The Mahabharata
  Srimad Bhagavatam

  Rig Veda
  Yajur Veda
  Sama Veda
  Atharva Veda

  Bhagavad Gita
  Sankara Bhashya
  By Edwin Arnold

  Brahma Sutra
  Sankara Bhashya I
  Sankara Bhashya II
  Ramanuja SriBhashya


  Agni Purana
  Brahma Purana
  Garuda Purana
  Markandeya Purana
  Varaha Purana
  Matsya Purana
  Vishnu Purana
  Linga Purana
  Narada Purana
  Padma Purana
  Shiva Purana
  Skanda Purana
  Vamana Purana

  Manu Smriti

  Bhagavad Gita
  Brahma Sutras

See for the online version with illustrations, music and links to the previous translation: http://bhagavata.org/


"The story of the fortunate one"  


The Creative Impetus


Chapter 1 The Activities of Mahârâja Priyavrata  

Chapter 2 The Activities of Mahârâja Âgnîdhra

Chapter 3 Rishabhadeva's Appearance in the Womb of Merudevî, the Wife of King Nâbhi.

Chapter 4 The Characteristics of Rishabhadeva

Chapter 5 Lord Rishabhadeva's Teachings to His Sons

Chapter 6 Lord Rishabhadeva's Activities

Chapter 7 The Activities of King Bharata

Chapter 8 The Rebirth of Bharata Mahârâja

Chapter 9 The Supreme Character of Jada Bharata

Chapter 10 Jada Bharata meets Mahârâja Rahûgana

Chapter 11 Jada Bharata Instructs King Rahûgana

Chapter 12 The Conversation Between Mahârâja Rahûgana and Jada Bharata

Chapter 13 Further talks Between Mahârâja Rahûgana and Jada Bharata

Chapter 14 The Material World as the Great Forest of Enjoyment

Chapter 15 The Glories of the Descendants of King Priyavrata

Chapter 16 How the Lord can be Comprehended as a Matter of Fact.

Chapter 17 The Descent of the River Ganges

Chapter 18 Prayers to the different Avatâras

Chapter 19 The Prayers of Hanumân and Nârada and the Glories of Bhârata-varsha

Chapter 20 The structure of the Different Dvîpa's and the Prayers by their Different Peoples

Chapter 21 The Reality of the Sungod Sûrya

Chapter 22 The movement of the Planets and their Considered Effects

Chapter 23 Description of the Stars of S'is'umâra, our Coiling Galaxy

Chapter 24 The Nether Worlds

Chapter 25 The Glories of Lord Ananta

Chapter 26 The Hellish Worlds or the Karmic Rebound


 Chapter 1

 The Activities of Mahârâja Priyavrata  

(1) The King said: 'Why, o sage, was Priyavrata, the great devotee of contentment with the soul, so happy to stay at home, that place which is the root cause of bondage in karma and the betrayal of transcendence? (2) Such a thing as indulgence in familiy-affairs, o wisest of the twiceborn, is for sure not possible with persons who are free from attachments. (3) It suffers no doubt that the consciousness of great souls that is satiated by the shade of the feet of the Lord praised in the verses, is there never in attachment to kith and kin. (4) This I greatly doubt, o brahmin: how can because of the forces of wife, home, children and so on, perfection and an unfailing determination unto Krishna come about?'

(5) S'rî S'uka said: 'What you said about the nectarean honey of the glorification of the lotuslike feet of the Lord of the scriptures, the pleasing in which the hearts of liberated persons and the devotees are absorbed, is correct; although sometimes checked by impediments do they as good as never give up their most exalted position. (6) Because, indeed, o King, prince Priyavrata was a supreme devotee did he, in service of Nârada his feet, quickly become aware of the complete truth of the transcendental subject matter, continuously discussing the spiritual in dedicated zeal, without deviating from the sum total of the highest qualities as directed in the scriptures. He was asked by his father to rule over the surface of the earth, but because of having such a love for with all his senses and actions being absorbed in yoga in the all-pervading of the Supreme Lord, did he not welcome it, although taking that post could for no reason be refused by him as surely deterioration could be foreseen if he would act any otherwise to the untrue. (7) So it happened that the Lord and first among the demigods [Brahmâ], who is always thinking of the welfare of the whole of this universal creation of the three modes and of whom one knows of the Universe the ultimate purpose of the Supreme Soul from which he himself is born, surrounded by all his personal associates and the Vedas, descended from his abode. (8) When he reached the vicinity of the Gandhamâdana Mountains [where Priyavrata was meditating] was He, under the cover of the sky, alike the moon illumined by the stars, left and right flanked by the leaders of the demigods, who from their heavenly carriers worshiped him all the way as also one after the other in groups did the perfect ones, the inhabitants of heaven, the refined, the singers and the sages [respectively the Siddhas, the Gandharvas, the Câranas, the Sâdhyas and the Munis]. (9) There did the deva-rishi [Nârada] recognizing the swan-carrier of his almighty father Lord Hiranyagarbha [Brahmâ], together with Priyavrata and his father immediately rise to their feet to worship him with respect, folded hands and all the paraphernalia. (10) O son of Bhârata, as the Lord was confronted with all the articles of worship according the customs and his qualities were praised in high language in gratitude for the glory of his descendent, did he, the original person of the universe, looking at Priyavrata, compassionately smiling at him, come to address him.

(11) The great Lord said: 'Pay attention to the true which I am telling you; you should not be jealous with the Godhead who is beyond our powers of control; we, Lord S'iva, your father and this great Rishi [Nârada], all carry out His orders not being capable to deviate. (12) No living entity in acceptance of a material body can escape His order; not by austerity, and education, not by yoga, by one's strength, intelligence and for sure never either by one's opulence, the virtue of one's duty, by an external power or any personal endeavor. (13) Directed by the unseen, do the living entities accept to be bound to a material body, for birth, death, sadness, illusion, constant fear, happiness and distress and for what they should do to their karma. (14) My son, like four legged ones [bulls] by the nose bound to the two-legged [driver], are we on the long rope of vedic instruction all engaged in carrying out the orders meant to please the Controller, in our being tied to the modes and the fruitive labor [within the varnâs'rama system] so difficult to avoid. (15) Like blind men led by someone with eyes do we, my dearest, certainly have to accept the distress or happiness associated with the qualities and the work that belong to the condition we are situated in with the body that our Protector gave us. (16) Even a liberated person must so long maintain his own body that was obtained as a result of the past, accepting unmistaken that what he went trough as one who has awakened from sleep; but for another material body he would never give in to the material qualities. (17) When even residing in the forest there must be the fear of being bewildered because of living with the six co-wives [of the mind and the five senses], what harm indeed could then household life do to such a self-satisfied, learned one who has conquered the senses? (18) Anyone who has entered a householders life must first eagerly try to conquer the six adversaries and as soon as, as from a fortified place, he has decreased the very strong enemies of the lusty desires, can he as a man of experience go wherever he likes. (19) You then, having taken shelter of the stronghold of the cavity of the lotusfeet of Him whose navel is alike a lotus and having conquered the six enemies, enjoy in this world everything to be enjoyed, finding yours in being liberated from attachments in your position through these special orders of the Original Person.'

(20) S'rî S'uka said: 'The great devotee of the mighty Lord who is the spiritual master of the three worlds, thus fully instructed, as a subordinate soul bowed his head down upon his order and said: 'Yes sir, so will it, with all respect, be carried out'. (21) The great Lord, also by Manu duly respected as He deserves, with Priyavrata and Nârada in peace taking notice, then returned to his abode, departing for the superposed place beyond description and the mind. (22) Manu thus, also with his support, executed what he had in mind and with the permission of Nârada by his son establishing the maintenance of the protection of all worlds in the entire universe, did he personally find relief from the desires of the so very dangerous poisonous ocean of material affairs. (23) So indeed as ordered by the Controller, fully engaged in material affairs as the emperor of the universe, was he [Manu's son, Priyavrata] by constant meditation on the two lotus feet of the Supreme Lord, the Original Person, who's influence of transcendence destroys all bondage, completely pure with all dirt washed out of his heart and ruled he the material world just to honor the great ones. (24) He afterwards also married the daughter Barhishmatî of Vis'vakarmâ, one of the founding fathers and begot in her gloriously as well as ten sons, whose magnanimity was exactly like his in character, qualities, course of action, beauty and prowess, as a daughter who as the youngest of all carried the named Ûrjasvatî. (25) The sons all got the names of Agni, the god of fire: Âgnîdhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabâhu, Mahâvîra, Hiranyaretâ, Ghritaprishthha, Savana, Medhâtithi, Vîtihotra and Kavi. (26) Three of them, Kavi, Mahâvîra and Savana were celibates from the inner drive who, living in transcendental knowledge right from the beginning of their childhood, were well conversant with the highest spiritual perfection, keeping without doubts its order [paramahamsa-âs'rama]. (27) In that surely kept renounced order of life (*) does reside the sum total of all great sages for the individual souls who anxious about their material existence take to the lotusfeet of the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva Who is the only shelter. In constant remembrance by virtue of the supreme of the yoga of devotion, free from contaminations purified, they within their hearts perceived the Supreme Lord of all beings as situated within themselves, directly realizing their souls as qualitatively equal in being non-different from the Supersoul. (28) It was in another wife that he also begot three sons named Uttama, Tâmasa and Raivata who so became rulers of the Manu period [that is 71 yugas long]. (29) They, all his well qualified sons, became masters of the universe and thus without interruption was for a 110 million years, endowed with powerful arms of prowess and strength who together pulled the bowstring loudly defeating all who opposed the righteous rule, there Priyavrata's increase of rule as a great soul who of his wife Barhishmatî her amiability, femininity, shyness, coy, laughs and glances and exchanges of love had a life of pleasure; but in his true knowledge he was defeated by it like a less intelligent one. (30) Like a second sun exactly following the orbit of the sun a seven times, did he thinking himself equally powerful say to himself: 'I'll make the night as brilliant as the day', without appreciating the superhuman influence of the Supreme Lord, whom he perfectly thought to satisfy by on a chariot circumambulating the Mountain of enlightenment of the sungod who so long as he dazzling illumines the one half of the earth darkens the other half. (31) The certainty of that way with the wheels of his chariot, was, making trenches with the rims, responsible for bringing about the settling of the seven places of refuge of the atmosphere [Bhû-mandala]. (32) Known as Jambû, Plaksha, S'âlmali, Kus'a, Krauñca, S'âka and Pushkara measures each of them twice the size of the preceding one and was there all around outside of them that what they produced. (33) As they from the outside were the different continents separated by what's around them and inside were like seven islands divided by seas of salt water, sugercane-juice, liquor, fluid butter, milk, fluid yogurt and sweet water, that respectively [in size] corresponded to the seven refuges within them, was the husband of Barhishmatî certain to install as their rulers within each one of them one of his to the principle loyal sons, Âgnîdhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabâhu, Hiranyaretâ, Ghritaprishthha, Medhâtithi and Vîtihotra - also seven in number.

(34) What he also did was to give the daughter named Ûrjasvatî to the great sage Us'anâ [S'ukrâcârya] unto whom was born a daughter named Devayânî. (35) Of no surprise is to the devotees the personal influence of the One of the Great Steps [Urukrama, see 1-3: 20] by the lotusfeet of which the sixfold material whip [of hunger, thirst, lamentation, illusion, old age and death], is conquered, when a fifth-class person [an outcaste] only once uttering His holy name immediately gives up his material bondage. (36) He [Priyavrata] thus unparalleled in strength and influence, who once surrendered himself to the feet of the deva-rishi [Nârada] but thereafter fell down because of his concerns with the modes of matter not finding satisfaction [compare 1-5:17], then, thinking about himself, in a spirit of renunciation said this: (37) 'Alas, I did wrong for I was completely absorbed by the nescience of sense gratification; the dark well of material pleasure made me guilty of a lot of distress making me look like a dancing monkey, insignificant and of no importance, in the hands of my wife; doomed and damned I am indeed!', thus he criticized himself. (38) By the selfrealization obtained through the mercy of the God Beyond, handing over the earth to his sons who followed him exactly, dividing the inheritance he enjoyed so many ways, with the queen and the great opulence giving up the deadness of his body and with himself in his heart in perfect surrender taking to the renunciation, he with that attitude was sure to again put himself on the right track together with the stories of the Lord at the feet of that greatest of saints Nârada. (39) To him apply all these verses: 'What was done by Priyavrata no one could have done except for the Supreme Controller', 'By the impressions of the rims of the wheels of his chariot he dissipated the darkness, creating the seven seas'. (40) 'To stop the fighting of the different nations on the various continents he created the situation on the world of the separation by means of rivers, mountain ranges and forests [compare 4-14:45-46] and such.' (41) 'He was the one most dear on the path after the Original Person, to whom all opulence of the lower worlds, the heavens or the earth, as acquired by fruitive action and the power of yoga, compared to hell'.  

 *: There are four stages in accepting the renounced order: 1) Kuthîcaka: one stays outside one's village in a cottage, and one's necessities, especially one's food, are supplied from home, 2) Bahûdaka: one no longer accepts anything from home: instead, one, mâdhukarî, with the "profession of the bumblebees", collects one's necessities, especially one's food, from many places 3) Parivrâjakâcârya: one travels all over the world to preach the glories of Lord Vâsudeva collecting one's necessities, especially one's food, from many places, and 4) Paramahamsa: he finishes his preaching work and sits down in one place, strictly for the sake of advancing in spiritual life.  


Chapter 2  

The Activities of Mahârâja Âgnîdhra

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'When thus his father took to the path of liberation and Âgnîdhra according to his order took his place, did he, strictly observing the principles, protect the citizens, the inhabitants of Jambûdvîpa, as if they were his children. (2) Once, desiring a woman from the realm of the godly ones, became he at the foot of the mountains, to his forefathers having gathered all the necessities for the service, in the full attention of the mind of the repentant, engaged in austerities and worship unto the master, the highest power of creation in the universe [Lord Brahmâ].

(3) Understanding that did the Mighty Lord, the first person of the universe, send down from his abode the celestial girl, the apsara Pûrvacitti. (4) Strolling around in the woods was she then sure in that place of meditation, which was very beautiful with its dense variety of trees with masses of high reaching, golden creepers attached to the branches. In the clear waters of the lotus-filled lake there, she sang along with the vibrations of the pleasant sounds of the communicating pairs of land birds and water birds like ducks, swans and such. (5) The son of the god of men now, in the ecstasy of his yoga, heard the pleasant sounds of her ankle bells that tinkled with every step of her so very attractive way of moving playfully around and, with his half open lotusbud-like eyes looking up, he spotted her. (6) Nearby, like a honeybee indeed smelling the beautiful flowers, did she by the pleasure derived from her playful movements, shy glances and humility, her sweet voice and her limbs, to the eyes and mind of as well normal man as the men of heaven, pave the way for the flower-bearing God of Love. The goddess was stunning with the pleasure of hearing the sweet nectar pouring out of her smiling and talking mouth, the sight of the hasty stylish little movements of her feet to the intoxicated bees surrounding her, the movements of her jug-like breasts, the weight of her hips, the braids of her hair and the belt around her waist. By the mere sight of the goddess brought fully under the control of the almighty Cupid, did he then take the opportunity of addressing her.

(7) 'Who are you and what are you up to on this hill, o choice of the munis; are you some illusory appearance of the Supreme Lord, our God in the beyond, with your two bows without strings [her eyebrows] that you are carrying with you; is it for your own sake or for a friend that you are here, or are you trying to hunt down the maddened animals in this forest? (8) These two arrows [these eyes] of you o magical one, that have feathers like lotus petals, have no shaft and are peaceful and very beautiful; who is it in this forest that you, loitering around, want to pierce with their sharp points; may your prowess be there for the welfare of all of us dull-headed who do not understand! (9) These followers around you [the bees] o worshipable one, incessantly all singing recite unto the Lord the Sâmaveda and the Upanishad, as if they were sages to the branches of the Veda, enjoying the resort of your tresses of hair and the lots of flowers falling from them. (10) From the resounding vibration alone of your ankle bells I can very distinctly hear the tittiri birds, o one of Brahmâ, without seeing their form; did you at all dress up, as I see your beautiful round hips with the lovely color of kadamba flowers and around them a belt red as burning cinders. (11) What is it that fills the two horns, o heavenly appearance of beauty, that you carry to your slim middle; what do they contain that is so attractive to my eyes; and what is that fragrant red powder on the two of them with which you, o fortunate one, are perfuming my spiritual resort? (12) Please show me where you live, o dearest friend; where was a person like you with such wonderful limbs born? For a person like me are the many wonders of your lovely words and inviting gestures, that are as sweet as nectar to the mouth, very upsetting. (13) And what do you live on; chewing the betel of the sacrifices [a red palatable nut], my best; you must have come forth as a part of Vishnu, with your two wide open brilliant sharks of eyes and your ears with their restless fishlike earrings, the rows of your beautiful teeth and your face like a lake amidst the swarm of the bees around you. (14) My eyes are restlessly moving in all directions, distracted by the ball struck by your lotus palm; don't you care about your curls of hair hanging loose; is that lower garment of you not giving you trouble taken up by the wind like a man does attached to women? (15) O beauty, treasure of the sages, by what austerity did you achieve to unsettle so unfailing this way indeed the penance of all who have retired; you should practice the forsaking with me, o friend, for maybe are you, with the creator of the created [Brahmâ] being pleased with me, there meant for me. (16) I won't give up on you, upon whom, being given by the God of Spiritual Rebirth, I have fixed my mind and eyes; I won't leave you and will keep you close to me, o beauty of the breasts; lead me as you wish, as I am your follower, wherever that your finest of friends might follow.

(17) S'rî S'uka said: 'Thus very expert in winning over women did he with the intelligence of the gods with flattery cater to the heavenly girl's appetite and gained he her favor. (18) She in her mind attracted to also the intelligence, manners, beauty, youth, opulence and magnanimity of him, that master among the heroes, enjoyed for an endless, countless number of years all earthly and heavenly pleasures spending time with him being the king of Jambûdvîpa. (19) In her managed he, Âgnîdhra, the best of kings, to beget nine sons named Nâbhi, Kimpurusha, Harivarsha, Ilâvrita, Ramyâka, Hiranmaya, Kuru, Bhadras'va and Ketumâla. (20) After she year after year had given birth to her sons, made Pûrvacitti indeed sure that she again approached the God Unborn. (21) By virtue of their mother obtained the sons of Âgnîdhra strong, well-built bodies and to each his name did the father properly divide the different parts of Jambûdvîpa [probably the Eurasian continent] to be ruled by them. (22) Âgnîdhra, the king, not quite satisfied in his desires and thinking every day more and more about her, got by the Vedas promoted to that place of her, where the forefathers are living in delight. (23) After the departure of their father married the nine brothers the nine daughters of Meru named Merudevî, Pratirûpâ, Ugradamshthrî, Latâ, Ramyâ, S'yâmâ, Nârî, Bhadra and Devavîti.


Chapter 3  

Rishabhadeva's Appearance in the Womb of Merudevî, the Wife of King Nâbhi.

