalted qualities, who causes his followers to praise him, although he is just of the temporal and therefore untrue; they thus might have been cheated by him - such a fool does not realize that the people are insulting him. (25) The powerful surely don't like themselves to be praised. Although very famous they are modest; as magnanimous of great deeds as they are, they are as well abominable. (26) O people led by praise, when we are then just now not of any fame in the world or praiseworthy of action, how then could I engage you, as if you were children, in prayers unto me?'


Chapter 16 

King Prithu Extolled

(1) Of hearing the king thus speaking his nectarine words were the professional reciters content and so they praised him to the instructions of the sages: (2) 'We are not able to fully describe the glories of him who as the foremost Godhead descended out of his own mercy - and although he appeared from the body of Vena, do his glories bewilder the minds of the foremost speakers. (3) Nevertheless we will try to put the name of King Prithu, famous as a partial incarnation of Lord Vishnu, in the sweetest words, in accord with what the wise told us to; encouraged by the liberal and laudable of his activities, we shall try to spread the word of it. (4) This king, as the best defender of the faith, will incite the whole world to follow dutifully; apart from being the protector of the principles of human nature he is also the chastiser of all who are against them. (5) He is the one that no doubt alone bears all forms of all local deities in himself and according that will each and everyone, both high and low, receive in due course of time his proper share and prosper. (6) All the riches he exacts will this king in time return equally to all living beings, just like the all-powerful sungod does in his shining. (7) He will take the duty of the earth upon him to be tolerant with people who trample him, the king, on his head and to be always kind to the aggrieved. (8) When the god fails in the supply of rain is, to the suffering living entities, that divine Man of God, this embodiment of the Lord, as easy as Indra does, sure to protect the citizens. (9) By the glances and bright smile from his beautiful affectionate moonlike face will the whole world be enhanced. (10) The policies of this king are unseen, his actions secret, his accomplishments hidden, his treasury unlimited; his soul, as the only reservoir of all good qualities will be covered, like with Varuna, the King of the seas. (11) It will be unbearable to come near him, unapproachable as he is; as if he is far away, surely no one will ever be able to supersede him who is born from Vena, the firewood that produced the fire. (12) Inside as well as outside he spies, seeing the activities of all living beings as the neutral witness, just like the in- and outgoing air does with the lifeforce of all the embodied. (13) Firm on the path of piety, he will not think of punishing the son of his enemy when he is not to be punished, but even his own son he will punish if he deserves it. (14) Like the sungod shining his light everywhere, will the circle of influence of Prithu remain unimpeded the most powerful up to Manasa Mountain [the arctic region]. (15) Because the whole world will be pleased by his personal activities will one therefore call him the King Happy to the Mind of the Citizens. (16) Firm in his determination and always of the truth, in favor of the brahminical and serving the elderly, he is the one of respect with whom all living beings seek their shelter; the caring parent to the afflicted. (17) To other women he is as respectful as to his mother, to his own wife he is like the other half of the body, unto the citizens he is like an affectionate father and he is a servant to those who believe in God. (18) All embodied alike himself he considers dear, he increases the pleasure of his friends, he intimately associates with those who are free from attachment; this king is the chastising hand for the wicked. (19) He who is directly the unchanging Supreme Lord over the three worlds, descended as a partial [saktyavesa] expansion of the Supersoul; he sees the certainty of confiding in the variegatedness of matter as having no meaning, as it is born from nescience. (20) From the earliest light of day over the hills on, will he as the King of the World, uniquely heroic, protect the globe as the master of all gods of men; from his victorious chariot upholding the bow, will he be everywhere around like the sun that passes over from the south. (21) For certain will all kings of all places offer him presentations; with the local deities will the wives of these kings see him as the Original King bearing the weapon of his disc carrying his [His] reputation. (22) He will milk the earth in the form of a cow; as an extraordinary king and progenitor [Prajâpati] he will provide for the facilities of living of the populace; for his pastimes he will simply by the sharp of his bow level the mountain of the rainclouds, breaking them apart in preparing the earth like Indra, the King of Heaven. (23) Vibrating his bow of horn when he in person travels the earth, he will, being indefeatable in battle, at the time drive all the ones of dissent into hiding, keeping his tail high like a lion. (24) This king will perform a hundred As'vamedha [horse-] sacrifices at the source of the Sarasvatî river, where his horse during the last of the hundred sacrifices will be stolen by Lord Indra. (25) He, in the garden of his palace, will meet with the worshipable Sanat-kumâra and worshiping alone will he with his devotion achieve that uncontaminated transcendental knowledge by which the Spirit of the Absolute Truth is enjoyed. (26) Of the repute of his chivalry thus put in so many words, he will hear about himself in songs and narrations as Prithu the King of Supreme Power. (27) Conquering everywhere with no one checking him he will, by the grace of his own prowess, pluck out all the piercing thorns of life; he will be glorified by the leading ones of the godly and the godless as the Great Soul and become the Lord of the World.'