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Nâbhi, the son of Âgnîdhra, desiring to have sons with Merudevî who was childless, with great attention offered prayers in worship of the Supreme Lord Vishnu, the enjoyer of all sacrifices. (2) When he assuredly with great faith and devotion and a pure mind was worshiping, manifested the Supreme Lord out of His love to fulfill the desires of His devotees, Himself in His most beautiful, unconquerable form that is pleasing to the mind and eyes with its captivating beautiful limbs, although with the introductory pravargya ceremony as was initiated, and the ingredients, the right place and time, the hymns, the priests, the gifts to the priests and by means of the regulative principles themselves that could not be obtained. (3) After He manifested Himself most obviously in His fourhanded form very bright, as the topmost of all living beings, with a yellow silk garment and the beauty of the S'rîvatsa mark He has on His chest; His conchshell, lotus flower, disc, flower garland, the Kaustubha-jewel and His club and such as are characteristic for Him; radiating brilliantly with the helmet, earrings, bracelets, girdle, necklace, armlets, ankle bells etc., that ornamented his body, felt king Nâbhi and the priests and the others themselves like poor people having obtained a great treasure and with great regards and everything of worship they reverentially bent their heads. (4-5) The priests said: 'Please accept again and again, o most exalted one, the offering in worship of the respects; the obeisances of us, Your servants. Thus we are able to act so far instructed by the exalted ones; what man, whose mind is most unable absorbed in the transformations of material nature, is capable of ascertaining of the Supreme Controller who is beyond the say of the material world, all the names, forms and qualities belonging to His position here! By most auspiciously speaking of the excellence of Your transcendental qualities, which wipe out all the sinful actions of mankind, we can know You but partially. (6) It is by the worship indeed of Your servants, who in great ecstasy with faltering voices do their prayers, performing with water, fresh twigs of green, tulasî leaves and sprouts of grass, that You become satisfied. (7) Everything else of all the concern here about the things of use required in this, we acknowledge is of Your greatness even not needed. (8) All the spiritual virtues - Your actual identity - self-sufficiently, undoubtedly at every moment, directly and without ever stopping do increase endlessly; but, o Lord, the always desiring of us in this for the blessings of material pleasure can only be there for getting Your mercy. (9) Although You, personally, by the abundance of Your causeless mercy and glory desiring to lay open the spiritual path [called apavarga], have come here and are presently seen like one can see any ordinary person, do we fall short in our worship for You as we, o Lord of lords, are as fools ignorant about that ultimate welfare of You. (10) This then, because of in this sacrifice of saintly king Nâbhi having become, o Lordship, o best of the benefactors, the object of the vision of us Your devotees, is no doubt the greatest benediction indeed, o most worshipable One. (11) You are to them, of whom the endless impurity, having attained Your qualities, has been removed by the strength of detachment and the fire of knowledge; You are to those sages who self-satisfied, incessantly recounted all the good of You in telling Your stories, the supreme bliss produced.  (12) Still we somehow or other stumble along, hungrily fall down and yawn because of feeling misplaced and so on, and also are we of ourselves unable to remember You in the fever of our deathstruggle; may it be possible that we utter Your names and speak of Your activities and attributes as they have the potency to drive away all our sins. (13) Moreover - this pious King desires from You to have offspring, a son that he hopes to be exactly like You, a supreme controller of the benedictions of heaven and the path leading there, although he is with You, the great love of the worship, with the idea of children as the ultimate goal of life, like a poor man who asks a person of wealth and charity for a little grain. (14) Who without respect for the feet of the great ones is within this world of You not conquered by the unconquerable illusory energy of which one cannot find the path; who is in his intelligence not bewildered by the material enjoyment that is like poison; who is in his nature not checked by that stream? (15) Because of indeed Your again being invited in this arena of sacrifice as the doer of many wonders - please tolerate out of Your sameness to all and everything therefore us, the ignorant ones, who, not very intelligent in disrespect of the divinity of You as the God of Gods, are aspiring a material outcome.' 

(16) S'rî S'uka said: 'The Supreme Lord, the lead of the wise, thus extolled by the recitation of those who bowed to the feet of the emperor of Bhâratavarsha [India], spoke to them. (17) The Supreme Lord said: 'Alas, pleased as I am by you o sages whose words are all true, is that benediction you have been asking for - that there may be a son of Nâbhi that is like Me -, thus very difficult to achieve; as One without a second there is only the I of Me that is equal, nevertheless with the brahminical of what you said not being false ought that of Me to become for sure, mouthed as it is by the divinity of the class of the twice-born. (18) Not finding My equal, I shall therefore by personal expansion into a plenary portion of Myself, advent in the wife of Âgnîdhra's son.'

(19) S'rî S'uka said: 'Thus having spoken to the husband in the presence of Merudevî, disappeared the Supreme Lord. (20) O grace of Vishnu [Parîkchit], in order to please king Nâbhi did the Supreme Lord, this way being propitiated by the best of the wise, appear in the original form of pure goodness of an avatâra in his wife Merudevî, in a desire to show the great of the renounced, the withdrawn and the studious order [the sannyâsîs, the vânaprasthas and the brahmacârîs] the ways of the principles of dharma [righteousness, the religion, the true nature].



Chapter 4

The Characteristics of Rishabhadeva

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'From the beginning of His appearance did He [as the son of king Nâbhi, see previous chapter and 2-7: 10] distinguish Himself in having all the characteristics of the Supreme Lord as being equalminded to all, being of perfect peace and renunciation and having all power and the great attributes, day after day therewith increasing in His effect in a great desire to rule over ministers, citizens, the brahmins, the godly and the whole surface of the earth. (2) Thus for certain most exalted in as well his bodily features as in having all the qualities as described by the poets, did the father thus give Him because of His prowess, strength, beauty, fame, influence and heroism, the name Rishabha, the best one. (3) King Indra who turned out to be very envious with His greatness did not permit any rain to fall down on the land below the Himalâya's; the Supreme Lord Rishabhadeva who knew that, as the master of yoga smiled over it and made by the power of His spiritual self the waters fall down on His place that was called Ajanâbha. (4) King Nâbhi who to his desire no doubt had gotten the most beautiful son had, overwhelmed by an excess of great jubilation, from his ecstasy a faltering voice; by His independent will had He, the Supreme Lordship and oldest, Original Person through His deluding power bewildered his mind making him thus with great affection say 'my dear son, my darling', as he achieved transcendental bliss in raising Him. (5) Knowing well of the popularity of His serving the citizens and the state, enthroned king Nâbhi, in his desire to protect the people strictly to the principle, his son, entrusting him to the brahmins. With Merudevî did he in Badarikâs'rama with great satisfaction and skill perform austerities, fully absorbed in yoga worshiping Nara-Nârâyana, the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva by which he in the course of time reached His glorious abode.

(6) O son of Pându [Parîkchit, see family tree], of him in fact are two verses recited: 'What man following the example of the pious king Nâbhi can do what he did and by the pure of his actions receive the Supreme Personality of God for his son?' and (7) 'Is there besides Nâbhi any other devotee of the brahmins who in worship satisfying them in the sacrificial arena, by dint of their devotional service was granted the presence of the Supreme Enjoyer of all sacrifices?'.

(8) The Supreme Lord Rishabha then, accepting His kingdom as His field of work, set an example in living with the spiritual master, giving gifts upon achieving and, as was demanded by the guru, took upon Him the duties of a householder. Thus, being married to Jayantî who had been offered to Him by Indra, He taught by example performing the both types of work as mentioned in the scriptures [of defending the religion and fighting injustice], begetting a hundred sons [with her and with co-wives or via his sons with daughters in law] that were exactly like Him. (9) Of them was indeed the eldest, Bharata, a great practitioner of yoga; he had the best qualities and it was he of whom this land was called Bhârata-varsha by the people. (10) After him followed Kus'âvarta, Ilâvarta, Brahmâvarta, Malaya, Ketu, Bhadrasena, Indrasprik, Vidarbha en Kîkata who were the elder ones of the ninety-nine other sons. (11-12) Of the latter were Kavi, Havi, Antariksha, Prabuddha, Pippalâyana, Avirhotra, Drumila, Camasa and Karabhâjana nine highly advanced devotees who defended the truth of this Bhâgavatam; of their good characters evincing the glories of the Lord, I will later on [in Canto 11] give a colorful account in relating the conversation between Vâsudeva and Nârada which brings the mind the fullest satisfaction. (13) The eighty-one younger sons of Jayantî [...] were, following the order of their father, well cultured with a great command of the scriptural truths and had a great expertise in the performance of sacrifices; very pure in their actions, they became great brahmins.

(14) The Supreme Lord named Rishabha was indeed a completely independent Controller full of transcendental bliss who personally was always free from the unwanted; by executing strict to the tradition, did He, teaching the ignorant of whom in the course of time just the opposite in neglect of the religion is found, equipoised and unperturbed, friendly and merciful, for the people in general regulate the eternal of righteousness and economy so that they could achieve reputation, offspring and pleasure in household life [compare B.G. 4-13]. (15) Whatever is done by leading personalities is followed by the people in general [see also B.G 3:21]. (16) Although He knew of the confidential purport of the different vedic duties on the path of the brahmins, ruled He [as a kshatriya] over the people by means of controlled senses, a controlled mind and by tolerance. (17) Along with the necessities according the place and the time ascertained He, aided by the good [tender] age and faith of the priests worshipping the different gods for different purposes, as is prescribed, Himself a hundred times of sacrifices in all kinds of ceremonies. (18) Being protected by the Supreme Lordship of Rishabha does no one on this planet, not even the most common man, need to build himself a castle in the sky, nor does he whatever way ever need to be after any illusion with anyone else; one cares to see within oneself an ever expanding affection towards the one carrying the weight. (19) When He, the Supreme Lord, once toured around and reached the holy land of Brahmâvarta [between the rivers the Sarasvatî and Drishadvatî to the N. W. of Hastinâpura] did he, overheard by the citizens in a meeting of the best of the brahmins, say the following to his attentive and well-behaved sons, lecturing to them although they excelled in self-control and devotion.


Chapter 5  

Lord Rishabhadeva's Teachings to His Sons

(1) Lord Rishabha said: 'My dear sons: This body carried by all within this material world does not deserve the troublesome of the sense-gratification of dogs and hogs, but is worth the trouble of the austerities and penances for the sake of the divine from which the heart becomes purified and for certain an unending spiritual happiness is found. (2) Serving the great ones, one says, is the way of liberation and to seek the association of the ones who are attached to women is the way of the dungeon, of darkness; the highly advanced are people who in the spiritual have an equal regard for all, they are situated in peace, do not feel offended, wish all the best and know how to behave. (3) Those who in relating to Me, their Lord, are eager to develop love * , and who to people, who interested in the maintenance of their body are fond of their home, wife, children, wealth or friends, are not so attached, collect from and take to the world only in so far it is needed. (4) Indeed, I think that the madly being engaged for the satisfaction of the senses with its performance of unwanted deeds, which made this temporal existence of the body possible - although its brings misery -, does not befit the soul. (5) As long as there is the defeat resulting from ignorance, as long as one is not inquiring about the reality of the soul, as long as one's mind is absorbed in fruitive activities, is one factually caught in one's karma from which there is the bondage to this material body. (6) When the soul is thus covered by ignorance acts the mind subjugated by fruitive activities as long as unto Me, Vâsudeva, there is no love; for that time is one not delivered from being united with a physical frame. (7) Even when one is a man of learning - when one does not see how useless the endeavor to satisfy the senses is, will one very soon get mad being forgetful in one's self-interest and become a fool finding nothing but material miseries in a life at home that is based on sexual intercourse. (8) Of the sexual attraction between man and woman are both their hearts tied to one another and thereafter do they call for a home, privacy, children, wealth and relatives; this is the illusion of the living being known as "I" and "Mine'. (9) When the mind, the strong knot in the heart of such a person bound by the results of deeds in the past, is slackened; at that time does the conditioned one turn away from his misconception of "I", and does he, giving it up, liberated go to the transcendental world that is the original cause. (10-13) By following a spiritually advanced person, a guru; in devotional service unto Me, by not desiring, in tolerance for the dual world and as well by inquiring and by realizing the truth of the miseries of the living being everywhere; by practicing austerities and penances and giving up on sensual pleasures; by working for Me, listening to stories about Me as also by always keeping company with the devoted; by singing about My qualities; by being without enmity, by being equal to all, by subduing one's emotions, o sons; by desiring to give up on the identification with one's home and body, by studying the yoga-literatures; by living solitary, by fully controlling the breath, the senses and the mind; by developing faith, by always observing celibacy, by being ever vigilant, by restraint of speech; by thinking of Me, seeing Me everywhere; by developing knowledge, wisdom and by being illumined by the practice of yoga; by patience, enthusiasm and endowed with goodness and benevolence, one can give up the false identification with the material world, the cause of material bondage. (14) Becoming completely free from the hankering for the profit, by this practice of yoga as I have told you taking care of the knot of bondage in the heart brought about by ignorance, one should [further] desist from the means of liberation. (15) The king or guru to his sons or disciples who, desiring my abode, thinks that reaching Me is the aim of life, should in this manner, free from anger, give instruction; when one misses the spiritual knowledge one should not engage for fruitive actions - for what can a man simply piously or impiously working for the profit achieve? In fact he will cause the ones whose vision is clouded, to fall down in the pit [compare BG 3-26]. (16) People who personally have lost sight of the path of auspiciousness and who are obsessed in their desiring the goods, run envious of one another for the sake of temporary happiness into unlimited sufferings and have being foolish no idea [see also BG 7.25]. (17) What man of learning who is personally well-known with the spiritual knowledge would in his mercy engage someone else in looking for that again, after which that person, living in ignorance like a blind man addicted to material cunning, is following the wrong path? (18) Such a person may not be a relative, a father, a mother, a spouse, nor may he be the reality, the spiritual master, the deity of worship or the one who delivers from the repetition of birth and death. (19) It is in this embodiment of Mine, which inconceivably is of the eternal, that indeed My heart is set to the dharma, the devotional, and My back is turned away to the adharma, the non-devotional; therefore truly call the civilized Me the Best One, Rishabha. (20) Therefore, you all, born from My heart, try with a pure intelligence to be of service to the most exalted, that brother Bharata of yours ruling over the people.

(21-22) Of the living and nonliving, are far superior to the plants those beings who move around; of them are those who developed intelligence better and better than them are the human beings of whom the ones of the spirit, the meditators of S'iva, are superior. Better than them are the singers of heaven [the Gandharvas] and superior to them are the perfected ones [the Siddhas], above whom are found the superhuman beings [the Kinnaras]. The godly ones are better than the unenlightened and of the direct sons of Brahmâ, like Daksha, led by Indra, is Lord S'iva the best; above him we find originating from Lord Brahmâ he, My devotee, [the brahmin,] to whose divinity of being twiceborn, I am the Lord. (23) No other entity compares to the brahmin nor do I see, o learned ones, anything superior to him, through whom I with satisfaction eat from the food that by the people with faith and love was offered in proper ceremony - not so much from food that that way was offered in the fire. (24) Of the [vedic] body fed by the eternal of My spirit that is free from material contamination, has one in this world the [eight brahminical qualities of the] mode of supreme goodness [sattva], the purification [pavitra], the control over the mind [s'ama] and the senses [dama], the truthfulness [satya], the mercy [anugraha], the penance [tapasya] and the tolerance [titikshâ], wherein the realization of God is found. (25) Oh, of what need could you [My sons] be for anyone else but for those who, without needs and possessions in devotional service unto Me, are able to bestow heaven, liberation and enjoyment from Me and even the unlimited of a strength and opulence higher than the highest? (26) My dear sons, with you having the clear vision that I reside in all of them, you should at all times be of respect for each and everything, knowing that with respecting them you indirectly are of respect unto Me. (27) Engage all mind, words and sight of your active and receptive senses directly in My worship, because otherwise a person will never be able to free himself from the great illusion which is Yama's deathtrap. '

(28) S'rî S'uka said: 'After for the sake of the people personally instructing this way His sons in spite of their being highly cultured, did the great personality, the well-wisher and Supreme Lord of all who was celebrated as the Best One, Rishabha, place Bharata, the eldest of His hundred sons and topmost devotee and follower of the divine order, on the throne for ruling over the planet. Of the great wise, the best of human beings free from desire who no longer work for the profit and who are characterized by devotional service, spiritual knowledge and detachment, is this the instruction of the duties. Although He remained with what He was at home, accepted He, only physically, like a madman with his hair unkempt, the sky for His dress and roamed He, keeping the vedic fire within, far and wide from Brahmâvarta. (29) Although He, idle, blind, deaf, dumb and like a ghost and a madman, to the people appeared like someone unconcerned about the world [an avadhûta], did He with the vow of silence keep Himself from speaking. (30) Here and there passing through cities, villages, mines, lands, gardens, valley-communities, military encampments, cowsheds, farms, restingplaces for pilgrims, hills and forests, hermitages and so on, was He surrounded by bad people and flies and was He like an elephant coming from the forest beaten away and threatened, urinated and spit upon, thrown into the dust, with the stones and the stool, farted at and given bad names; but He didn't care about that because He, from His understanding how the body relates to the soul, knew that this dwelling place of a body that is called real, was not a habitat fit for a gentleman; instead He remained situated in His personal glory in denial of the 'I 'and 'Mine' and wandered unperturbed alone all over the earth. (31) With His very delicate hands, feet, chest, long arms, shoulders, neck and face etc.; with the lovely nature of His well-proportioned limbs, His natural smile, beautiful lotus petal like graceful mouth, the marvel of His reddish widespread eyes and the great beauty of His forehead, ears, neckline, nose and expressive lip, of which His face was like a festival to all household women in spreading all around the awakening of Cupid in the heart, appeared He, having His great abundance of curly brown hair matted, dirty and neglected, in the body as if He was haunted by a ghost. (32) When He, the Supreme Lord saw that the people in general were in direct opposition to His yoga did He to counteract that karma take to the behavior of a python lying down, indeed chewing his food and accepting his drinks, passing stool and urinating, while He smeared His body rolling in the excrement thus. (33) His smell of the stool was of such a good fragrance indeed that the air of the countryside for ten yojanas around received a pleasant aroma. (34) Thus by His activities moving, standing, sitting and lying down with the cows, the crows and the deer He also did eat, drink and pass urine exactly like cows, crows and deer do. (35) So practicing the various ways of mystic yoga did the Supreme Lord, the Master of Enlightenment, Rishabha, incessantly enjoy the Supreme in great bliss. By His fundamental indifference He achieved in the Supreme Self, the complete perfection of the unlimited of the whole of opulence and symptoms of loving emotions unto the Supreme Personality of Vâsudeva situated in the heart of all living beings; the full of the mystic powers like traveling through the air, moving with lightening speed, the ability to stay unseen, the ability to enter the bodies of others, the power to see without difficulty things from afar and other perfections [siddhis, see also 2-2-22; 2-9-17; 3-15-45; 3-25-37] thus achieved, o King Parîkchit, He in His heart never directly accepted.

* The five main loving relationships or rasa's in which with the Lord's all higher human emotions are experienced are  the neutral one (santa), the servant-master relation (dâsya), the relation of frienship (sakhya), the parent-child relation (vâtsalya) and the amorous relation (srngâra) .  