Chapter 17 

Mahârâja Prithu Becomes Angry at the Earth

(1) Maitreya said: 'The son of king Vena thus to his qualities and actions glorified as a form of the Supreme Lord, pleased those who spoke with gifts, also himself offering with all respect and prayer. (2) The brahmin leaders, the other castes, the servants, ministers, priests, the citizens, all his subjects, the different communities and his admirers he all properly respected. (3) Vidura said: 'Why did the earth that has so many forms, take the form of a cow - and with king Prithu milking her, who was there as the calf and also: what was the milking pot? (4) How did he make for the same of worship that is by nature diverse and for what reason did the godhead (Indra) steal the horse of the sacrifice? (5) O brahmin, after receiving the knowledge about the practice from the mighty Sanat Kumâra * who is so well versed in the lore, what was the goal that the saintly king achieved? (6-7) Please, from your kindness to the Supreme Personality of Krishna, do narrate of the Lord also known as Adhokshaja [the one beyond the senses] unto this so very attentive devotee about the milking of that cow by the son of Vena; it must no doubt be pleasing to take to the hearing of the stories about him who out of the piety of his previous incarnation came to such powerful and glorious activities.

(8) Sûta said: "Thereupon did saint Maitreya, very pleased with the, by the narrations about Vâsudeva, inspired Vidura, praise him and reply. (9) Maitreya said: 'When king Prithu was enthroned by the brahmins, my best, and declared to be also the protector of the people, suffered the citizens a shortage of food and with their bodies emaciated of hunger they approached him to inform him, the Protector of the Surface of the Earth.

(10-11) 'We, o King, suffering a hunger that burns like a fire in the hollow of a tree, have as such trees today come to you to take shelter with you as you are the appointed master worth the consulting to engage us in the labor. Therefore, please Your Majesty, try to provide the food to us who suffer with hunger, o Master over all Rulers of Men; lest you act as the protector of the people engaging all of us distributing the food, we will perish!

(12) Maitreya said: 'Prithu overhearing the citizens laminating their pitiable condition, for a long time contemplated, o best of the Kuru's, and found out about the cause. (13) With that conclusion he with intelligence took up his bow and as the angry Lord of the three Cities [Lord S'iva who once pierced three fortresses with one arrow] fixed an arrow on it directed at the earth. (14) As the earth saw him having taken up his bow and arrows, she, trembling, having turned into cow, fled very much afraid like a deer chased by a hunter. (15) Chasing it then the son of Vena, with his eyes terribly red of anger, had an arrow laid on his bow wherever she fled. (16) Seeing the king coming after her with his weapons taken up, it ran randomly in all the four directions, fleeing hither and thither in between the space of heaven and earth. (17) In all the world not being able to escape from the hand of the son of Vena, just like men is not able to escape from death, it at that time very scared and very saddened at heart turned back.