Chapter 6

Lord Rishabhadeva's Activities

(1) The king said: 'O Supreme One, by those self-satisfied souls of whom the seed of fruitive action is burnt by the spiritual knowledge that was won by the practice of yoga, are mystic powers automatically achieved; how can they possibly be of any future hindrance? '

(2) The sage said: 'You're quite right, but in this world does one either, just like a cunning hunter doesn't, not directly put faith in the mind that [like game] always runs off. (3) And so, one says, one should at no time make friends with the so very restless mind; from the practice of for a long time placing too much faith in it was the austerity of even the greatest ones [like Lord S'iva or sage Saubhari] disturbed. (4) Like a husband with a wife charmed by competitors, will aspirants of yoga relying on the mind always of lust be paving the way for the enemies following in its wake. (5) So, which man that has learned his lesson, would indeed confide in the mind that is the breeding ground for the lust anger, pride, greed, lamentation, illusion, fear that all together bind one to one's karma? (6) Although He [Rishabha] was the head of all kings and rulers of this universe, acted He along this line of reasoning in the dress, language and character of an avadûtha [5-5-29] as if He was stupid, concealing the Supreme of His Lordship in teaching the yogic forsaking by His own personal vehicle of time; as if He were a normal mortal that tries to give up on the physical, did He Himself to the Supreme of the Soul, unhindered by the illusory of matter, always see Himself from within the love above all vice and ended He His Royal pastimes. (7) Of Him thus we saw the apparent physical presence, the driven appearance in this illusory world, of the body of Him, the Supreme Lord Rishabhadeva who Himself was free from any vital interest. He on His own traveled the lands of South India: Konka, Venka and Kuthaka in the province of Karnâta, and reached a forest nearby Kuthakâcala. There with a handful of stones in His mouth, He just like a madman wandered around naked and with scatted hair. (8) With a fierce forest fire blazing all around that was caused by the friction of bamboo's tossed by the force of the wind, was His body then in that forest burned to ashes. (9) Hearing of His pastimes of being free from all ritual and custom, took the king of Konka, Venka and Kuthaka who carried the name Arhat [the Jain, the venerable] to an imitation of them; bewildered by an increase of irreligious life forboding the arrival of the Kali-Yuga Age of Quarrel he gave up on the safe path of the religion that would ward of all fear and adopted a wrong heretic view in defiance of the vedic injunctions introducing most foolishly a concoction of His own. (10) By such practices will the most pitiable among men in the age of Kali, bewildered by the external energy of God, void of character, cleanliness and the rules and regulations of the personal duty, sworn to impiety and in neglect of the divinity be holding on to their desires, with imaginary principles of austerity like staying unclean, not washing their mouth and plucking out their hair. From the Kali-age abundance of godlessness will those whose pure consciousness is destroyed become almost entirely blasphemous towards the strict brahmin and his vedic culture, the ceremonies of sacrifice and the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His devotees. (11) Those who are certain in deviating from the eternal principles of the religion with a practice based on their own speculations, feel themselves encouraged by blinded predecessors and are sure to fall down in the darkness of ignorance being blinded themselves [compare B.G. 16-16, 16-23 ]. (12) This descend of the Lord was there for the ones overwhelmed by passion so that they may follow the right principles of enlightenment. (13) Of Him do the ones who are after liberation chant the following verses: 'O, of this earth with its seven seas and many lands on its continents, is this land [of Bhârata-varsha, India] the most meritorious; their people sing of the all-auspicious qualities of Murâri [Krishna as the enemy of the foolish one, Mura] in His many incarnations.' (14) 'O what to say about the dynasty of king Priyavrata wherein the Original Person, the Supreme Personality descended as an incarnation; He, the Unparalleled One executed the religious duty which is the cause of the end of fruitive labor.' (15) 'Who else is there, who even with the mind, is able to follow the example of Him, the unborn One, who renounced as being insubstantial all desires for the perfections of yoga, which mystic yogîs, so eager to serve, do aspire.'

(16) Thus I have expounded on the pure activities of the Supreme Lord named Rishabha, the highest spiritual teacher for the people in general, the godly, the brahmins and the cows; he who following the footsteps of the great, with a growing faith and devotion attentively hears or speaks to others of this foremost and greatest shelter of auspiciousness who destroys all sins of every living being, will no doubt factually have made a beginning with an unflinching devotion in both the modes of listening and speaking, unto Him, the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva. (17) In that does the soul of advancement incessantly bathe itself in order to constantly be freed from suffering the troublesome conditions in material existence, although on itself that so surely by happiness obtained uninterrupted liberation, that greatest of all achievements, certainly is not what one is after, because in relating to the Supreme Lord one is complete in all one has striven for. (18) Dear King, He, the worshipable deity of the Yadus, is no doubt, your dearest friend and master of the lineage; to be sure, He sometimes even acted as your servant and thus my best, isn't He indeed the Supreme Lord Mukunda of the yoga of devotion who at all times delivers, liberating all the ones engaged in service? (19) Always after His real identity, complete in Himself with no further desires, was by His mercy of expanding His activities in the material field, the true meaning of a life of fearlessness with the real self communicated to the intelligence of men that had been asleep for so long; all respect unto Him, that Supreme Lord Rishabhadeva.


Chapter 7

The Activities of King Bharata

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'When Bharata ['the one maintained'], being a most exalted devotee, on instigation of his father had made his mind up to rule over the surface of the globe, did he, as he took over the throne, marry the daughter of Vis'varûpa, Pañcajanî. (2) Indeed, like one, identified with the body does find the five objects of the senses, did he in her beget five sons, Sumati, Râshthrabhrita, Sudars'ana, Âvarana and Dhûmraketu, who were entirely alike himself. (3) This part of the world called Ajanâbha [referring to king Nâbhi, see 5-3] was from the beginning of his rule by them thus celebrated as Bhârata-varsha [the land of Bharata, now India]. (4) He, being very advanced in knowledge, was, governing with a caring heart, as great a ruler as his father and grandfather were, keeping the citizens and himself to each his respective duty. (5) He also worshiped the Supreme Lord by great and small sacrifices with and without animals; with faith were in full or partially performed agni-hotra-, dars'a-, pûrnamâsa-, câturmâsya-, pas'u- and soma-rasa-yajña's, that according the regulative principles practically always stood under the direction of four priests (*). (6) Always thinking of Vâsudeva, the Supreme Lord, did he, by the vedic hymns in that mind freed from lust and anger, consider all the different demigods, the recipients of the results, the ingredients of the offering and himself as the sacrificer, as all being part of the Original Person, who is their Controller, Doer and Origin, when the expert priests with all supplementary rites began to perform the various sacrifices; whatever on the long term would be the result of such sacrifices that in the name of the religion were brought unto the Supreme Spirit in the beyond, the Enjoyer of all sacrifices who is responsible for all the divinities. (7) Thus in the purest of service was he of the purest of goodness unto the Supersoul within the heart of the body, unto the impersonal spirit of Brahman and unto Bhagavân, the Supreme Lord, Vâsudeva, the greatest of the Person whose form is recognized by the S'rîvatsa mark on the chest, the Kaustubha gem, the flowergarland, the disc, the conchshell, the club and other symbols. On the highest level known by His shining personal form is He, once having appeared as an indelible image in the heart of the devotee, of the force of increasing the devotion day after day. (8) Thus for a countless number of millennia was the wealth enjoyed that he, having it received from his forefathers, at the end of his rule according the laws of Manu had ascertained for his sons; having personally divided the diversity of the opulence among them, he left that abode of the ancestral home and went to the Pulaha-âs'rama in Hardwar. (9) It is there that even today one can be certain that the Supreme Lord Hari residing in that place, by His transcendental affection for His own devotees becomes visible as is desired from one's devotion. (10) At that place are all hermitages everywhere sanctified by the river named the Cakra-nadi (the Gandakî) from which one sees the concentric circles that like a navel can be observed on top and below [of the black oval pebbles that serve as objects of worship, the so called S'âlagrâma-sîla's]. (11) All alone in the fields of that meditation resort did he by offerings of roots, bulbs and fruits with water, twigs, tulasî-leaves and all kinds of flowers, perform worship unto the Supreme Lord and was he freed from all desire for material enjoyment with a steady increase of the transcendental tranquility and satisfaction that he obtained. (12) By that constant practice of service to the original personality of the Supreme Lord melted by the load of the incessantly increasing attachment to Him, the laxity of his heart; through the force of the transcendental bliss stood the hairs on his body on end and sprang of the intense longing tears of love to his eyes that blurred his vision. Thus meditating the reddish lotus feet of the Lord was there by dint of his bhakti-yoga, an increase spreading everywhere of the highest and deepest spiritual enrapture in the heart, the lake wherein immersed - although his intelligence was working for the Lord - he could no longer remember the regulative service. (13) In this way vowed to the Supreme Lord, did he, dressed in a deerskin and with his mass of brown, curly matted, hair, wet of bathing three times a day, so beautiful in worship of the sungod (**) honor the Original Personality, by paying homage at sunrise reciting the following: (14) 'Minding this created universe, beyond passion, illumining the entire world there is the self-effulgence, the grace of the divinity that fulfills the desires of all the devoted; time and again entering [as the sun, as the avatâra] is the living entity supervised that hankers after material pleasure - all this [my respects] to the intelligence that moves all!'  

 *: Such sacrifices are impossible in this age due to the scarcity of expert brahmins or ritvijah who are able to take the responsibility. In the absence of these, is the sankîrtana-yajña singing of the holy names recommended. 

**: The deity of the sun is by the common Hindu nowadays worshiped by means of the Gâyatrî mantra, one of the most important mantras of purification and liberation kindred to the one expressed in this chapter by Bharata Mahârâj: om bhûr bhuvah svah, tat savitur varenyam, bhargo devasya dhîmahi, dhyo yonah prachodayat -, a prayer meaning:

The original form of the body,
the lifeforce and the supreme abode;
that source of life most excellent,
that divine luster we meditate -
may this light illumine our intellect.



Chapter 8

 The Rebirth of Bharata Mahârâja

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Once upon a time having taken a bath in the great Gandakî, having done his daily duties and chanted his mantras, sat he [Bharata] for a few minutes down at the bank of the river. (2) O King, there he saw a single doe that because of thirst was driven to the river. (3) Precisely when it to its great satisfaction drank of the water, arose from very nearby the tumultuous roar of the king of the jungle that is so fearful to all living beings. (4) Hearing that great noise was the she-deer, always fearful of her life looking about, very afraid of the intrusion of the lion, and upset with restless eyes without having quenched her thirst properly, she terrified all of a sudden took a leap over the river. (5) Of being pregnant slipped, of its out of fear forcefully jumping up, her baby out of her womb and fell it down in the flowing water. (6) From the miscarriage of jumping and being afraid, did the black doe, separated from the flock and plagued by exhaustion fall down in some cave, because of which it died. (7) Seeing that deer calf then, separated from its kind, helplessly floating away in the waves, took the wise king Bharata, like a friend thinking it an orphan, to his âs'rama. (8) To this deer he grew greatly attached in accepting it as his own kid, every day feeding it, protecting it, raising it and petting it. Within a couple of days was indeed, giving up on his personal care for himself, his duties and worship of the Original Person, for sure the complete of his practice of detachment destroyed. (9) 'Alas! [he thought to himself], is by the Controller turning the wheel of time, this one deprived of its kin, friends and relatives and has it finding me for its shelter, me only as a father, mother, brother and like belonging to the herd. Surely having no one else it puts great faith in the person of me to rely on and is it fully dependent on me for its learning, sustenance, love and protection; without a grudge I should know what the fault is of neglecting someone who has taken shelter and act accordingly. (10) Indeed is it surely of great importance that the civilized, the saintly, even though complete in their renunciation, are, as friends of the helpless, committed to the principles, even at the cost of their own self-interest.'

(11) Thus grown attached he sat, lied down, walked, bathed, ate etc. with the young animâl and became in his heart captivated by affection. (12) When entering the forest for flowers, firewood, kus'a-grass, leaves, fruits and roots and going to collect water, did he, doubtful of wolves, dogs and other animals of prey, always take the deer with him. (13) On his way did he, with a mind and heart loaded with love, carry it on his shoulder here and there, being fond of such a youngster, and kept he it fondling it on his lap or on his chest when sleeping, thus deriving great pleasure. (14) In worship, at times he would get up although he was not finished, just to look after the deer calf and then did the master of the domain derive great satisfaction from wishing it all his blessings saying: 'O my dear calf let there be unto you all the best'. (15) At times he was so concerned that he got upset like a piteous miserly man who has lost his riches; with great anxiety in his heart, agitated from being separated from the deer-calf, he was in a state of constantly thinking of it only and was thus certain of running into the greatest illusion while saying: (16) 'Oh, alas! my dear child, that orphan of a deer, must be very distressed; it will return again to me putting faith in me as being a perfectly gentle person and as one of its own kind - it will forget about me as being such an ill-behaved cheater, such a barbarian who has a mind that is no good at all. (17) Will I be seeing it again unafraid walking around my âs'rama nibbling the grass under divine protection? (18) Or would the poor creature have met with one of the many wolves or dogs, or a group of hogs or a wandering tiger? (19) Alas, the Supreme Lord of the whole Universe, the vedic threefold to the better of all, is [in the form of the sun] already setting; and still has this baby that the mother entrusted to me not returned! (20) Would that princely deer of mine really return and please me who gave up on the pious exercise; it was so cute to behold - pleasing it in a way that befits its kind drove away all unhappiness! (21) Playing with me while I with closed eyes feigned meditation, it would angry of love, trembling and timidly come to touch my body with the tips of its horns soft as waterdrops. (22) When I scolded it for polluting the things placed on kus'agrass for sacrifice, it immediately in great fear stopped its play, just like the son of a saint sitting in complete restraint of its senses. (23) Oh, what practice of penance by the most austere on this planet can bring the earth the wealth of the sweet, small, beautiful and most auspicious soft imprints of the hooves of this most unhappy creature in pain of being lost! For me they indicate the way to achieve the wealth of her lands that, on all sides adorned by them, are turned into places of sacrifice to the gods and the brahmins desirous on the path to heaven! (24) Can it be that the most powerful moon that is so kind to the unhappy, out of compassion for its fearing the great beast of prey, is now protecting this motherless deer-child which strayed from its protective refuge? (25) Or it may, by its rays, so peaceful and cool, out of love, be splashing water as good as nectar from its mouth, giving my heart, that red lotus flower unto which the deer was so submissive, comfort, as the heat of the separation is burning with the flames of a forestfire.'

(26) In this way was he, whose heart was aggrieved with a mind deriving from bad karma, carried away by the impossibility of a son that looked like a deer and had he fallen down from the exercises of yoga, the penance of yoga and the devotional service towards the Supreme Lord. What possible way could he, so attached to the body of a different species, a deer calf, directly achieve the goal of life with that kind of a hindrance - he who previously had given up his sons born from his heart, although that was difficult to do. By that obstacle of him thus being obstructed in the execution of his yoga, was king Bharata, so absorbed in maintaining, pleasing, protecting and fondling a baby deer, neglecting his own soul and saw he that very rashly the inevitable of his time had come like a snake entering the hole of a mouse. (27) At that time giving up this world he indeed saw at his side lamenting like his own son the deer his mind was absorbed in; with his body dying with the deer, he thereafter got the body of a deer, but unlike with other births, was the remembrance of what had happened before at his death not destroyed. (28) In that birth, as a consequence of his past devotional activities, constantly remembering what the cause was of having gotten the body of a deer, he repenting said: (29) 'Oh what a misery! I have fallen from the way of life of the self-realized, although I had given up my sons and home, lived solitary in a sacred forest as one perfect to the soul taking shelter of the Supersoul of all beings and was constantly listening to and thinking about Him, the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva, chanting, worshiping and remembering, filling all my hours being absorbed; by time does a mind fixed in such a situation turn into a mind fully established to the eternal, but again, fallen in affection for a deer-young, I am a great fool far from that! '

(30) Thus being this way silent to itself did [he as] the deer unmotivated give up its mother and turned it from the Kâlañjara mountain where it was born, back again to the place, to the âs'rama of Pulastya and Pulaha in the village called S'âlagrâma, where he before had worshiped the Supreme Lord so dear to the great saints living there in complete detachment. (31) In that place, eating fallen leaves and herbs, he awaited his time in the ever company of the Supersoul, and existed he, constantly alert to bad association l, only in consideration of the end of the cause of his deer body, the body that he, bathing it in the water of that holy place, ultimately gave up.


Chapter 9

The Supreme Character of Jada Bharata

(1-2) S'rî S'uka said: 'After having given up his life in the body of a deer did Bharata, the most exalted devotee and most honored of all saintly kings, obtain his last body as a brahmin so is said. As the male child of a twin brother and sister he was born from the second wife of some brahmin of the line of saint Angirâ who was endowed with the qualities of a perfect control over mind and senses, of penance, vedic study and recitation, of renunciation, satisfaction, tolerance, kindness, knowledge, of no envy, and of spiritual happiness in the wisdom of the soul; with his first wife he had nine sons all equal to him in education, character, behavior, beauty and magnanimity. (3) Also in that birth by the special mercy of the Lord remembering his previous lives, was he, being greatly apprehensive of falling down again in association with his own kind, always afraid of being obstructed on the path of devotional service and kept he his mind close to his soul by always thinking of the two lotusfeet of the Supreme Lord, hearing and remembering the descriptions of the qualities which vanquish the bondage to fruitive labor; but to the local people he showed himself as being of a mad, dull and blind character [of which he is called Jada]. (4) His brahmin father who for sure affectionately felt obliged to his son, thought that as a father to a son he should teach him, although against his will, that indeed the regulative principles should be followed so that until the end of his student life he again, as one of the sacred thread, would practice the duties of cleanliness of the purification process as prescribed by the s'âstras. (5) But also before his father he acted as if he could not understand a thing of what was instructed. For four months during the summer wishing to teach him the vedic mantras as also the Gâyatrî headed by Omkâra did he, despite of the full study, not succeed in having him completely mastering them. (6) Thus thinking that his son, although he didn't like it, by himself should be fully instructed in all the cleanliness, vedic study, vows, principles, sacrifice and service to the guru that belongs to the celibate state [the brahmacarya-âs'rama], was the brahmin, in that considering his son to be his life and soul, himself heavily attached to his home indeed so that in the course of the in its turn not so forgetful time he had to take leave of the world as a man frustrated by the unfit obstinacy of his son. (7) After that did the youngest wife, of whose womb the twins were born, entrust the care for them to the first wife and followed she her husband to the sphere of him in a next life [Patiloka].

(8) After the death of the father did Jada Bharata's stepbrothers, who of the three Vedas were well settled in finding their ways with the rituals and with their dulled minds did not understand how high he stood, stop the endeavor to teach their brother. (9-10) When he was addressed as being mad, dull, deaf and dumb by the two-legged, animâl-like materialists, he used to also use likewise words in reply. He did the things that he by force was summoned to do. He used to eat whatever small or large quantity of palatable or tasteless food that he got by begging, by wages or that came on its own accord. He never lived to please his senses as he had forever stopped to live for the material cause. By himself he had accomplished the transcendental blissful vision as one in knowledge of the true self who with the dual causes of happiness and distress, summer and winter, wind and rain, did not identify himself with the body. Firm of limbs did he, strong like a bull, never cover his body. Not bathing he was dirty from lying on the ground and he never massaged his body. With his loins covered by dirty cloth and with a of dirt darkened sacred thread, he was like a non-manifest gem in his spiritual splendor. He wandered around disrespected with ignorant folk calling him, as a brahmin of birth, a mere friend of them ['brahma-bandu']. (11) As he only looked for work to get in exchange food from others, did even his stepbrothers engage him in agricultural work in the fields - something with which he had no idea of what should be leveled or be uneven or where he had to pile things up. Usually only eating broken rice, oil cakes, chaff, worm-eaten grains, or burnt rice that stuck to the pot, it was nevertheless all nectar to him.