(18) She said: 'As you are now the great One of Fortune, o knower of the religion, o shelter of the afflicted, save me; Your Majesty is indeed there for the protection of the living. (19) Why is it that you want to kill the very person that is without sin; how could you want to kill a female like me - you, whom one considers to be the knower of the principles? (20) Certainly, if no one should ever strike a woman even if she is of sin, then what to speak of a human being, a personality like you, o King, so full of mercy and affection for the poor? (21) If you break me in pieces, then how will this very strong boat, which keeps up all the things of the world, hold you as well as all the people on the water?

(22) King Prithu replied: 'O dear source of wealth, not obeying my rules I will have to kill you; as you, accepting your share of the offerings, do not provide us with the plenty. (23) You eat the greenest grass daily but we are never certain of your yielding the milk of your udder, is it then not advised to administer a cow that is thus undoubted in offense, punishment? (24) Disobeying me you, of a lesser intelligence, certainly do not give us the seeds for the plants, herbs and grain that before were formed by the Creator and are now by you hidden within yourself. (25) The lamentation of all the distressed suffering from hunger, I will now pacify cutting your flesh with my arrows to pieces. (26) Whether a man, a woman or an eunuch, the rulers killing him who as the lowest is after his own self-interest with no compassion for other living beings, are not really killing. (27) You, crazy and imagined, show yourselves as a cow of delusion; with my arrows I will cut you to pieces as small as grains; by the power of my yoga I will personally uphold all these citizens. '

(28) Being that angry he had the form of death personified. The surrendered planet earth, that had begun to tremble all over, then with folded hands spoke. (29) The earth said: 'My respects for the Transcendence, the person that by the material energy expanded into a variety of forms; unto the source of the qualities I offer my obeisances, to the real form who after His love and His actions as a doer Himself is not affected by bewilderment from the waves of the ocean of matter. (30) He, the resting place of all living entities, on account of whom this earth as a combination of the different modes and elements and I myself were created; He in His own right, ready with His weapons before me, may surely kill me - what other shelter should I resort to but Him? (31) As the One who created these moving and nonmoving entities in the beginning from His own potency, giving the protection of Your own shelter; You, who are in truth inconceivable and by that same mâyâ now proves to be him, this king; how can You, prepared to protect as someone strict to the principles, desire to kill me? (32) Surely is no doubt, because of His unconquerable potency, the plan of the Supreme Master never clear to people with little experience; He who then created, causing to create, is by His inconceivable powers and Lordship, the One in the many. (33) To the One who by His own potency is the cause of the creation, dissolution and maintenance of this world, of the physical elements, senses and controlling demigods, the intelligence and the identification with the matter, unto Him manifesting His potential with all these energies, unto that Transcendental Original Personality and cause of all causes, I offer my obeisances. (34) It was You who factually created this world consisting of the elements, senses mind and heart, o Powerful One, o Unborn One, maintaining me, taking me out of the water from the lower regions, as the original boar [Varâha]. (35) Having put me on top of the water, with the living entities and him now standing upon me as in a boat, indeed desiring to protect, has He in the form of a hero become the keeper of the earth - yet You now want to kill me with sharp arrows because of missing the milk. (36) Indeed are, like it is with me, by the common people, by those whose minds are bewildered being of the modes a product of Your energy, the ways and activities of Your controllers never fully understood; unto all of them and You who brings renown to the heroes themselves, my obeisances.

* Today there are four main disciplic succesions in India: the Kumâra-, Brahmâ.-, Lakshmî- and S'iva- sampradâyas. This underlying translation has originated from the Brahmâ-sampradâya.  

Chapter 18 

Mahârâja Prithu Milks the Earth

 (1) Maitreya said: 'After thus having offered King Prithu prayers, still his lips trembled of anger. She, the planet earth, in fear, then knew to make up her mind and again she spoke: (2) 'Please pacify your anger o King, try to understand that what I have said, I did, like an intelligent person taking the essence from everywhere like a bumblebee does. (3) For the duration of this life as well as the next were by the great sages, the seers of truth, the methods prescribed applied, so that the people in general might also benefit. (4) For anyone who follows in full the principles as of old instructed to the inexperienced who live by faith, is it very easy to enjoy the fruits of action. (5) He who in neglect, as a speculator, derives from his own individual schemes will see himself fail again and again in pursuing his goals. (6) All the herbs and seeds that before were created by Lord Brahmâ, o King, and are entertained by me, are now seen in the hands of the unchaste in disrespect of the holy practice. (7) Not being taken care of and neglected by local rulers like your goodness, have I, for this world that has fallen into thievery, hidden all the herbs and seeds needed for the offerings. (8) Due to being within me for such a long time have those herbs and seeds deteriorated and thus should Your Majesty take them out the way it is prescribed. (9-10) O hero, arrange for a calf from me; from my affection for it I will, if you also arrange for a milking pot and a milkman, fulfill all your desires for milk for each of you, as well as, o mighty armed one, o protector of the living beings, the food you wanted for feeding yourselves, if you so desire. (11) Also, you will have to engage in preparing me, the earth, o King; so that the waters that fell by the mercy of the godhead, keeping them for me, will also be of use to you after the rainy season has ended, o mighty one.'

(12) In consideration of the pleasing and good words of the earth, produced the king Svâyambhuva Manu a calf and got he, thus milking, all grains and herbs in hands. (13) So also did all other men of intelligence everywhere else procure accordingly, milking Prithu's planet earth to their desire. (14) O good one, the sages milking to the senses [as the pot], produced, of the calf for sage Brihaspati milk in the pure form of vedic hymns. (15) Producing Indra, the king of heaven, a calf, did the godly milk out with a golden pot the nectar of the milk of mental power and strength of body and senses. (16) The sons of Diti, the enemies of God, produced a calf and milked out through Prahlâda, the most important [devotee] among the godless, the milk of fermented and distilled beverages in an iron pot. (17) The singers and indwellers of heaven produced him who was named Vis'vâvasu a calf and milked out into a vessel in the form of a lotus, the milk of sweet music and beauty. (18) The ones of great fortune, the demigods of faith, took, from the realm of the ancestors, by Aryamâ, the milk of the offerings of food out into an unbaked earthen pot. (19) To the calf settled for Kapila by the perfected ones and the scholars and alike [Vidyâdharas], came the knowledge of proceeding at will to yogîc mystic powers with the sky [as the milkingpot]. (20) Others of magical and mystical powers [the Kimpurusha's] producing a calf to Mâyâ [name for the astronomer and poet or the likewise asura architect of the Daitya's], milked out with concentration the wonder of the ability of making the body invisible. (21) The descendants of Kuvera, the demons, ghosts and witches [respectively the Yakshas, Râkshasa's, Bhûtas and Pis'âcas] who are all habituated to eating meat, milked out with the calf for Lord S'iva's incarnation Rudra [Bhûtanâtha], a beverage made of blood in a pot of skulls. (22) Likewise did the snakes with and without hoods, the scorpions and the strangler snakes, producing a calf for Takshaka, their chief, milk out in the pot of the snakepit the milk of poison. (23-24) Cattle producing a calf to the bull-carrier of Lord S'iva [Nandî] milked in the pot of the wilderness the milk of green grasses, to the lion did the other sharp toothed animâls, the predators, take out the flesh of other beings and to the calf for Garuda took the birds into the pot of their own body the moving as also the nonmoving living beings. (25) Producing a calf for the Banyan tree milked the different trees milk in the form of juices while the hills and mountains making the Himalaya's a calf, got various minerals into their own peaks. (26) That way was by the calves of their chiefs and to their own different milking pots everything desired supplied as the milk milked out from the planet earth controlled by king Prithu.