(12) Following, after a certain period of time, there came some plundering leader of the working class who was looking for a human son no better than an animâl to begin a sacrifice to the goddess Bhadra Kâlî. (13) The animâl-type he had, had by chance escaped and his followers on their way to find it could, in the midst of the night in the middle of the darkness, not catch the animâlistic one. Ordained by providence they stumbled upon the brahmin son from the line of Angirâ, who from an elevated position was guarding the fields against deer, wild pigs and such. (14) Thereupon finding him to be of a suitable character did they, with bright and shining faces for understanding the completion of their masters work, take him, bound tightly with ropes, to the temple of the goddess. (15) Then did the followers of the dacoit, according their own customs bathe him, put him in new clothes, cover his body with ornaments, smear him with sandalwood pulp and garland him in making him, as the animâl-like man, ready for the sacrifice. Vibrating songs, prayers, drums and bugles, they seated him before the goddess Kâlî, fully dressed up and properly fed, with incense, lamps, strings of flowers, parched grains, twigs and sprouts, fruits and other articles of worship. (16) Next did the priest of that dacoit leader in preparation for offering a flow of blood from the animâl-man to the deity of Bhadra Kâlî, take up a fearful razor sharp sword, consecrating it with the appropriate mantras. (17) Thus was by those contemptible types, who of a passionate and ignorant nature were materialistically befooled and driven by minds full of imagination, the heroic lot of the Supreme Lord, the brahmins, disrespected, in having their own way following a wrong course. Proceeding with a lust for violence against others they acted cruelly directly against a born brahmin, a son of spiritual wisdom who had no enemies and was a well-wisher to all. At the last minute though indeed, did the goddess Bhadra Kâlî, seeing what was about to happen in conflict with the law and against the will of the Lord, break out with a burning physical appearance of an overly bright, unbearable, spiritual effulgence. (18) Infuriated in utter intolerance she displayed her features of raised eyebrows, crooked teeth, bloodshot eyes, an agitated fearful face as if she wanted to destroy the whole universe and a frightening laugh. Coming forth from the altar, of the great anger released, separated she with the same blade the heads from of all the sinful offenders and drank she together with her associates, the blood oozing from the necks as a very hot intoxicating beverage. Overwhelmed by all the intoxicating drinking did she with her following, loudly singing and dancing, then play ball using the heads for a sport.

(19) When one this way in envy indeed is out of order with the great, will one consequently for oneself get this as a result. (20) Oh, Vishnudatta ['protected by Vishnu'; Parîkchit], this is not a great wonder to the ones not perplexed who, of no enmity and of goodness to all, by the Supreme Lord of the invincible time who carries the best of all weapons [the Sudarshana disc], directly are fully liberated from the very strong and tight knot in the heart of a false bodily concept of life. Even though threatened by decapitation, have those liberated souls and devotees who are of full surrender and who are protected at His lotus feet, nothing to fear and are they never upset by these kinds of moods of the Divinity.



Chapter 10

Jada Bharata meets Mahârâja Rahûgana

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'So it became that Rahûgana ['he who outshines the sun'], the ruler of Sindhu and Sauvîra, while he was on his way, on the bank of the river Ikshumatî needed another palanquin carrier and had sent out their chief to look for a suitable person. His search led by chance to the twice born son Jada Bharatha whom, being such a stout young man who with his firm limbs was as strong as an ass, he chose considering him capable of carrying the load. Although he was not fit for the job, carried he, the great soul, the palanquin, being forced to it as was the wont. (2) When doing this was the twiceborn son, constantly looking three feet ahead [not to step on ants], all the time out of pace with the others and was thus the palanquin shaking. Rahûgana, realizing this then said to the men carrying: 'Oh carriers, please walk in pace! For what reason is this palanquin carried so uneven?'

(3) They, hearing their master speak with reproach, informed him apprehensively that that was due to the fourth carrier: (4) 'Oh, it is not, o God of Man, that we, always obedient to your orders, are in neglect. We certainly do the best we can, but it is this new man that recently has been contracted to work with us with whom we aren't able to do our work of carrying: he is rather slow!'

(5) Although from the intimations certain that it had come to be so as indeed a fault of one of them, did king Rahûgana, hearing the fearful words of the servants, in spite his political experience, from his kshatriya nature slightly give in to the violence of anger. To him whose spiritual effulgence, as a vedic fire covered by ashes, could not be clearly distinguished, he said in a mind full of passion: (6) 'What a trouble it is alas my brother! All alone on such a long journey you certainly must have gotten very tired. Nor is your cooperative, firm body very strong; you must be troubled by old age yourself my friend! For sure are these other coworkers of no avail to you'.

Thus he sarcastically criticized him severely, but no false belief of 'I' and 'mine' interposed with him carrying on in silence the palanquin as before; as one on the spiritual platform he was of that particular disposition to physical things as having a specific self-spirited body that is produced from a mix of the qualities and workload of ignorant matter. (7) Thereupon again being shaken of the uneven carrying of his palanquin said Rahûgana getting very angry: 'O fool, what nonsense is this! You, living corpse, ignore me overriding my reproach! Are you out of your mind? Like Yamarâja with the common folk, I will teach you a lesson so that you will know where you should stand out here!'

(8) Though having poured over him such a load of nonsense by the out of passion and ignorance rebuking one who thought he could rule as a God of Man, dearmost votary of the Lord and learned scholar, did that selfrealized brahmin who was the friend of all living beings with the poise of a master of yoga, slightly smile like being relieved of a burden and spoke he to the not so experienced ruler as follows. (9) The brahmin said: 'What you so clearly stated is of no contradiction if I could say mine to that body, o great hero, and to that carrier of the load; if it were that to be obtained strong and stout to the path, then I must tell you that that, to the person of selfrealization residing within the body, is no subject matter of discussion. (10) Being strong and stout, skinny or weak, in pain with the physical or the mind, of hunger, thirsty, of fear, of quarrel, desire, old age and of sensual motivation; to be of anger, falsehood, illusion and lamentation are with this body things of the one born, but for me they for sure do not exist. (11) To be a living soul bound to death [to be a 'living corpse'] is settled by nature o King, everything has a beginning and an end; but, respected one, if one sees the unchangeable in the things of transformation - of which we see servants and masters - then one speaks of doing the right thing in yoga. (12) Discriminating to the person is a narrow vision and apart from convention I do not see what other use it would have; who is that master and who is the one to be controlled? Nevertheless, o King, what may I do for you? (13) Of me being myself, o King, you gathered that I was a disheveled, mad ignoramus; of what use would it then be to receive punishment from you; how can one correct a crazy, stupid person - it is like grinding flour!'

(14) S'rî S'uka said: 'Consequently responding to all the words that had fallen, arrested the great sage so calm and peaceful his case - to the cause of matters strange to the soul he accepted things as a consequence of what he had enjoyed and again, to put the acquired karma to an end, he as before continued to carry the king his palanquin. (15) O best of the Pându-dynasty, he, the ruler of Sindhu and Sauvîra, indeed was also of great faith concerning matters of control relating to the Absolute Truth; thus qualified hearing what the twice-born one said of that which eradicates the falsehood in the heart and which is approved by all of yoga and its culture, he hastily got down and fell head-on flat on the ground at the lotus feet to be excused for his offense. Thus giving up his false claim of being the king to be respected he said: (16) 'Who of all the twice born are you, moving around in this world under cover? I see you wear a sacred thread. Of which forsaker of the world are you the disciple? From where and for what purpose have you come here? Are you, as one of pure goodness, here for our benefit or maybe not? (17) I am not afraid of Indra's thunderbolt nor do I fear S'iva's trident or punishment from Yamarâja, nor do I fear the heat of solar rays, the moon, the wind or the weapons of Kuvera; what I fear most is offending the brahmin class. (18) Therefore, as one fully detached concealing the power of wisdom, as one moving around abiding in the beyond, please speak to us, as none of us, o saint, is able to comprehend to any extend the words of yogic meaning you uttered. (19) I thereto indeed ask you, master of yoga, o best preceptor of the saintly scholars of the reality of the soul, about that which in this world is the best engagement, the most secure shelter, o direct incarnation of the Lord of spiritual knowledge [see Kapila C3-25 ]. (20) As Him indeed is your good self traveling this world, looking into the motives of the people here and that without showing your real identity; may I know how we, being bound to family affairs missing the intelligence, nevertheless can take to the goal of the masters of yoga? (21) One knows of fatigue acting a certain way to the soul indeed, like the way you move carrying the palanquin; I guess that, following in respect of the phenomenal, it is as much proof of something non material, as having a container for water when there is no water at all. (22) Because of the heat under a cooking pot, becomes the milk put into it hot and because of the heated milk is the hard kernel of the rice in it cooked; [so too] from being connected to the senses there is the experience of fatigue and such by the soul in compliance with the matter. (23) The governor doing good to his subjects is, as a human ruler over the citizens, someone who carries out orders indeed; not grinding what is already ground, is one in one's own occupational duty of worship for the Infallible One, for whom performing one is released from all kinds of sin. (24) Therefore from your good self true in penance, unto me, this maddened and proud God of Man, kindly show your causeless mercy as a friend, a friend of the distressed, so that I can find relief from the sin of being in contempt with a such great personality like you. (25) You, friend of the Friend of All, as one removed from the bodily concept of life, are not put off balance; but even though as powerful as Lord S'iva [S'ûlapâni], will a person like me, by my practice of getting over the great, certainly soon be destroyed.'


Chapter 11

Jada Bharata Instructs King Rahûgana

(1) The brahmin [Jada Bharata] said: 'From lacking experience you do not speak of the most important in use of the terms of those who have the experience; these matters of mundane and social behavior one should in fact discuss with the intelligent who do have such a refined sense of truth. (2) Because of this, o King, is indeed among those, who notably by the Vedas [veda-vâdî] take interest in the endlessly increasing concern with the rituals of a material household, as good as never the actual spiritual science [tattva-vâda] found that manifests itself so clearly with the advanced of purity. (3) Although sufficiently known with the words, is the very exalted direct vision of the real purpose of the Veda not theirs, as the happiness of a worldly life for example is like a dream of which one naturally will come to realize that it is unreal. (4) As long as the mind of someone is under the control of the mode of passion, of goodness or of darkness, do actions, auspicious or otherwise, by the senses of action and perception, expand like with an elephant that is roaming freely. (5) That mind endowed with many a desire is, driven by the modes of nature, attached to material happiness; as the chief of the sixteen elements of the material existence [the physical, the active and the perceptual ones plus the mind] does it, estranged, wander around in names [in upâdhis - suppositions] and does it manifest with bodies of a higher or lower quality in different forms [compare B.G. 3:27]. (6) The unhappiness, happiness and severe immoderation obtained in the course of time as a result, creates the mind embracing the material nature which tricks the entity itself into the vicious circle of material action and reaction. (7) Therefore do the learned ones speak of the mind as the cause of being absorbed in the natural modes - with the qualities amiss - in higher or lower conditions of life, of which the for that time manifested outer symptoms of the living entity of being fat or skinny e.g. are the proof. (8) The attraction to the modes makes up the conditioning to the material world, but when the mind of the living entity is there for the ultimate good of being above them is he as a lamp; a wick enjoying clarified butter burning improperly no doubt leads to a flame with smoke, but doing so properly in bondage to the fuel of karma is the flaming wayward mind in contrast evidence of the clear reality.

(9) For sure there are the eleven of the mind of the five senses of action, the five senses of knowing and the insidiousness [or the falsehood of the ego, the identification with them]; of the different activities, the different objects of the senses and the place where they occur - of those eleven functions say the learned, o hero, that they are the fields of activity [see B.G. 13: 1-4]. (10) Smell, form, touch, taste and hearing [the knowing senses]; evacuation, sexual intercourse, movement, speech and manual control [the senses of action] with the eleventh element of accepting the idea of 'mine', thus gives the 'I' to this body of which some have said that it is the twelfth element. (11) By the elements, by nature itself, by the culture, by the karma and by time are all these eleven of the mind modified into the hundreds, thousands and millions who do not follow from one another nor from themselves, but from the knower of the field. (12) The knower of the field purified sees all these different activities of the mind of the unpurified individual entity in action, that from time immemorial are created by the external energy; sometimes manifest [as in waking] and sometimes not manifested [as in dreams]. (13-14) The knower of the field is [then] the all pervading, omnipresent, authentic person; the original one, who is seen and heard of as existing by His own light; who is never born, who is the transcendental one, the One Nârâyana wherein all beings rest, the Supreme Lord. the One Vâsudeva harbour of consciousness; He who by His own potency in the soul exists as the controller, of just as well the air as the nonmoving and moving entities; He is the Supersoul of expansion that entered and thus controls as the One of Fortune in the beyond who is the shelter and knower of everyone in every field; the vital self that appeared in this material world [see also B.G 9: 10 & 15: 15].

(15) As long as the embodied one, o King, is not free from this influence of the material world, by in freedom from attachments being awakened to the order knowing the spiritual truth and conquering the six enemies [the mind and the senses of perception], will he till that time wander around in this material world. (16) As long as one has this mind, that as the symptom of the soul its fixation for the living entity is the breeding ground for all the worldy miseries of lamentation, illusion, disease, attachment, greed and enmity, does one get the consequence of egotism. (17) This mind, that formidable enemy, is very powerful, growing so from neglect; he, who free from illusion, applies the weapon of worshiping the lotusfeet of the spiritual teacher and the Lord, will conquer the falsified personal that has covered the soul.'



Chapter 12

The Conversation Between Mahârâja Rahûgana and Jada Bharata

(1) Rahûgana said: 'My respectful obeisances unto you as someone emanated from the embodiment [of Rishabhadeva, see C.5, ch.4] of the Original Cause, as one that by his true self despises all the separateness; my respects for you who as a forsaker of the world, in the form of a friend of the twice-born, has hidden his realization of the eternal. (2) For someone feverish distressed by disease you are alike the antidote, for someone scorched by the sun you are alike cool water, for someone like me, who's vision in this gross body has been bitten by the serpent of pride, are you the elixir of nectar. (3) Now, please explain to me, as I am burning of curiosity, it again in simple words, so that I may clearly understand the yoga of selfrealization; things of mine thereto not clear I will submit to you later. (4) That which you have said, o Master of Yoga, of what clearly can be distinguished as a result of fruitive action [the 'fatigue', see 5: 10-21], is in truth inherent to performing; it is factually not enough at all for an inquiry into the ultimate reality - your goodness explaining has bewildered my mind in this.'

(5-6) The brahmin said: 'This person, one thinks of as moving around on the earth and who is a transformation of that earth, o earthly one - for what reason would your Lordship, with these feet and above them these ankles, calves, knees, thighs, waist, neck , shoulders and upon those shoulders the wooden palanquin upon which the one sits who is thus known as the King of Sauvîra, impose this haughty insistence of 'I, the King of Sindhu' and thus be a captive of falsehood? (7) How lamentable are all these poor and suffering people who you by force seized without showing any mercy; boasting 'I am the protector' you make a bad presence in the society of the learned, simply being rude! (8) Because no doubt differently embodied as moving or unmoving entities, we know of annihilation, appearance and the regular of nature, simply moving in different names; departing from factually dealing with it, let us make sure what causes the material activities. (9) From that point of view is by the words for races and nations existence falsely described; what one in the mind imagines from the dissolution, aggregate and particulars of all that is made of atomic particles is therefrom of a lesser intelligence. (10) Thus being meager, fat, tiny or big, existing as individual entities, inanimâte matter or whatever natural phenomenon else is all impermanence in name of a certain disposition, time and activity, which you should understand to be of the operating of natures duality. (11) The known in its pure existence constitutes the ultimate goal as the Oneness without an inside or an outside, as the Absolute Truth of the Supreme [Brahman], the inner peace that in a higher sense is known as Bhagavân, the Supreme Lord, who by the scholars is called Vâsudeva [the Soul of God within, Vishnu, or Lord Krishna as the son of Vâsudeva].

(12) King Rahûgana, by penance, by deity worship or by rounding up one's material activities; by one's household life, by celibacy and study or by keeping oneself in austerity to the water or the fire, is this not revealed - it is not realized without smearing the dust of the lotus feet of the great all over one's body! (13) Where one does present the qualities of the One praised in the scriptures, are worldly concerns put to an end; day after day seriously attending to the ones who are after liberation, is the meditation turned pure and simple to Vâsudeva. (14) In a previous birth I was known as a king named Bharata who found liberation through personal insight and association in worship of the Supreme Lord; thus always performing, I [nevertheless] became a deer - because of being intimately associated with one I had neglected my duties. (15) Despite of being a deer, o great hero, did the memory of my activities of worship unto Krishna [the Lord as the One known by His dark skin] not leave me; for that reason do I out of fear keep myself afar from association with ordinary folk and do I move about unseen. (16) Therefore can every person, by means of the sword of knowledge detaching and associating with good company, even in this world, cut with the illusion; by listening and singing to the stories of the activities of the Lord is the lost consciousness regained and does one attain the ultimate end of the superior abode.'



Chapter 13  

Further talks Between Mahârâja Rahûgana and Jada Bharata

(1) The brahmin said: 'Trying to get ahead in life, which is difficult being captivated by illusion, is the eager one, divided in looking after the workload of his passion, slowness and goodness, wandering around in his worldly existence and is he, bent upon the profit, not able to find happiness. (2) O God of Men, there do these six plunderers [of seeing, smelling, tasting, touching, hearing and minding] ransack the conditioned souls that are chasing the false; by force they in that position like foxes seize the maddened zealous one his heart, just like tigers seizing lambs. (3) In the bowers of many creepers, grasses and thickets he is cruelly disturbed by biting mosquito's, sometimes imagining himself to be with the Gandharvas and sometimes as fast as hell getting possessed. (4) Running here and there for his home, his water and his wealth, o King, he thinks that to be his one and all, and sometimes he has lost his direction because of the smoky dust raised by a whirlwind; his infatuation has blinded him. (5) By the noises of invisible crickets disturbed in his ear, by the vibrations of owls upset in his mind and heart and suffering from hunger taking shelter of fruitless trees, he at times runs after the waters of a mirage. (6) Now and then jumping to bathe in shallow waters and desiring from others depleted themselves, he regularly experiences a burn out in his family and desperation about what has become of the cherished wealth taken away by the rogues of rule. (7) Sometimes do all who saw themselves taxed by their ruling superiors, experience grief in their hearts and get they, wining, bewildered losing their minds; and occasionally dreaming of having entered heavenly abodes does one enjoy like an achiever, but for a short while only. (8) Sometimes wandering are the feet of someone who wants to climb the hills hurt by thorns and small stones and is such a one in agony with each step he makes; and with a hungry stomach does a person in dismay living together sometimes become truly angry with his family members. (9) Sometimes swallowed by the python does the conditioned soul not understand anything; in the forest pierced of suffering, being bitten, indeed he lies down and has he at times, attacked by poisonous snakes, blinded fallen into an unseen well of utter darkness. (10) Sometimes searching for some little sexual pleasure is he by the disquieted beehive of the family of the woman insulted; or, concerning these matters with much difficulty spending money to find one's comfort, is thereafter by force the object of desire stolen away from him by someone else. (11) Sometimes also not able to fight the cold, the heat, the wind or the rains, he is put off; sometimes selling one another whatever little bit, one lands in mutual enmity one says, because of cheating for the profit. (12) Now and then being destitute is he in that without bedding, a place to sit, a house and family comforts, and does he bereft beg from others; not getting what he needs he is after the property of others and then finds dishonor. (13) Because of financial transactions with one another there is a rise of enmity and married to one another trying to progress materially that can bring great difficulties, as for want of money following the wrong course one gets completely embarrassed.

(14) All those who are thus variously embarrassed have at times to give up on the beings close to them and are then after one's newly born; being after one's own interest one wanders around down here in this world and up to the present day is none of those, o hero, able to get to the ultimate end of yoga [to devotional service]. (15) They who without much of a mind managed to conquer giants of other heroes, are all caught in this world in the concept of 'mine' and lay down their lives in battle with the enmity created - but they do not reach the reality of the staff of renunciation that without enmity does lead to the perfection. (16) More and more attached sometimes do they who enjoy in the arms of their wives, their creeper, sing an odd tune in desiring to hear the song of another bird; and sometimes hearing somewhere the roar of the lion he seeks friendship with cranes, herons and vultures. (17) Cheated by them but not finding satisfaction in contact with the devoted, approach they in their behavior the monkeys with whom associated they are quite at ease with their senses and looking after one another's faces they being forgetful approach death. (18) Enjoying up their tree are they, attached to wife and children and poor of heart, unable to give up being bound to the consequences of their own actions, at times beset in fear for the elephant of death falling into a cave in the mountains getting trapped there. (19) Somehow or other getting out of this danger they again, o killer of the enemies, take up the same life, that path of enjoyment that the conditioned soul under the influence of mâyâ travels, up to his death not understanding a thing. (20) King Rahûgana, you, surely also on this path of material existence, will, once you have given up the stick of chastising and are acting friendly towards all beings, by means of service to the Lord be someone who in his mind is no longer drawn to the untrue; taking the sharpened sword of knowledge in hand now cross over to the supreme of the other side!'