(27) O chief of the Kuru's, milking the earth with the different calfs, pots and milkers, did thus Prithu and others to his example, get the milk of all the different forms of food as were desired by the living entities in need. (28) Thereafter did the king, Prithu, being very pleased with all desirables produced as milk, treat the planet earth, being full of affection for her, as if she were his own daughter. (29) By the power of his bow had the emperor broken open all the hilltops of the entire earth and thus had the mighty son of Vena cultivated her almost completely. (30) So was the Supreme Lord on this earth as the son of Vena as a father to the citizens, employing them and setting left and right for numbers of suitable dwelling-places to the need: (31) villages, settlements and forts of different kinds, as also habitations for the milkmen, pens for life-stock, camps, mines and agricultural towns and mountain villages. (32) Before Prithu there was on this earth surely never this kind of planning of towns and villages; one used to live everywhere unrestricted to one's convenience.


Chapter 19 

King Prithu's One Hundred Horse Sacrifices

(1) The sage Maitreya said: 'Thereafter initiated he, the king, in the land of Manu known as Brahmâvarta, where the Sarasvatî flows to the east, then the performance of a hundred horse sacrifices. (2) Faced with this most powerful excel in fruitive action could king Indra, who himself had performed a hundred sacrifices, not tolerate the great ceremonies of sacrifice of king Prithu. (3) It was where directly the enjoyer of all sacrifice the Supreme Lord Vishnu, the transcendental controller, would show himself, as He was the proprietor, the teacher of all the world and everyone's soul. (4) Being in the company of Brahmâ and S'iva and all the local rulers with their followers, He is praised by the indwellers and singers of heaven and the wise. (5) The perfected and the ones rooted in learning, the descendants of Diti, the fruitive workers and the guardians of wealth attended there headed by Nanda and Sunanda, the most respectful associates of the Lord. (6) The masters of yoga lead by Sanaka: Kapila, Nârada and Dattâtreya and all the great devotees always eager to serve the Lord followed Him there. (7) Dear son of Bharata, it was therefrom that the land fulfilled all wishes, as the cow producing all the milk, yielding as desired every object wanted by the sacrificer. (8) The rivers gave all the water needed, there was milk, curd and the food of other dairy products and the trees with their big bodies bore fruits and dropped honey. (9) The people of all places along with their governors brought forward presentations of the four kinds of foodstuff [what is chewed, licked, swallowed and drunk] and heaps of jewels from the hills and oceans. (10) Thus was king Prithu abiding by the Lord beyond the Senses then the topmost in opulence, but the great Lord Indra, being envious, formed an obstruction. (11) Being so envious he, unseen, stole the sacrificial animâl when the son of Vena was performing the last horse-sacrifice meant to please the Lord of all sacrifice. (12) The supreme sage Atri saw Indra hurry away out in the open impersonating as a liberated one in confusing religion with irreligion. (13) The son of king Prithu, a great hero, encouraged by Sage Atri to kill him, became very angry and shouted: 'Wait, wait!'. (14) But when he saw that he was wearing the dress that is considered religious, had knotted hair and a body smeared with ashes all over, he could not release an arrow at him. (15) The son of Prithu having refrained from killing was by sage Atri again admonished to do so as, my best one, the great Indra had become the lowest of them all, impeding the performance of a yajña. (16) Thus being ordered began the son of Prithu, being as angry as the king of the vultures was with Râvana, to chase Indra who hastily moved away at a distance. (17) Abandoning the horse as well as his false dress with him coming, did Indra vanish. Taking the animâl of his father back to the sacrificial arena he, the great hero, returned.

(18) Dear Vidura, seeing the reality of his wonderful action, offered the great sages him accordingly the name Vijitâs'va [he who won the horse]. (19) Not seen, under the cover of dense darkness, took the mighty king Indra though again the horse away from the offerblock where it was chained in golden shackles. (20) When Atri pointed out that he hurried away in the open, could the hero this time seeing him holding a staff with a skull at the top, not come to kill him either. (21) Being driven after him by Atri, had he, angered, fixed an arrow, but the self-reliant Indra who again gave up the horse and the apparel, kept himself out of reach. (22) The hero taking the horse thus then went back to the sacrificial arena of his father; ever since do those with a poor fund of knowledge adopt that false show of the Lord of Heaven. (23) Those forms that Indra assumed with the desire to steal the horse are all symbol and sign of sinful activities; for this is the word deficient [khanda, the impersonating ones are called pâkhandî's] used. (24-25) With Indra thus stealing the horse away from the son of Vena with the desire to stop the sacrifice, became the people in general this way attracted to the falsely dressing up that was adopted and abandoned by him to the system of religion. To this falsehood of faith in red robes, going naked etc., one is foolishly enough attracted as it is generally very cunning and handy with words. (26) The incarnation of the Lord, the as all-powerful celebrated king Prithu, about this being very angry with Indra, took up an arrow and lifted his bow.