(21) The king said: 'Alas, o best one among the born, being born into the human form, of what use is it to be but of a higher birth? Indeed there is nothing superior about it if we in a new life cannot enjoy the abundance of association with the truly great ones whose hearts are purified in the glory of Hrisîkes'a [the Lord and master of the senses]. (22) Isn't it wonderful indeed to be completely liberated by the dust of your lotusfeet of love and devotion unto Adhokshaja [the Lord in the Beyond], of whose association in a moment one is freed from all material contamination and as well the root of nondiscrimination of false arguing is completely vanquished? (23) Let there be my reverential homage unto the great personalities, whether they appear as boys, as young men or as total forsakers; let there, from all those selfrealized of transcendence who walk this earth under different guises, be good fortune over all the dynasties!'

(24) S'rî S'uka said: 'This way, o son of Uttarâ [Parîkchit], did he, that son of brahmin wisdom, though being insulted, from the quality of his kindness and supreme of his spiritual realization, expound to the ruler of Sindhu on the actual reality of the soul; with Rahûgana so piteously, was he whose lotus feet were worshiped, of a heart in which, like in a full ocean, all the waves of the sensory were completely silenced as he continued to roam this earth [compare 3-25-21]. (25) The king of Sauvîra sure of an elevated position, came to a full understanding of the truth of the oversoul; within himself he managed to completely give up the conception of a bodily self that he erroneously in nescience had attributed to his person and thus, o King, followed he on the path of disciplic succession to the Lord. '

(26) The King [Parîkchit] said: 'That which you described here so knowledgeable, o greatest of devotion, in figures of speech about the individual soul its path in material existence is set in words comprehensible to the minds of the educated, not so much directly to locals of a lesser experience; therefore, for the sake of a full understanding of this matter so hard to grasp, could you please describe it telling us the direct meaning? '



Chapter 14  

The Material World as the Great Forest of Enjoyment

(1) The wise [S'ukadeva] said: 'Those who think the body to be the real self, depart, in particular reasoning to the modes of goodness and such, from the wrong basis; sometimes they obtain the favorable, sometimes the unfavorable and sometimes they have a mixture of both. On the basis of the six gateways of their senses and the mind, they are faced with a never ending process of transmigration that is characterized by the over and over giving up of one body and the again accepting of a new one. On that difficult path traversing the dense forest of material life it so happens that of Vishnu, the Supreme Lord who is the controller, the bound soul acting under the control of mâyâ, the illusory of matter, in this exactly is like a merchant with an object of desire who is after the money. With his body acting on behalf of the fruits, he experiences the material world he has landed in as if it were a burial place, as up to that moment he has been unsuccessful and of all kinds of trouble out here in not gaining on the road of following the devoted, the bumblebees, to the lotusfeet of the Lord and His representatives that would pacify the misery experienced. (2) By the certain activities of the senses it suffers no doubt that those, with whatever little wealth that a person so dutifully earned after so much hard labor, could be called his plunderers. Just like that they plunder the desirous soul who is out of control and on the wrong path, as he from his home directly concludes to sensegratification in his determination to see, touch, hear, taste and smell all the acquired good, to which the wise declare that it religiously following the practice of the principles but would serve a better life in the hereafter in following the worship of the Lord with sacrifices. (3) In this do also his family members starting with his wife and children act like tigers and jackals as surely, in the midst of the family that he above all tries to protect, he miserably trying not to waste his wealth, feels like a lamb that is seized by force. (4) So sure as a field that is every year plowed will still keep the seeds of bushes, grasses and creepers that again, like in any garden, grow up with the plants sown, will this certainly also take place in the field of activities of the family life if one is not sure that all karma has been overcome; therefore is this world called the storehouse of fruitive desire. (5) Lost in that life, sometimes on this material path of existence wandering in the spheres of wealth, is he [the follower of falsehood] disturbed by low-class characters that equal gadflies and mosquito's and by thieves that are like rats, locusts and birds of prey. Because of a lusty mind ignorant in its fruitive motives, does he look at this human world, in which one never reaches one's goal, with a wrong vision: he sees castles in the air. (6) There [in that human world] is he also, sometimes like being after a fata morgana in his eagerness to drink and eat and to have sex and such, a debauchee addicted to his senses. (7) Sometimes as one obsessed by that particular type of yellowish rubbish that is also an unlimited source of faults, is he trying to get hold of gold, just like someone who looking for fire is following a phosphorescent fathom light. (8) This way is a person in this material forest at times fully absorbed in running hither and thither for the various items of a dwelling place, water and wealth that are deemed necessary for sustenance. (9) Sometimes does he also, in the dark of night, driven by a momentary whirlwind of passion, mount an alluring woman; in total neglect of the higher vision does he then, blinded by the strength of that passion, notwithstanding the divinities of sun and moon lose all notion in being overcome by a mind full of lust. (10) Occasionally for an instant he wakes up to the meaninglessness of the bodily conception of his self that destroyed his remembrance and of which he surely to the objects of his senses was running like after the water of a mirage. (11) At times exactly like with the penetrating repeated typical sounds of owls and crickets is there directly or indirectly the agitation caused by enemies and state officials that by their punitive actions bring grief to the ear and heart. (12) When the conditioned soul has exhausted [what he acquired of] his good deeds in his previous life(s) and at that time approaches the wealthy ones with their dead souls, then is he himself just as dead within, as they are like the kâraskara, kâkatunda and such [fruitless trees]; just as fouled wells, are they incapable of making one happy ever. (13) Once after association with the untrue, in defiance of authority, does he act like jumping into shallow waters and does he from whatever side leaping approach the atheistic path, despite of the distress it brings. (14) When dire in spite of other exploits he blind to himself cannot get his share from his father or his sons, he then is sure to give trouble to his kith and kin about things as insignificant as a blade of grass. (15) Sometimes experiencing the life at home as a forest fire that brings no good but only more and more sadness, does he, burnt by the flames of grief, land in the deepest disappointment. (16) Sometimes by a carnivorous government that grew corrupt over time, is the wealth most dear plundered and remains he bereft of all his good life like a corpse with the life air expired. (17) It also happens that he imagines the untrue of his father or grandfather or others to be true again and thus thinking does the follower of matter find the happiness of pipe dreams. (18) Sometimes as a house holder following the codes of fruitive conduct he wants to climb the steepest mountain and does he with his mind in hot material pursuit lament like having entered a field full of thorns and sharp stones. (19) Occasionally unable to bear the fire of hunger and thirst, he runs out of patience and gets angry with his family members. (20) The one so sure repeatedly devoured by the python of sleep is in deep darkness absorbed by ignorance, wasted like a corpse isolated in the forest lying down not knowing anything else. (21) So now and then with his teeth broken on the envy of his serpentlike enemies, he cannot catch the sleep and then falls down in the blind well of illusion with a consciousness gradually deteriorating of the heartrending rumination. (22) And then it happens that searching after the sweet drops of desire of another woman or another man's riches, he appropriates them and gets severely beaten by the government or the relatives involved, thereby falling into an incomparably hellish life.

(23) Now, for this reason is it so that the vedic authority says that it suffers no doubt that the fruitive activity of a living entity is the ground for being stuck in this material ocean. (24) Liberated from that, if he managed to escape the punishment, does a trader such ['Devadatta'] take his money away and does on his turn take another friend of Vishnu ['Vishnumitra'] it again take from him and thus do the riches pass from one to another. (25) It also happens that from the various causes of nature, like heat and cold, of other beings and of one's own body and mind [resp. adhidaivika, adhibhautika, adhyâtmika kles'as, see also 2.10:8] one is unable to counter the conditions of misery, so that one remains severely troubled by anxieties and depressions. (26) Sometimes, trading with one another, does, for whatever little bit of money or farthing appropriated, however insignificant, there rise enmity because of cheating. (27) On that path of material existence does one find all these endless difficulties as there are with happiness, unhappiness, attachment, hate, fear, false prestige, illusion, madness, lamentation, bewilderment, greed, envy, enmity, insult, hunger, thirst, tribulations, disease, birth, old age, death, and so on. (28) Somewhere, under the influence of the illusory energy, mâyâ, is one in the thorough embracing by the creepers of the arms of a female companion deeply embarrassed at loss with all intelligence and wisdom; in the wish to please her and find her a suitable place to live gets his heart engrossed of that concern and is his consciousness taken away by the talks and nice looks offered by the sons and daughters under the wife's shelter. Having lost the control over himself is he hurled into the endless darkness of a life in ignorance.

(29) It so happens that of the Controller, the Supreme Lord Vishnu His cakra or disc of Time, stretching from the first expansion of atoms to the duration of the complete life of Brahmâ, one has to suffer the symptoms of its cycling of which in due course swiftly before one's eyes, without a blink, all lives of the entities, from Brahmâ to the simplest blade of grass, are spent. Directly of Him, the Controller whose personal weapon is the disc of Time, is one for sure afraid at heart ['the lion']. Not caring for the Supreme Lord, the Original Person of Sacrifice, does he, with self-made gods who are denied by the scriptures of civilization and are like buzzards, vultures, herons and crows, accept the unfounded as worshipable. (30) When the conditioned soul by the atheists who themselves are cheated is cheated even more, does one take heed of the school of brahmins, but with them as difficult people not finding satisfaction in the good character of starting with the sacred thread to principle and scripture, nor finding that in the sure culture of worshiping the Supreme Lord and Original Person of Sacrifice performing the duties, does he turn to the association of employees not being purified in behaving according the vedic injunctions, and of them in a materialistic sexlife maintaining the family is one in the company of those who think they evolved from monkeys. (31) In that condition unhesitating by their own judgment enjoying like dull-witted apes, in only for the good looks of one another being after the gratification and the material results, forgets one how short such a life is. (32) Delighted in their houses in which like in trees, they exactly like monkeys aspire greater comfort, do they spend their time caring about and frolicking with their wife and children. (33) Thus on the sensual path is he confined and abides he out of fear for the elephant of death in a darkness alike that of a mountain cave. (34-35) Sometimes is he [as said] from his inability to counteract the insurmountable of the many miseries of the heat and cold of nature, other beings and his own existence, caught in sadness because of the sense gratification - whatever the sometimes in mutual transactions by cheating acquired little bit of wealth. (36) Now and then running out of money and bereft of accommodations for sleeping, sitting and eating, does he, as long as he is unsuccessful, by what he in his determination by unfair means obtained in his desire get the insults and punishments from the people as a consequence of that. (37) This way, because of financial transactions having an increase in relating in enmity, does one despite of the previous false notions unite in marriages of sons and daughters who thereafter end up in divorces. (38) On this path through the ocean of matter is one plagued by the miseries of existence, to which the conditioned soul himself or someone else sometimes thinks to have won and sometimes thinks to have lost, giving up relatives and accepting newly born ones. In that is a lot of lamentation, illusion and fearing found to which one is crying out loud at times and sometimes is singing in glee. In bondage being far from the saintly life is even up to this day found no certainty deriving from those of whom this world of human self-interest came into being, the material way to which the defenders of the peace always point towards the other end. (39) That abode [at the other end] is only achieved by following on the the path of yoga and by no other means and therefore do the meek ['who laid down the rod'], the saintly who abide in peace, without much trouble attain the control over their mind and senses. (40) However victorious in all fields, however expert they were in sacrifices; all who verily where the wisest kings were but of the earth in laying down their own lives, giving them up in battle, being killed indeed because of the created hostility with others in thinking things to be 'mine' [compare 1.2: 13]. (41) Taking to the shelter of the embrace of fruitive action does one from that risky position somehow or other freed from a hellish life, again that way existing on the path of material interests land in the world of human self-interest, despite of having been promoted to the higher life.

(42) There is not a single king able to follow the path of this what is sung here of that great soul Jada Bharata who is the son of Rishabhadeva, the great saintly king; just like a fly is unable to follow Garuda, the carrier of Vishnu. (43) It was he who gave up the wealth of a family, friends and well-wishers and the royal realm; fond of Uttamas'loka, the Lord praised, he only in his prime years renounced that what is in the center of the heart like it was stool. (44) To those whose minds are attracted by the loving service of the greatest souls unto the killer of Madhu [Krishna], is everything that is so difficult to give up, the earth, the children, relatives, riches and a wife, all that is desirable of the goddess of fortune and the best of the demigods their glances of mercy, of no significance; and that befitted him as a king. (45) Unto the Enjoyer of all sacrifices, the Propounder of the Religion, He who teaches by the regulative principles [the vidhi see 1.17: 24] , the yoga in person, the teacher of analysis [sânkhya, see Kapila: 3:25], the Controller of the creation, Nârâyana the shelter of all living beings, unto Lord Hari, he respectfully offered his obeisances aloud and smiling, chanting even though residing in the body of a deer. (46) He who listens to or describes to others this, by the great devotees highly appreciated, all auspicious narration about the wise king Bharata, so pure in his qualities and actions, will live longer, be more fortunate, find reputation, reach the higher worlds or find the path of liberation; glorifying the character of the devotee and the Lord for sure will bring one all blessings possible leaving one nothing left to desire from others.



Chapter 15  

The Glories of the Descendants of King Priyavrata

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'The son of Bharata, carrying the name Sumati, will, by some heretics who follow the path of Rishabha and are lacking in civilization, in this age of Kali, to a self-made sinful idea contrary to the Veda, be thought of as a godhead [see also 5.6:9]. (2) From Sumati was from the womb of his wife Vriddhasenâ born a son named Devatâjit. (3) Thereafter was from Âsurî a son of Devatâjit born called Devadyumna. From him was there from Dhenumatî the son Parameshthhî of whom from Suvarcalâ the son Pratîha appeared. (4) He, in his lifetime instructing many on the science of selfrealization, was personally very advanced in a perfect understanding of the great Original Personality. (5) From Pratîha his wife Suvarcalâ came the three sons, Pratihartâ, Prastotâ and Udgâtâ into being, who were all expert in the vedic ritual, and from Pratihartâ brought Stutî the two sons Aja and Bhûmâ into existence. (6) From Bhûmâ his wife Rishikulyâ there was Udgîtha, from him was from Devakulyâ Prastâva born, and in Prastâva his wife Niyutsâ was begotten the son Vibhu. From Vibhu his wife Ratî was also Prithushena born from whom Nakta was born out of Âkûti. From Nakta there was a son of Druti: Gaya. He was a most exalted wise king famous for his piety as he was born directly from the Supreme Lord Vishnu for the purpose of protecting the whole world. He, conceived of pure goodness was recognized as an integral part [kalâ] of the Supreme Soul and achieved to be the leading personality [the mahâpurusha] in society. (7) He, truthful in his duties, protected his subjects maintaining them [poshana]; he made them happy in all respects [prînana] treating them as his children [upalâlana], sometimes chastising them as a king [anus'âsana]. He performed all the prescribed religious ceremonies for the Supreme Lord, the great Personality and source of all beings, the Supreme Brahman, in every respect. Of his surrender, the many of his spiritual qualities, by his service to the lotusfeet of the self-realized, did he achieve devotional service unto the Supreme Lord as he also in the purest consciousness being continuously saturated within himself, personally had realized the cessation of all identification with his material self. Despite of his awareness of his exalted spiritual position he remained without any false prestige in ruling this way the whole world strictly to the vedic principles.'

(8) 'O son of Pându, for the eulogy of Gaya are it these poetic verses that are sung by the ones versed in the puranic truth: (9) 'It was king Gaya who by his performing the rituals lead the way back to all the sacrifices; respected the world all over for the full of his vedic awareness is he, as the protector of righteousness of all kinds of opulence, the dean of the assembly of the truthful, and is he, apart from being an integral part of the Supreme Lord, the servant of the devotees and all alike. (10) All women chaste and devoted bathed him with sanctified water with great satisfaction as the true one deserving the blessings of the daughters of Daksha; like the cow of mother earth spontaneously dripping milk, did he selfless, fulfill all desires of the people on this planet. (11) Without desire being in respect of every part of the Vedas yielded him all that was desired and all the royalty pleased by his stand in defense of the principles thus paid tribute to him, just as did all the brahmins in their dedicating one sixth of their blessings to his afterlife. (12) Of him got, by his exploits in favor of the Supreme Lord, the soul of sacrifice, king Indra greatly intoxicated in drinking all the soma; the result of his offering in worship was [by Vishnu] personally accepted for its purity in devotion and steadiness in devotional service. (13) The way he, as the maintainer of all, in his delighting in the sacrificial arena beginning with Lord Brahmâ instantly satisfied all the gods and lower creatures, the whole of human society and the plants and the grasses, did He indeed, although in person satisfied by nature, derive great satisfaction from Gaya.'

(14-15) From his wife Gayantî were three sons Citraratha, Sugati and Avarodhana born, from Citraratha his wife Ûrnâ was born Samrâth and from him there was from Utkalâ Marîci. From Marîci's wife Saraghâ there was a child named Madhu and from Madhu his wife Sumanâ came a son Vîravrata. From Vîravrata's wife Bhojâ were born two sons named Manthu and Pramanthu and from Manthu his wife Satyâ there was Bhauvana. From him was from Dûshanâ one son named Tvashthâ born, and from Tvashthâ his wife Virocanâ there was a son named Viraja. Of Viraja his wife Vishûcî took birth a hundred sons headed by S'atajit as well as one daughter.

(16) From this dynasty stemming from Priyavrata [see 5.1] there is the following verse: 'In his repute is Viraja, who had a hundred sons, as great an emblem as Lord Vishnu is to the demigods.'



Chapter 16  

How the Lord can be Comprehended as a Matter of Fact

(1) The king [Parîkchit] said: 'You spoke already [in 5.1:31-33] of the sphere of the seven places of refuge [bhû-mandala]: that it stretches as far as the heat of sun reaches or either is also seen by the moon and myriad of stars. (2) Because of Priyavrata circumambulating in his chariot [in 5.1:31-30] were by the seven ditches the oceans created that set apart the seven continents; this was indeed by you described o Great One and concerning this subject of study I would certainly like to know everything of the measurement and characteristics. (3) To the material qualities of the Supreme Lord in His assuming the gross form [of the universe] do we, notwithstanding indeed the mind over it, within the heart [as the paramâtma] find His smaller form as the light within the soul, as the supreme spiritual entity; o dear teacher, please tell me how He, known as the Great Lord Vâsudeva, thus as a matter of fact can be comprehended.

(4) The rishi said: 'O great King, there is no end to the transformations of the material qualities of the Supreme Lord; though not even a person living as long as Brahmâ is capable to put it into words or either fully understand, shall I nevertheless try to explain what in particular of the original source of the material universe its places of existence in one [Bhûloka] can be said in terms of names, forms and proportions. (5) Whatever [one could say to the size] of this separated area ['island' or dvîpa], this inner whorl of the lotusflower unfolding at night that is equally round as a lotus leaf, would be of a terrible number of yojanas [measures of distance, lightyears we say these days]. (6) Therein are nine subdivisions ['years' or 'lands separated by mountains'; varshas] found of nine times thousand yojanas neatly separated by eight boundaries of rock ['mountain-ranges', 'spiral arms' or giri]. (7) Among these there is one division in the middle navel named Ilâvrita that is entirely golden and is known as the most renown of all mountains, Mount Meru that stretches up as far as it, as an area, is wide and which of this lotuslike unfolded universe is the pericarp that measuring a thirty two thousand yojanas at its base reaches a sixteen thousand yojanas to its top and below [according modern astronomy is our galaxy about seven thousand lightyears thick]. (8) More and more stretching north of Ilâvrita [projected on the globe of the earth] there are the three ranges found of Nîla, S'veta and S'ringavân, that each by one tenth are flatter than the other as they are marking the varsha's of Ramyâka, Hiranmaya and Kuru who, each [in proportion] two thousand yojanas wide, have to their east and west extending the Kshâroda ocean [the 'salty one']. (9) Thus likewise to the south of Ilâvrita are there the Nishadha, Hemakûtha and Himâlaya ranges that stretch out with a body of thousands of yojanas to the east dividing a same number of varshas that are called Hari, Kimpurusha and Bhârata. (10) Even so are there to the west of Ilâvrita as well as on the eastern side the demarcations of the western Mâlyavân and eastern Gandhamâdana ranges that for a [proportionate] two thousand yojanas stretch out to the north up to Nîla mountain and to the south up to the Nishadha mountain, establishing the borders of the varshas named Ketumâla and Bhadras'va. (11) The mountains named Mandara, Merumandara, Supârs'va and Kumuda at four sides form a belt around mount Meru massively spreading out for countless yojanas.

(12) On these four mountains standing like flagstaffs one finds, spread over as much as a thousand yojanas, four kinds of the very best of trees: the Mango, the Rose Apple, the Kadamba and the Banyan, who with their branches cover hundreds of yojanas. (13-14) There are four lakes of the purest water, milk, honey and sugarcane juice as also the four gardens Nandâna, Caitraratha, Vaibhrâjaka and Sarvatobhadra - the godlike attending there in enjoying these all, have a natural command of yoga, o best of the Bharata dynasty. (15) In them do the enchanted and enchanting wives of the best of them, of the husbands indeed who are glorified in songs of praise by the lesser gods, enjoy sporting. (16) On the slopes of the Mandara do, at eleven-hundred [virtual] yojanas from the top, from the mango tree named Devacûta fall down fruits sweet as nectar that are as big as mountain peaks. (17) Of all the mangoes broken open flows in large quantities the reddish juice that is very sweet and fragrant being mixed as it is with other aromas; it falls down east from the top of Mandara mountain with a river named Arunodâ. (18) Of Bhavânî [the wife of S'iva], her maid servants and the chaste wives of the Yaksha's [S'iva's followers] using this water, does the wind in contact with their limbs become fragrant for ten [cosmic] yojanas around. (19) Similarly do the rose apple fruits that with their tiny seeds are broken to pieces of falling to the ground from a height of a [galactic] ten-thousand yojanas from the top of Merumandara, flow down with their juice in a river named the Jambû-nadî through the whole southern region of Ilâvrita itself. (20-21) The mud of both the banks entirely soaked with that juice does, dried under the influence of air and sun, continually deliver a kind of gold named Jâmbû-nada, that used by the denizens of heaven indeed gives the demigods with their ever youthful wives all kinds of ornaments in their possession in the form of belts, helmets, bangles and so on. (22) But from the Mahâkadamba standing on the side of the Supârs'va mountain flow from its hollows five streams of honey tens of feet wide [five vyamas of about five to six feet each] that from the top of that mountain flow down to saturate the whole of the western side of Ilâvrita with their fragrance. (23) That stream indeed does, by the breath of the mouths of those who drank therefrom, perfume the air sweet for a hundred [transcendental] yojanas wide. (24) Similarly do from the top of Kumuda mountain, on which the Banyan tree grew that with its thick stems is named S'atavals'a ['a hundred trunks'], flow big rivers to the northern side of Ilâvrita, giving happiness in fulfilling all desires carrying in its wake an abundance of milk, yogurt, honey, clarified butter, molasses, food grains and so on, as well as a sure wealth of clothing, bedding, sitting places, ornaments and more of that all. (25) Of these benefits do the inhabitants in full use of them for sure never ever get wrinkles, gray hair, fatigue, bad smelling perspiration, old of age, diseased, premature death, cold or heat, a waning luster or whatever variety of troubles and sufferings; for as long as they live they are of an unlimited happiness only.

(26) Like the filaments of the whorl of a lotus are all around the base of mount Meru arranged twenty or more peaks carrying names as the Kuranga, Kurara, Kusumbha, Vaikanka, Trikûtha, S'is'ira, Patanga, Rucaka, Nishadha, Sinîvâsa, Kapila, S'ankha, Vaidûrya, Jârudhi, Hamsa, Rishabha, Nâga, Kâlañjara and the Nârada. (27) The Mountain of Meru with its golden brilliance like fire is surrounded by eight mountains of which the two in the east are called Jathhara and Devakûtha, the two in the west Pavana and Pâriyâtra, the two in the south Kailâsa and Karavîra and the two in the north Tris'ringa and Makara. Each they amass for [a heavenly] two thousand yojanas, covering an eighteen thousand square yojanas. (28) On top of mount Meru is in the middle the dwellingplace, the city of the most powerful self-born one [Lord Brahmâ] found, stretching to all sides for many thousands of yojanas [our galaxy does so for twenty-six-thousand lightyears to its pericarp and 40 to 60 thousand lights years in diameter, compare verse 7 ] and of which the sages say that it is entirely golden. (29) Around that center are to each direction the eight cities of the rulers over the planetary systems found (*) that by one fourth are of a likewise form.

 *: The place of Brahmâ is called Manovatî, and those of his assistants such as Indra and Agni are known as Âmarâvatî, Tejovatî, Samyamanî, Krishnânganâ, S'raddhâvatî, Gandhavatî, Mahodayâ and Yas'ovatî.



 Chapter 17  

The Descent of the River Ganges

 (1) S'rî S'uka said: 'At the time the incarnation of Lord Vishnu, who is directly the enjoyer of all sacrifices, took His second step [as Lord Vâmana, see 2-7: 17], did He by the nail of the big toe of His left leg pierce the upper covering of the universe. The flow of water that from the outside entered through the hole does, having turned pink washing away the red powder of His lotusfeet, destroy the sins of all the world who comes in touch with it; as emanating directly from the Supreme Lord His feet it is described as completely pure and is thus given that name [the Ganges as the Vishnupadî] after it after a long time from the sky descended on the head of that which they call the refuge of Vishnu. (2) There indeed does our most exalted, firmly determined devotee, the famous son [Dhruva, see 4:8] of Uttânapâda, bathe himself in the water of the lotus feet of the family deity, with the pair of his flowerlike eyes slightly opened showing tears as symptoms of ecstasy in his body. Having the great anxiety in his heart a good deal softened and his spontaneous devotional service to the Lord constantly increased, does he with the uncontaminated water emanating, even now bear it on his own head with great reverence. (3) Thereafter do the seven wise [of Marîci, Vasishthha, Atri and so on, see 3-12:22], well known with the blessing, even this moment also carry it on their matted hair with great honor; they indeed consider of all austerities it the ultimate perfection to be this much of continuous devotional service in bhakti-yoga towards the Supreme Lord, the all pervading Vâsudeva. Simply by achieving this platform they sure were of neglect for any other means of attaining the perfection like a [nirvis'esha-vâdi or impersonal] liberation or that which is obtained by other persons seeking salvation [like economic development, sense gratification, or religion]. (4) Thereafter does it fall down to the abode of Brahmâ, in its descent inundating the sphere of the moon so congested by the thousands and millions of types of divine palaces [vimâna or also called: 'airplanes'] of the gods in their high conduct. (5) There it is divided into four branches each profusely flowing in the four directions towards their great reservoir the ocean, entering there with the names of Sîtâ and Alakanandâ, Cakshu and Bhadra. (6) The Sîtâ for certain originating from the city of Brahmâ, flows downwards from the tops of the Kesarâcala and of other great mountains. Fallen on the top of the Gandhamâdana mountain does it within the province of Bhadras'va going in the western direction enter into the salty ocean. (7) This way too falling down from the top of Mâlyavân Mountain does it thereafter uninterrupted in the western direction flow through the land of Ketumâla to enter the ocean there. (8) The Bhadra from mount Meru falling from the top of the Kumuda mountain in the north passes the mountains Nîla and S'ringavân to flow from those peaks northways through the whole area of Kuru to enter the ocean in the north. (9) Similarly does the Alakanandâ from Brahmâpuri by the southern side pass over many mountaintops and does the Ganges with a greater, more fierce force, flow from the Hemakûtha and Himakûtha to cut through Bhârata-varsha from all sides, heading there southways for the ocean. For the one who entered it for bathing is so the result of great sacrifices like the Aswamedha and the Râjasûya at every step not difficult to obtain. (10) Many kinds of other rivers and streams run through each tract of land and the hundreds of them should all be considered as daughters of Mount Meru. 

(11) Of all these varshas is for sure the land known as Bhârata-varsha [India] the field for working at one's karma, while the remaining other eight varshas for the meritorious ones of good deeds are designated to be the heavenly places on earth to enjoy the pleasures of life. (12) There do all, who, just like gods, are strong as a thousand elephants with bodies like thunderbolts, have lives for thousands of years. Youthful and in excitement about a great deal of sexual pleasure do they bond as men and women, conceiving at the end of their term of mating a child; they have times there of harmonious living, that are like one had existing in Tretâ-Yuga [the period mankind lived in piety]. (13) In each of those lands do the godlike leaders to their own conduct of service never run short of valuables and do they have bunches of flowers through all seasons as well as fruits of which the branches heavily bend down. The gardens to their many divine refuges are full of beautiful trees and creepers with many lakes of crystal clear water in the valleys of the mountain ranges that demarcate their lands. In those lakes one finds all kinds of fragrant fresh lilies with humming bumblebees, enthused great swans, ducks, cranes and other aquatic birds. They enjoy all kinds of water sports there lusty courting the attractive godlike women who, smiling with their playful glances, entertain themselves freely with great joy, an eager look and a charmed mind. (14) Certainly does the Supreme Lord Narâyâna, the great personality, show mercy towards His devotees in all these nine varshas by personally inciting the reality of the soul [through his quadruple forms of Vâsudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha see 4.24:35-36]; to the present day He thus stays near his devotees to accept their service (*). 

(15) In Ilâvrita-varsha is for certain Lord S'iva the only Supreme Lord; for sure will any other man besides Him, with force entering there, come to know what leads to the curse of Bhavânî [His wife], and turn into a woman; on that I shall dilate later [see Canto nine]. (16) In the company of Bhavânî there are ten billion women by whom the into four expanded Supreme Lord is always being served. The fourth expansion of the Supreme Personality, known as Sankarsan, is to the form of Himself in the mode of darkness the source; he, Lord S'iva, in trance meditating on Him, brings Him near in worship clearly chanting the following. (17) The powerful Lordship says: 'I bow for You o Supreme Lord, o greatest Original Personality and reservoir of all transcendental qualities; You are the unlimited and unmanifested One within this world whom I revere. (18) O worshipable one whose feet ward off all danger; You of whom we have all the different opulences, are the best, the ultimate shelter invaluable to the devotees to whose satisfaction You manifest Yourself in different forms; I sing the glory of You who puts an end to the repetition of birth and death, You, the Supreme Controller, who art the origin of the creation. (19) Who of us not in control of the force of anger, but aspiring to conquer the senses, willing to control, would not be of worship unto You, whose vision glancing over, is never, not even in the slightest, affected by the restless mind to the qualities of mâyâ?  (20) For someone with an eye for the untrue do You appear with copper-red eyes as if You would be inebriated under the influence of mâyâ, having drunken honeysweet liquor; it was not though because of their bashfulness that the ones espoused to the serpent demon were unable to proceed in touching Your feet - it was because their senses were agitated. (21) By You, all the sages say, is the world maintained, created and annihilated, while You Yourself are without these three; as the unlimited One, You do not feel the [weight of the] universe situated on the hundreds and thousands of Your hoods, but like a mustard seed. (22-23) From You, from whom there is the most powerful Lord Brahmâ, the beginning, the total energy of the incarnation of the material qualities, was I born who, endowed with the threefold, from my material prowess could settle for all the sense, the godlike and the material elements. Of You, that greater reality, of whom all this and we, the great personalities, are under control in a position like that of a vulture bound to a rope, do I and the liberated, all of us, by Your mercy, proclaim order to the matter and the senses in this material world. (24) By the illusory energy brought about by You, that at any given time ties the knots of karma, does a person bewildered by the qualities of the creation, not know how to escape from being caught in it; unto that Supreme [whom we thus can't live without], unto You in whom everything finds its end and beginning, my respectful homage.'

 *: In some of the satvata-tantras, there is a description of the nine varshas and the predominating Deity worshiped in each: (1) Vâsudeva, (2) Sankarshana, (3) Pradyumna, (4) Aniruddha, (5) Narâyâna, (6) Nrisimha, (7) Hayagrîva, (8) Mahâvarâha, and (9) Brahmâ.



Chapter 18  

Prayers to the different Avatâras

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'The same way [as Lord S'iva] does the son of Dharmarâja known as Bhadrasravâ and with him the leading nobles and all the people of the land of Bhadras'va-varsha directly worship of the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva, in his most dear form as the director of the religion, the incarnation of Hayagrîva [or Hayas'îrsha]. Approaching Him do they, fixed on the highest, chant this. (2) Bhadrasravâ, the ruler, pronounces: 'My obeisances unto the Supreme Lord who is the source of all religious principles and who purifies us of all material contamination; to Him thus our reverential homage. (3) Alas! How wondrous are the ways of the Lord. Sure to be faced with death does a person nevertheless not see and thinks he of material happiness; how unjustified it is that he so desires to enjoy a life for himself, while cremating his father or his sons! (4) The great sages from their point of view maintain that the entirety of the creation is certainly perishable and so say the philosophers and the scholars; still they become illusioned, o unborn One, by Your outer energy, Your miraculous ways; unto You, You as that unborn One, my respects. (5) Accepted in the Vedas as verily being aloof to Your activities of the creation, the maintenance and the arresting of the whole universe, are You, though untouched by them, not astounding to us, as we are connected in You, the original cause of all causes and the original substance separate in all respects. (6) At the end of the Yuga were the four Vedas stolen by ignorance in person and from the lowest worlds were they by You, taking the form of half a horse, half a man, indeed returned to the supreme poet [Brahmâ] when he asked for them; unto Him, You whose resolve never fails, my obeisances.'

(7) In Hari-varsha, is there the Supreme Personality of the Lord also situated as God in a human form [as Nrisimhadeva]. The reason why He took that most satisfying form to the great personality of all good qualities I shall explain later to you [see seventh canto]. Prahlâda, that topmost devotee of whose exalted character and qualities all the Daityas in his family were delivered, is together with the people of that varsha of an uninterrupted, unflinching devotional service and they worship Him chanting this: (8) O Supreme Lord Nrisimha, I bow for You, my obeisances to the power of all power that You are; please manifest Yourself fully - o You whose nails and teeth are like thunderbolts, please take away the desire to enjoy the untrue, be so good to drive away, o Lord, the ignorance in the material world; may with my oblations there be freedom from all fear, I beg You o Lord, source of my prayer, to appear before my mind's eye. (9) Let there be good fortune for the entire universe, let all the earthbound be pacified, let all living beings find consciousness in a reciprocating mindfulness and the mind be calm - let it experience the Lord in the beyond, let our intelligence be absorbed without another motive. (10) Let there not be the attachment to the house, the wife, the children, a bank balance and friends and relatives; let us be with persons whom the Lord is dear, people satisfied with the bare necessities of life who - as opposed to those to whom the senses are dear - living by the soul, find success very quickly. (11) Of having achieved the repeated association with those whose influence is uncommon and of coming in touch with the holy places, are certainly the impurities of the mind overcome; the unborn one who entered the core of the heart trough the ears would indeed not be of service to things impure - such is the way of Mukunda [the Lord of liberation]. (12) In those who, with all the good qualities, are of unalloyed devotional service to the Fortunate One, there reside all the demigods in respect of the Lord - but where are the good qualities of a person that is not devoted, who by his mental speculations runs out for the temporary of the world? (13) The Lord is, like with aquatics in need of water, certainly to be seen as the Supreme One, the life and soul of all the embodied beings; if one gives up on a great personality like Him will the burden of a household life, that then looks so great in the maturity of being husband and wife, be the result. (14) The household life is the root cause of fear and depression, passion, attachment, disappointment, anger, the want for respect and the cycle of repeated birth and death, and must for these reasons be given up by worship of the feet of lord Nrisimhadev, the shelter of fearlessness in this world.'

(15) In Ketumâla also is the Supreme Lord worshiped in the form of Kâmadeva [ or also Pradyumna, see 4. 24: 35]; of the Goddess of Fortune is He the desire to satisfy, of the Founding father [the Prajâpati], the daughters and the sons is He the ruler of that land, to the equal number of days and nights of the time of living He brings the fetuses and of the great personality is He the dominating weapon of whose effulgence there is the ruin of the ones whose minds are disturbed, making them drop dead at the end of the year. (16) So very beautiful in His movements and pastimes manifested, He pleases with His mild smiles, playful glances and slightly raised attractive eyebrows; auspicious with His lotuslike face is He a pleasure to the Goddess of Fortune and all the senses. (17) To that highest form of the Supreme Lord so affectionate to all, does the goddess of splendor in the absorption of yoga, all year through during the nights with the daughters of the Prajâpati and during the days with the husbands, worshiping Him recite the following: (18) 'O Lord, o sage song sung, my reverence to You as the Supreme Lord of the senses, You in respect with all Your qualities and all Your variety, You as the soul of all and master of action, knowing, function and relation, the one known as the sixteenfold (of the working, the knowing senses, the elements and mind); unto You as the Enjoyer of all rituals, the Maintainer and Sustainer of all, He who awards eternal life, the All-pervading One of Power, the strength of the body and the senses, the Supreme Husband fulfilling all desires, my respectful obeisances - may there always be Your good fortune! (19) For all women of Your accord to the vow, are You the Controller of the senses whom they ask for a husband to care for in this world. As someone else to them are those husbands indeed not able to protect the so very dear of their children, wealth and life span, because they are dependent themselves. (20) You indeed would be the husband fearless and self-sufficient that in full maintains the fearful person. Therefore, because else You would be of the fear for one another, are You the one and only; no other thing is to be held greater than indeed the attainment of You. (21) Women belonging to You may be full of desire in worship of Your lotusfeet; though maintaining all kinds of material desires do You award that, only because having worshiped one is looking for another benediction - from that is it so that the one who desires apart from You becomes broken and is pained, o my Lord. (22) To have my mercy must the unborn one [Brahmâ], the Controller [S'iva] and the other gods as well as the unenlightened undergo severe penance; unless they are wholly and solely in Your service do they who have their minds set on the senses not obtain me - I always keep to those who have their hearts in You, o unconquerable one. (23) I pray that You, o Infallible one, place the worshiped lotus hand that You placed on the heads of the devotees also on my head; You keep my mark on Your chest o worshipable one, but that is misleading - who would by reason and argument be able to understand what You as the Supreme Controller all want from us?'