(27) The priests who saw that Prithu thus prepared to kill the King of Heaven, couldn't tolerate the display of his terrible drive and forbade: 'O great soul, as it is said in the scriptures, it is not worthy of you to kill others in connection with this.' (28) We shall call for Indra, who in fact already lost his power as the destroyer of your interest, with mantras never used before and will forthwith by force sacrifice your enemy in the fire, o King.'

(29) After thus informing the one in power, o Vidura, were the priests, very sour, ready with the sacrificial ladle at hand to perform the sacrifice, but having begun asked Lord Brahmâ them to stop: (30) 'All of you, you shouldn't put Indra to an end, because he, whom you wish to kill, of offering, makes part of the Supreme Lord - and also are the ones of God you wish to please by the sacrificing, all part of Indra himself ! (31) And then, beware of this great violation of religion committed by Indra, o twice-born, in his desire to impede these proceedings of the king. (32) King Prithu is known the world all over, let it therefore be so that for him who has performed ninety-nine sacrifices there is nothing more to be gained; and you yourself o King, as the knower of the path of liberation - weren't the sacrifices well performed? (33) For sure you shouldn't act in anger against Lord Indra, it suffers no doubt that it will be to the good fortune of the both of you together making up the manifold of the Lord celebrated in the scriptures. (34) O great King please consider this what I tell you in the greatest respect: do not as you did, get into the mind of anger because of a twist of fate, as of him who contemplates such will one enter the darkest regions. (35) Let this sacrificing end, it was by the impersonating to the example of Indra that so many principles of religion were violated and bad habits rooted amongst the ones of God. (36) Just see how all these falsifications, that Indra has introduced as the one who breaking your sacrifice stole the horse, are so alluring to the common men that they get carried away by them. (37) Your Majesty, just to deliver, you incarnated to time and circumstance in this world for the system of religion that by the misdeeds of king Vena almost had vanished - and now you are there as a part and parcel of the body of Vishnu, o son of Vena. (38) In consideration of this what I told you about the existence in this world, o protector of the people, of the determination of the progenitors of this earth rooting in what Indra did, please conquer that as that dangerous path of falsifying became the mother of the moralist illusion.'

(39) Maitreya continued: 'Thus being advised by the teacher of all did Prithu, the king and master, following as was told and in the best of his care, conclude peace with even Indra. (40) After having done so he took a customary bath and met with the blessings by the God-conscious for the fame of his virtue, as they were all very pleased by the performance of that offer. (41) All the ones of true learning were very happy with the great respect and rewards they received from him, o royal one, when they had offered the Original King their blessings: (42) 'O mighty armed one by you inviting us we all assembled: the forefathers, the gods the sages and the common men - all of us you have honored with gifts and expressions of respect.'


 Thus ends the first part of Canto 4 of the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam


Translation: Anand Aadhar Prabhu, http://bhagavata.org/c/8/AnandAadhar.html

Production: the Filognostic Association of The Order of Time, with special thanks to Sakhya Devi Dasi for proofreading and correcting the manuscript. http://theorderoftime.com/info/guests-friends.html

The sourcetexts, illustrations and music to this translation one can find following the links from: http://bhagavata.org/ 

For this original translation next to the Sanskrit dictionary a one-volume printed copy has been used with an extensive commentary by A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda. ISBN: o-91277-27-7 . See the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam treasury: http://bhagavata.org/treasury/links.html for links to other sites concerning the subject.

home      contact us