(24) In Ramyâka is before by [Vaivasvata] Manu [at the end of the Câkshusha-manvatara] the Supreme Lord worshiped as the foremost in the form of Matsya, the fish-incarnation; he, the ruler of that land even until now is through his devotional service of worship to this, chanting the following: (25) 'My obeisances unto the Supreme Lord appearing in his first incarnation; my honorable respects for the pure of goodness, the origin of life, the source of all sense, the origin of all mental power and bodily strength; unto Him as the great fish my reverential homage. (26) Being within as well as without are You around unseen by the leaders of all the different worlds; by the very great of Your sounds is man, so differently named, like being a wooden doll brought under the control of You, the Supreme Controller. (27) The worldleaders in politics suffer the fever of envy, they, endeavoring apart from You, whether separately of combined, also trying to protect, are not able to do so, protecting whatever two legged, fourlegged, crawling or non-moving creatures seen in this world. (28) O Lordship, when this earth, the storehouse of all kinds of medicinal herbs, was in the stormy waves of the water of devastation at the end of the Yuga, did You with all Your power greatly roam with me, o unborn one; unto You, the ultimate source of life of the entire universe I offer here my respectful obeisances.'

(29) In Hiranmaya indeed does the Supreme Lord manifest the body of a tortoise [Kurma]. Of Him, that dearmost embodiment, is Aryamâ, the leader of the forefathers, together with the people of that tract of land, of worship singing the following hymn: (30) 'My Lord, our respects for You, as the Supreme Lord in the form of a tortoise, You are the transcendental good of all; unto You whose position cannot be discerned, our homage. You, although the oldest, are unaffected by time; my reverence for You as the great One reaching everywhere; again and again I bow for the shelter of all - our respectful obeisances are for You! (31) This form of You of the visible cosmic complete that You manifested by Your own potency and is known by so many divine appearances, is beyond measure; and from trying to measure it, perceiving it, do we have the false - unto You, whose real form cannot be discerned, I bow down. (32) What is born from a womb, born from the humid, born from an egg, born from the earth; what is moving or unmoving, a god, a sage or forefather; what are the material elements, the senses, the higher worlds, the sky, the earthly worlds, the hills and mountains; the rivers, the oceans, the islands, the stars and the planets are thus, in all their variety, to be known as one. (33) In You, who art innumerable in the particular of names and forms, of different bodily features, have the learned ones this idea of numbers, the truth of which they extract through observation; unto Him, You who thus discloses Himself in analysis, my obeisances [see also Kapila 3 - 28 to33].

(34) Also, in the northern territory called Kuru is the Supreme Lord, the Original Person of Sacrifice, eternally existing in his Boar form [Varâha, see 3-13], for sure by the goddess and this planet earth together with the inhabitants of [Uttarâ-]Kuru, unrelenting in devotional service unto Him, time and again worshiped repeating this Upanishad verse: (35) Our respects unto the Supreme Lord whose limbs and functions in truth are understood by the different mantras, by the offerings, by the rituals and the great sacrifices; unto that great personality, that purifier of the karma, my homage; unto Him, known throughout the three preceding Yugas ['tri-yuga'], my obeisances. (36) To the great scholars of learning is the material nature with its modes Your form; just like with fire that manifests in wood by spinning a stick, do the inquisitive by the mind find the hidden of You in their going for the cause; unto that manifesting Soul my respects. (37) From the mâyâ to Your form raised by the objects of the senses, the controlling deities over the senses, the body, the predominating time, by false egotism and the modes of nature observed as a fact, are those whose intelligence has become fixed through the careful considering of all the different limbs of the yogasystem, completely freed; unto that Supreme Soul my reverential homage. (38) Unto You, who in the train of maintaining, winding up and creating the universe does not entertain any desire, unto You of whose glancing over the desired, the modes and the illusory of matter move as does iron placed near a magnetic stone, my obeisances; unto You as the witness to the actions and reactions. (39) For Him who, playful like an elephant, after killing the most formidable daitya opponent in the fight, came out of the water of the Garbhodaka ocean keeping me, the earth, on top of His tusks [Hiranyaksha see 3 - 19] - for that Almighty One, I bow myself down.'



Chapter 19

The Prayers of Hanumân and Nârada and the Glories of Bhârata-varsha

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'In the land of Kimpurusha is the Supreme Lord, the Original Personality, the elder brother of Lakshmana, Râmacandra, who is so pleasing to Sîtâ; he who with the people of Kimpurusha in the devotion of worship is always engaged in service at His feet is the supreme and greatest devotee Hanumân. (2) With Ârshthishena [the leader of Kimpurusha] attentively listening to the glory of his most auspicious master and Lordship chanted by a company of Gandharvas, does he [Hanumân] himself chant this: (3) 'O my Lord, my obeisances unto You as the Sweet Lord celebrated in the scriptures, all my respects are for You who possesses all the good qualities found with the advanced, my reverence unto You as the One who has His senses under control, He who is always remembered and worshiped by the people of all places, my salutations unto You as the touchstone of quality for each seeker of truth, I bow for You, the great personality and godhead of the brahmins; unto the King of Kings my homage. (4) Let me worship Him, that transcendentally pure supreme truth, who is experienced as the one body of spiritual potency by which the influence of the modes of nature is vanquished; being not visible but by transcendence and undisturbed of nature, can He who is verily free from ego beyond name and form, by pure [natural, Krishna-] consciousness be achieved. (5) Incarnated as a human being was He for sure not only there as the Almighty One to kill the demon Râvana, but also for teaching the mortals of this material world, for what reason otherwise would there be, to the enjoyment of Him as the spiritual soul Himself, all the misery of Sîtâ of being separated from Him, the Controller? (6) In truth is He, the Supreme Soul and best friend of the selfrealized, never attached to whatever in the three worlds; He is the Supreme Lord, Vâsudeva who in fact never suffered from being separated from His wife Sîtâ - nor would ever Lakshmana, who certainly also is of that capacity to forsake. (7) Nor of one's birth is one of the Greatest, nor of one's fortune, nor of one eloquence, nor of one's wit, nor of one's physique; although we are alas but inhabitants of the forest, did Lakshmana's elder brother accept us in friendship and was the cause of pleasure in Him by all those other ways rejected. (8) Therefore, enlightened or not, beast or human being, anyone of soul should be of worship unto Râma, the foremost one so easy to please, the Lord who appeared as a human being and who thus brought the inhabitants of Kosala [Ayodhyâ], northern India, back to Godhead.'

(9) Also in the land of Bhârata is the Supreme Lord known, up to the end of the millennium as Nara-Nârâyana; thriving on the religion, the spiritual knowledge, the detachment, the yogic mastery, the control over the senses and the freedom from false ego, does He, whose glories are inconceivable, show candidates of selfrealization executing austerities, His causeless mercy. (10) The practice of analytic yoga on how one should realize God, as formulated by the Lord [Kapila, see 3-28 & 29], was instructed to Sâvarni Muni by the most powerful Nârada, who together with the followers of the system of status-orientations [the varnâs'rama system, see B.G. 4:13] living in the land of Bhârata [India], with great ecstatic love serves the Lord chanting this: (11) 'My respectful obeisances unto You o Lord, master of the senses and freedom from attachment in person, my respects unto You who art the only asset of the man of poverty. You, Nara-Nârâyana, are the most exalted of all the wise, the supreme spiritual master of all the paramahamsas [the swanlike realized masters] and the original one of the selfrealized; again and again thus my reverential homage.' (12) And he sings thereto: 'You are the executor overseeing this cosmic creation; the One who is not attached to being the master, nor do You, although You appear as a human being, suffer from hunger, thirst and fatigue; nor is the vision of You who art the seer of everything ever polluted by the material qualities; unto You as the unattached and pure witness above all emotion, my respects. (13) O Lord of Yoga, of this, what so certain was spoken of by the almighty Lord Brahmâ on how to follow perfectly to the principles of yoga, we know that at the time of death, one who has given up the identification with the body, should, with a devotional attitude, place the mind in You as the transcendence. (14) A person driven by desire is afraid thinking about his children, wife and wealth; but any person who knows of the trivial of his timebound body, sees, because that body is lost, those endeavors as a waste of time only. (15) Therefore, o master of us, o Transcendence over the senses, I pray that we, with the illusory of You, very soon may give up, this fixed idea of I and mine that to the banality of our material vehicle is so difficult to overcome; please grant us the yogic unto You so that we find our nature.'

(16) Also in this land of Bhârata there are many rivers and mountains like the Malaya, Mangala-prastha, Mainâka, Trikûtha, Rishabha, Kûthaka, Kollaka, Sahya, Devagiri, Rishyamûka, S'rî-s'aila, Venkatha, Mahendra, Vâridhâra, Vindhya, S'uktimân, Rikshagiri, Pâriyâtra, Drona, Citrakûtha, Govardhana, Raivataka, Kakubha, Nîla, Gokâmukha, Indrakîla and Kâmagiri as well as hundreds and thousands of other peaks; and the big and small rivers born on their slopes are innumerable. (17-18) Of all these waters of Bhârata find the residents purification of mind by their name only as also by touching them. The big rivers are the Candravasâ, Tâmraparnî, Avathodâ, Kritamâlâ, Vaihâyasî, Kâverî, Venî, Payasvinî, S'arkarâvartâ, Tungabhadra, Krishnâvenyâ, Bhîmarathî, Godâvarî, Nirvindhyâ, Payoshnî, Tâpî, Revâ, Surasâ, Narmadâ, Carmanvatî, Sindhu [the present Indus], the two main rivers the Andha and the Sona, the Mahânadî, Vedasmriti, Rishikulyâ, Trisâmâ, Kaus'ikî, Mandâkinî, Yamunâ, Sarasvatî, Drishadvatî, Gomatî, Sarayû, Rodhasvatî, Saptavatî, Sushomâ, S'atadrû, Candrabhâgâ, Marudvridhâ, Vitastâ, Asiknî and the Vis'vâ. (19) In this tract of land do the people, that there from goodness, from redness [passion] and from darkness are born to a class in accord with their own acquired karma, lead lives that are divine, human or hellish; and so too, according to what one did in the past, are there, delimited in terms of different castes, to the path of liberation many goals with each soul possible. (20) To anyone who - unto the Supreme Lord, the soul its sameness in all beings, the independent one, the Supersoul Vâsudeva of freedom above mind and speech - in this cuts with the cause of bondage in ignorance by means of the different ways and goals of bhakti yoga in which there is indeed an intimate relationship between the person and the Supreme Personality, is there no other cause than Him to be found.'

(21) The next is for certain what all the demigods chant: 'One says it is because of all the pious deeds that these people performed that the Lord Himself was pleased with them and that they obtained the society of the land of Bhârata-varsha; it is that Lord Mukunda, by whom we attain to service, who is indeed our aspiration. (22) Of what value are our difficult exploits of rituals, austerities, vows and charities performed or a heavenly kingdom; it is all of no importance when there, due to excess in the sensual, is not the remembrance of the lotusfeet of Lord Nârâyana. (23) Of greater value than achieving a position of eternal life is it to be born in the land of Bhârata for a mere hundred years life liable to repetition, for in such a short life of being a mortal is the work done by those who actually know to value life itself; in full detachment, do they, freed from fear, achieve the Lord His abode. (24) Where there is not the sweet stream of talks about Vaikunthha, nor the devotees always engaged in His service who take shelter with Him, nor the performance of those sacrifices for the Lord that are true festivals, than, although it could be a place inhabited by the denizens of heaven, that is certainly not a place to frequent. (25) They who obtained a human birth here and also those among the living [elsewhere] who are fully equipped with all of knowledge and action; they who albeit do not endeavor for the eternal position - such persons, go again, just like birds on the loose, into bondage. (26) By their faith are they in their performance of the rituals divided; with the oblations offered to the ruling deity, reciting mantras according the proper method, is the One God separately addressed with different names. He, complete in Himself, accepts it most happily as He is the bestower of all benedictions in person. (27) In truth does He grant the very thing that was prayed for by man, but not so indeed is He the bestower of benedictions that are asked for again and again; He personally, even unasked, gives to those engaged in His service all things desirable that continually sprout from His lotusfeet. (28) If of us from here remains any merit of our perfect sacrifice, diligent study and good deeds, than let that lead to a birth in the land of Bhârata which inspires us to remember the Lord of that place where of the devoted all good fortune is expanding.'

(29-30) S'rî S'uka continued: 'To the continent known as Jambûdvîpa [the eurasian continent, see 5-1:32], o King, are also, as some learned scholars describe it, eight subordinate divisions of land ['islands' in the sense of provinces] which were formed by the digging all around of the sons of Mahârâja Sagara [the indian part or Bhârata-varsha], who tried to retrieve the lost horse of sacrifice [see 9-8]. They have the following names: Svarnaprastha, Candras'ukla, Âvartana, Ramanaka, Mandara-harina, Pâñcajanya, Simhala and Lankâ. (31) The way they have been instructed to me, I thus have explained to You, the divisions of the land of Jambûdvîpa, o best one of Bharata.


Chapter 20

The structure of the Different Dvîpas and the Prayers by their Different Peoples

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Next I shall describe the subsections, dimensions, characteristics and form of the dvîpa ['separated area' like continent and island or also belt] named Plaksha and the others [see 5-1-32]. (2) Like Mount Meru is surrounded by the dvîpa of Jambû is it itself [seen from the inside] surrounded by a salty ocean that is just as wide. Beyond that is it, like a moat outside a park, surrounded by the dvîpa of Plaksha that, named after a Plaksha-tree as tall as a Jambû, is stretching twice as wide. At that tree rising magnificently splendorous there is a fire found counting seven flames. The master of that dvîpa is the son of Priyavrata named Idhmajihva, who divided his own dvîpa into seven varshas [lands] whom he named after his seven sons when he himself retired for the yoga of selfrealization. (3-4) S'iva, Yavasa, Subhadra, S'ânta, Kshema, Amrita and Abhaya, are thus the varshas to the different rivers and mountains. The seven mountain-ranges marking the varshas are known as Manikûtha, Vajrakûtha, Indrasena, Jyotishmân, Suparna, Hiranyashthhîva and Meghamâla. The Arunâ, Nrimnâ, Ângirasî, Sâvitrî, Suptabhâtâ, Ritambharâ and the Satyambharâ are likewise the main rivers. Touching their water washes away the passion and darkness of the four types of men there called Hamsa, Patanga, Ûrdhvâyana and Satyânga [the swanlike, the rulers, the ambitious, and the faithful; other names for the varnas or vocations]. For a thousand years they live there like gods with most beautiful bodies, having children and performing vedic rituals at the gate to heaven glorifying the Supreme Lord as the Supersoul of the Sungod by hymn, sacrifice and song: (5) 'Let us seek shelter with Lord Vishnu, the Soul of all souls who is the most authentic form of the Absolute Truth, of the religion, of Brahman, of the nectar [of eternal life] and the death, as well as of Sûrya, the God of the Sun.'

(6) From Plaksha on are on the five dvîpas the people existing there without exception born with the perfections of a long life, good sense, bodily and mental fortitude, physical power, intelligence and bravery. (7) Surrounded by an ocean of sugarcane juice measuring as wide, is there beyond Plakshadvîpa another dvîpa known as S'âlmala, that being equally wide is twice as big and is surrounded by an ocean of liquor [or wine; surâ, see footnote ] (8) That dvîpa has its name from a S'âlmali-tree as big as the Plaksha-tree and in it has, so one says, Garuda the carrier bird of vedic prayers unto Lord Vishnu, his residence. (9) The master of that dvîpa is the son of Priyavrata called Yajñabâhu. He divided it into seven varshas according the seven names of his sons: Surocana, Saumanasya, Ramanaka, Deva-varsha, Pâribhadra, Âpyâyana and Avijñâta. (10) The seven mountains and main-rivers there are known to be the Svarasa, S'ata-s'ringa, Vâmadeva, Kunda, Mukunda, Pushpa-varsha and the Sahasra-s'ruti mountains and the river Anumati, Sinîvâlî, Sarasvatî, Kuhû, Rajanî, Nandâ and Râkâ. (11) The people living in those varshas are known as S'rutadhara, Vîryadhara, Vasundhara and Ishandhara [another description of the varnas meaning those who are of listening, of the heroic, of wealth, and of obedience]; fully conversant with the vedic do they worship the Supreme Lord as Soma-âtmâ ['the true self of the sacrificial beverage' or the moongod]: (12) 'By His own effulgence does He divide the time into the light and dark period of the month [s'ukla and Krishna]; may He, that divinity of the moon as well as of the grain to be distributed to the forefathers and the gods, that King of All People, remain favorable towards us.'

(13) Following outside of that ocean of liquor is there equally wide and twice as big, a sea of ghee that, like with the dvîpa before, surrounds Kus'advîpa, of which the kus'agrass created by God gave that dvîpa its name; like another kind of fire are by the effulgence of the young sprouting grass all directions illumined. (14) The master of that island, Hiranyaretâ, the son of Mahârâja Priyavrata, o King, divided his dvîpa in seven and gave them, when he withdrew himself for his penance, in accord to his sons the names of Vasu,Vasudâna, Dridharuci, Nâbhigupta, Stutyavrata, Vivikta and Vâmadeva. (15) The seven mountain ranges and seven rivers of them are the Cakra, Catuh-s'ringa, Kapila, Citrakûtha, Devânîka, Ûrdhvaromâ and Dravina mountains and the rivers Ramakulyâ, Madhukulyâ, Mitravindâ, Srutavindâ, Devagarbhâ, Ghritacyutâ and Mantramâlâ. (16) By those waters do the inhabitants of Kus'advîpa called the Kus'alas, Kovidas, Abhiyuktas and Kulakas [or the grass-sitters, the experienced, the competitors and the artisans], proficient in the rituals, worship the Supreme Lord in the form of the God of Fire called Jâtaveda ['he who awards the wages']: (17) 'Of all the demigods of the Supreme Brahman who are the limbs of the Original Person are You the Granter of Wages, who is directly carrying the offerings of ghee and grains; please carry therefore the offerings by our sacrifices unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead.'

(18) So is, just as Kus'advîpa is surrounded, also Krauñcadvîpa all around, outside of the ocean of ghee, surrounded by an ocean of milk [or plant-juice], evenly wide and twice as big, in which the king of mountains named Krauñca is found that gave that dvîpa its name. (19) Although its vegetation was ruffed by the weapons of the son of S'iva [Kârttikeya], has it become fearless from always bathing in the ocean of milk and from the protection by the mighty Varuna [the demigod of the seas]. (20) Ghritaprishthha, the son of Mahârâja Priyavrata, ruler on that dvîpa gave the divisions of his own land in seven varsha's the names of his sons that were all as powerful as himself, and appointed each of them as master of the varsha, as he himself took shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord Hari, the soul of all souls whose glories are so auspicious. (21) Âma, Madhuruha, Meghaprishthha, Sudhâmâ, Bhrâjishthha, Lohitârna and Vanaspati were the sons of Ghritaprishthha and the seven mountain ranges and seven rivers were celebrated as the S'ukla and Vardhamâna, Bhojana, Upabarhina, Nanda, Nandana and Sarvatobhadra mountains and the river the Abhayâ, Amritaughâ, Âryakâ, Tîrthavatî, Rûpavatî, Pavitravatî and the S'uklâ. (22) Sanctified by using the pellucid waters of all those rivers do the inhabitants of those varshas called the Purushas, the Rishabas, the Dravinas and the Devakas [or the authentic, the superior, the wealthy, and the sporting ones], worship with folded palms full of water, God in the form of water: (23) 'O water, Heroic Personality, You sanctify the earth, its life, its paradise, may our touching that water which destroys all sins, thus from the true of You purify our bodies.'

(24) Consequently is, situated beyond the ocean of milk, found the dvîpa of S'âka measuring a 3.2 million yoyana's as long as it is wide; it is surrounded by an ocean of whey and its owes its name to a indeed very fragrant fig tree which makes the whole dvîpa smell aromatic. (25) The ruler there, another son of Priyavrata named Medhâtithi also divided the dvîpa in seven varshas to the names of the seven of his sons Purojava, Manojava, Pavamâna, Dhûmrânîka, Citrarepha, Bahurûpa and Vis'vadhâra, that he appointed there to be their rulers when he himself, with his mind absorbed in the unlimited of the Supreme Lord, went into the forest of penance. (26) The mountains and rivers forming the borders of the varshas are the Îs'âna, Urus'ringa, Balabhadra, S'atakesara, Sahasra-srota, Devapâla and Mahânasa mountains and the rivers the Anaghâ, Âyurdâ, Ubhayasprishthi, Aparâjitâ, Pañcapadî, Sahasra-s'ruti and the Nijadhriti. (27) The people of those varshas, the Ritavratas, the Satyavratas, the Dânavratas and the Anuvratas [the varnas of the godfearing and the ones vowed to the truth, to providing, and to following] have themselves cleansed of their passions and ignorance by the practice of regulating the breath that is ruled by the demigod Vâyu, whom they worship in transcendental absorption: (28) 'Entering all living beings are You the one Supersoul within, the Controller directly, who maintains by the functions of the inner air, please direct us; as You control the whole cosmos.'

(29) Even so beyond that ocean of whey is there another dvîpa named Pushkara that is twice as big as the one before and is outside surrounded by an ocean of sweet water in which a very big lotusflower is found with a 100 million leaves of pure gold that are like the flames of a blazing fire; that lotus is considered to be the sittingplace of the all-powerful Lord of the Lotus [Brahmâ]. (30) Within that dvîpa there is the one [mountain range] named Mânasottara marking indeed the inner and outer side of the lands there; it has, being as great as 10.000 yojanas high and wide, in its four directions the cities of the local rulers, the demigods headed by Indra. On its highest point circumambulating mount Meru moves around the chariot of the sun in an orbit that by the days and nights of the demigods consists of one whole year [a samvatsara]. (31) The ruler of that dvîpa, also a son of Priyavrata with the name Vîtihotra appointed as their rulers and named the two varshas of it to his two sons Ramanaka and Dhâtaki, when he himself like his other brothers, factually remained in activities to satisfy the Supreme Lord. (32) The people of those lands, to their duty of ritual, worship the Supreme Lord in the form of Lord Brahmâ for the fulfillment of their desires and pray this: (33) 'The form revealing the Supreme Brahman that is won by working the illusion [by vedic ritual] must be worshiped by a person who full of faith is undivided, non-deviating and of peace unto Him, the Most Powerful One we thus respect.'

(34) Beyond that there is a mountain named Lokâloka that all around exists as the boundary between the places material and immaterial. (35) The earth of the land that is all between Meru and the Mânasottara range is golden and the rest outside is as smooth as a mirror; anything dropped there can no way be found back and therefore is the place shunned by all living entities. (36) By the mountain Lokâloka that is the outer shell are this way established the designations of the worlds where material beings live and the worlds where no such beings exist. (37) That end of the three worlds created all around them by the Controller extends that excessively that for the rays of all the luminaries from the sun up to the goal of liberation of Dhruva [the universal center, see 4-12], there is no possibility to reach beyond it. (38) The scholars investigating calculated that the locations of the planets to their sizes and appearances as well as to their situations, covers as much as half a billion yojanas to which this tangible world of light constitutes but one quarter [- of the complete of all matter in it; the rest being 'dark matter' one says these days].

(39) On top of that are in the four directions by the master of the universe [Brahmâ], that is the cradle of the soul, established the best of all elephants called Rishabha, Pushkara, Vâmana and Aparâjita, that so take care of the stability of the different planets in the universe. (40) Of all his personal divinities locally ruling and all the types of heros expanding on Him, is He the Supreme Lord, the foremost and greatest personality, the great master of all grace, the Soul in the beyond, the True Self of the purest goodness characterized by religion, spiritual knowledge, detachment, all opulence and the eight great perfections [see 3-15-45]; surrounded by expansions like Vishvaksena and decorated with His different weapons held up by His own stout arms, does He, for the benefit of all worlds, manifest his form on that greatest of all mountains existing all around. (41) For the time of His creation has the Supreme Lord by His own spiritual potency thus accepted this perfected appearance, just for the purpose of maintaining that way the manifold of the various worlds of living. (42) The uninhabited nonmaterial varsha extends as far outside Lokâloka as the width found within and that beyond is the path of the Lord of Yoga that is said to be the purest.

(43) In the center of the universe are the stars found in between heaven and earth; that globe in the middle counts a quarter of a billion suns. (44) From having entered into the fixed of this globe at its time of creation, is he [Brahmâ] known as Mârtanda [the God of the Suns]; the designation known as Hyranyagarbha ['the gold inside' or Brahmâ] came into existence that way because that [golden luminosity] is where he received his body from. (45) By the sungod indeed do we have the divisions of the directions of the sky, the planets above and the worlds below, and also all other divisions of heavenly abodes, abodes of liberation as also of hellish places such as Atala. (46) The sungod, the Controller is of all sorts of living beings, as there are the godly, the lower animals, the human beings and everything crawling and creeping, the life, soul and vision.

*: According some modern interpretation do these seas refer to the bodily fluids, with the dvîpas as sections in the virâth rupa universal body of the Lord: Lavana or Salt Sea (urine), Cane juice Sea (perspiration), Sura or Sea of Wine (senses), Sarpi or Sea of ghee (semen) Dadhi or Buttermilk Sea [yoghurt, whey] (mucus), the Sea of Milk (saliva), and the sea of Pure Water (tears).


Chapter 21

The Reality of the Sungod Sûrya

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Thus far I so could with certainty tell you about the estimates of the measurement and the characteristics of the arrangement of the whole universe. (2) The experts are able to estimate and instruct on the form of the globe of the sky above, that, just as with the two halves of a grain of wheat, is divided in the two adjoining parts of the outer space on both sides. (3) In the middle is situated the most powerful master of all the heavenly bodies governing, the burning sun, that by his heat heats the three worlds and lights them by his rays; that sunglobe passing through the north and through the south or crossing the equator is known differently depending on his slowness or swiftness or equality of movement in rising and setting or staying up in different positions, as ordained moving through the different signs of the zodiac, making long days, short days or days of equal length. (4) When the sun is in the first sign and the sign counterbalancing [Mesha and Tulâ, or at the equinoxes] are at that time the days and nights of an equal length, and when he moves through the five first ones headed by Taurus and Gemini do the days [at first] certainly increase and do the nights decrease by half an hour every month [depending on the latitude]. (5) The time he stays in the five of Scorpio are the days and nights of the opposite. (6) Until the sun passes through the south are the days longer and until he passes through the north are the nights longer. (7) Thus encircling with an orbit to the Mânasottara mountains of ninety-five million one hundred thousand yojanas long, so the scholars teach [see footnote], is on the east of Meru found Devadhânî, the city of king Indra, south of it the one named Samyamanî of Yamarâja, in the west the one named Nimlocanî of Varuna, and in the north the one of the moon named Vibhâvarî. At all of these four sides of Meru thus making for the sunrise, the sunset, the noon and the midst of night causes he the particular times of the living beings to be active or to cease activity. (8-9) The ones living there are, positioned to the middle of the day, by the sun always heated; to the left of the immovable [the mountain] and to the right is where he moves from the point of rising to that position diametrically opposite where he is sure to set. There where one sees the sun no longer because he has set does it cause the people to sleep while diametrically opposite to that place he is sure to make the people sweat heating them. (10) When he in fifteen ghathikâs [six hours] moves from the residence of Indra to that of Yamarâja covers he a distance of 23.775.000 yojanas [a quarter of the circumference]. (11) From there goes he this way from where Varuna resides to the realm of the moon and then again to the place of Indra with which also the other planets and stars headed by the moon are seen rising and setting in the celestial sky. (12) So does the vehicle of the sungod, known by the three of heaven, earth and the vital sphere, in 3.400.800 yojanas per muhûrta [modern science: 39.163 million km/hr] move through the four residences. (13) It has only one wheel [a solar year] with twelve spokes [the months], six segments [the seasons] and three pieces to its hub [the four month-periods], that in its entirety is known as a tropical year [samvatsara]; its axle is fixed on the top of Meru with Mânasottara at the other end. The wheel of the chariot of the sun is fixed there rotating on the mountain range of Mânasottara like a wheel of an oil-pressing machine. (14) To that axle with its fixed base there is a second one that, like with the axle of an oilpressing machine, measures one quarter of it. By its upper portion it is fixed to Dhruvaloka [the center of the stars]

(15) The inside of the vehicle measuring 3.6 million yojanas long is but a quarter of it as wide, it is pulled by seven horses named to the vedic meters [Gâyatrî, Brihati, Ushnik, Jagatî, Trishthup, Anushthup and Pankti] that are hooked up by Arunadeva to a yoke equally long, in order to carry the god of the sun. [the actual diameter of the sun itself is 1.392 million kilometers] (16) Although Aruna, sure to keep to the job of being the charioteer, sits in front of the sungod, does he look backward. (17) There, in front of the sungod, are the sixty thousand thumbsized great sages named the Vâlikhilyas, engaged in offering their prayers, speaking eloquently [see also 4.1:39]. (18) So too do, with a variety of names, fourteen others knowing the saints, the Gandharvas, Apsaras, Nâgas, Yakshas, Râkshasas and the demigods, thus one by one in seven groups of two, every month worship the most powerful sungod Sûrya, who is the life of the universe and who carries different names depending on the different ceremonies (**). (19) Thus does the sungod traverse the 95.1 million yojanas of the circumference of the earthly sphere with a speed of two thousand and half a yojana in about a kshana [± 1,6 sec; see also verse 12].

*: To modern measurements does the earth encircle the sun at an average distance of 92,960.000 miles or 149,591,000 km. The circumference of its orbit is about 940 million km. Considering that would this calculation of the apparent geocentric path of the sun to an earthly Mânasottara range make one yojana of about 9.8 km in this context.

 ** The Vishnu Purâna states: Worshiping the most powerful demigod Sûrya, the Gandharvas sing in front of him, the Apsaras dance before the chariot, the Nis'âcaras follow the chariot, the Pannagas decorate the chariot, the Yakshas guard the chariot, and the saints called the Vâlikhilyas surround the sun-god and offer prayers. The seven groups of fourteen associates arrange the proper times for regular snow, heat and rain throughout the universe.


Chapter 22

 The movement of the Planets and their Considered Effects

(1) The king said: 'Your lordship described how the most powerful god of the sun leaves Mount Meru and Dhruvaloka to its right moving through the different signs and as well going around facing them forwards leaves them at his left side; how must we to reason accept that?

(2) To that he [S'uka] clearly stated: 'Just as it with the movements of small ants, on a potters wheel turning around, is sure that due to their changing locations there is a different experience, so too is that relative to Meru and Dhruvaloka [the central heap of stars and the galaxy center]: with the stars, that go around with the great wheel of time, they are located at the right, but of the individual motions by the planets lead by the sun upon that spinning wheel of time, is the movement to the stars and signs for sure observed differently.

(3) That cause, this supremely powerful original person directly seen as Nârâyana the Supersoul of the three Vedas, who is there for the benefit and karmic purification of all the worlds, is the cause which all the saintly and all vedic knowing is inquiring after; He arranges for the twelve divisions of the year and, according to what was enjoyed before, for the different qualities to the sixfold of the seasons beginning with spring. (4) All people downhere that, of the threefold of vedic knowledge and the higher or more earthly doings of the statusoriëntations, are following this of Him, attain without difficulty the ultimate benefit of life, according their karma worshiping and to their faith growing in yoga. (5) Therefore is He this living force of all the three worlds that between the upper and lower of the universe are positioned in outer space on the wheel of time; in twelve months passing through signs that accordingly divide the solar year, is there a month with two fortnights that are like the day and night and indeed that portion of the year that is remembered as a season covering one sixth of the orbit or two and a quarter constellation by stellar calculation [thus one speaks of twelve or more constellations, see also 3-21: 18]. (6) So too is the period of time the sun moves through half of the outer space called an ayana. (7) Now also for the time that it takes the sun, thus speeding slow, fast or moderate, to move entirely through the spheres above and below, is indeed with its passage, to the descriptions of the scholars, spoken of a samvatsara [tropical year], a parivatsara [full year], an idâvatsara [the current year] an anuvatsara [a repeated year] and a vatsara [single year].

(8) By the sunlit moon, that is situated a hundred thousand yojanas [astronomy: ± 385.000 km] above [the earth] and is moving much faster [than the sun], is so the passage of one year of the sun covered by the passage of two fortnights, is in two and a quarter of a day one solar month [or one twelfth of the sky] passed and is in only one day [the portion of] a fortnight of solar days passed. (9) So too does the moon, by its changing through the phases, wax to the part of the moon that is of the demigods and does it wane to the part of the moon that is of the forefathers. Thus it distributes the days and nights of the sum total of all living entities and is he considered the Jîva or essence of their life by one after another in [about] thirty muhûrtas [a full day] passing through a constellation. (10) This moon in all its aspects is by the scholars described as the Supreme Person, the predominating deity of the mind, the source of potency for all food and all delight of living and certainly the refreshing, all-pervading life-air of all the gods, the ancestors, all human beings and all living entities like the mammals, the birds, the reptiles and the plants.

(11) [More than] two hundred thousand yojanas behind [the moon], leaving Meru to the right are there, together with the many stars by the Controller attached to the wheel of time, the twenty-eight stars headed by Abhijit.

(12) Two-hundred thousand yojanas there about [about the star center or the sun, astronomy: at a distance of 107 million km ] is there Venus, experienced as indeed going in front, behind and going along with the sun, in its movements just like the sun rotating fast, slow or with a moderate speed. Of all the planets is he seen as constantly offering indeed as good as always favorable conditions in causing rainfall the way he wanders around and in his nullifying the influence of the planets that form an obstacle to the rainfall.

(13) Another two hundred thousand yoyana's behind Venus [astronomy: 57.9 million miles from the sun], so is explained, is there situated Mercury, the son of the moon; he is as good as always working auspiciously, but at the time he stands apart from the sun is there almost always an increase of fearful conditions like draughts, a closed sky, and stormy conditions.

(14) Two hundred thousands yojanas outside of our orbit there is also Mars [astronomy: at about 228 million km from the sun]; in three by three fortnights does he, if he doesn't make a curve, one after another pass through the twelve signs and in his approach he is as good as always an unfavorable planet giving trouble.

(15) Two hundred thousand yojanas outside of Mars [astronomy: 778.3 million km from the sun] is there the most powerful planet Jupiter who, if he doesn't run a curve, takes a year [parivatsara] to one after another move through one sign; to the brahmins in the universe he almost always turns out to be very favorable.

(16) Two hundred thousand yojanas behind him is situated Saturn [astronomy: 1.43 billion km from the sun], who takes a period of thirty months to travel through each single sign and for sure is as slow as taking an equal number of years [anuvatsara's] to pass through all of them; he indeed means almost always a lot of trouble to all.

(17) A 1.1 million yojanas beyond that one are situated all the great sages who verily always think of the good fortune of the inhabitants of all the worlds; leaving it to the right do they circumambulate the transcendental abode of the Supreme Lord Vishnu [the center of the stars].


Chapter 23

Description of the Stars of S'is'umâra, our Coiling Galaxy.

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Beyond them [the sages] one finds 1.3 million yojanas further up [astronomy: at 26 thousand lightyears from the earth] that supreme abode, praised in the Rig veda mantras, which is of Vishnu, the source of life of all entities that live from now up to the end of creation. There indeed remains the great devotee Dhruva, the son of Uttânapâda whose greatness of following devoted I already described; and around it, keeping it to the right do Âgni, the fire-god, Indra the king of heaven, the founding father the Prajâpati and Kas'yapa as well as Dharmarâja, in their concern of time always full of respect keep to their image [see 4-9]. (2) To all the restless luminaries such as the planets and the stars is that place indeed there as the, by the Controller established, incandescent radiating pivot of which the inconceivable, all-powerful force by the factor of time is known as the cause of their revolving. (3) Like three bulls that for threshing rice are yoked to a central pole, do the luminaries keep their proper places moving in their orbits fixed on inner and outer circles of the wheel of time, the same way as the planets around the sun keep their positions. Holding on to Dhruvaloka till the end of creation, they revolve as driven by the wind in the sky, just like heavy clouds and big birds that controlled by the air move their bodies around according their previous positions. So do the luminaries which, by the combined effort of material nature and the Original Person, consequential act to their previous existence, never collide with the earth.

(4) Some imagine this great wheel of planets and stars to be a s'is'umâra [a dolphin] and do, concentrated in yoga, describe it as [the visible of] the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva [see also a picture of the celestial sky as factually seen in a telescope]. (5) With, situated at the end of its tail, Dhruvaloka and with its head bend downwards, it has its body coiled up. The Prajâpati, Agni, Indra and Dharma are found on the tail with also Dhâtâ and Vidhâtâ at its base; the seven sages are situated on its hip; coiling to the right there are as its separate parts the constellations of the fourteen stars [from Abhijit to Punarvasu] that mark the northern course and to the left in the north there are the same number of them [from Pushyâ to Uttarâshâdhâ], that for sure make it on both sides appear like the coiled body of a dolphin. On its back are of course seen the first three stars [Mûlâ, Pûrvasâdhâ and Uttarâshâdhâ] and on the belly one sees the celestial Ganges [the band of stars of the complete body of the S'is'umâra star cluster that we know as our Milky Way]. (6) Punarvasu and Pushyâ make up for the loins right and left, Ârdrâ and As'leshâ also to the right and left are his flippers, Abhijit and Uttarâshâdhâ are the left and right nostril with next in order of following S'ravanâ and Pûrvâshâdhâ for the eyes left and right; Dhanishthhâ and Mûlâ make up for the right and left ear and the eight stars such as Maghâ marking the southern course are to be seen as the left ribs while the same number of stars like Mrigas'îrshâ that mark the northern course are there as the ribs positioned in reverse order to the right. S'atabhishâ and Jyeshthhâ should be seen in the position of the right and left shoulder. (7) On the upper chin there is Agasti and on the lower one there is Yamarâja. To the mouth there is Mars, to the genitals there is Saturn, Jupiter is there to the back of the neck, the sun is there for the chest, within the heart is Lord Nârâyana found and in the mind the moon. On the navel there is Venus, on the two sides of the breast reside the As'vins, Mercury is there to the in- and outward breath, Râhu is the neck and the comets are found all over its body with the numerous stars as the pores.

(8) This [form of S'is'umâra] indeed is for sure the form of the Supreme Lord, of Lord Vishnu who consists of all the demigods; observing it each morning, noon and evening one should in worship meditate controlling one's words as follows: 'Our obeisances unto this resting place of all the luminous worlds, unto the master of the demigods, the great Personality in the form of Time, upon whom we meditate' ['namah jyotih-lokâya kâlâyanâya animisâm pataye mahâ-purushâya abhidhîmahi', see also 2.2:24] (9) Those who of that leader of the demigods consisting of all the planets and stars, that destroyer of sin, do the mantra above, three times offering their respects and three times meditating, will very quickly have all sins annihilated they are into at the time.  

N.B: See also the pages on galactic time further explaining on this subject.


Chapter 24

The Nether Worlds

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'There is the one [the moon] eclipsing the sun [and then is called 'Râhu'] that just like the sun comes around and of which some learned ones say that it, countless yojanas ['ten-thousand'] below the sun, for the lifetime of the demigods occupies a position as a leading planet. About the birth and activities of the lowest of the ignorant, the son of Simhikâ, who personally won the grace of the Supreme Lord, but who indeed is not qualified for the position [of being the ruler over this 'planet'], I shall explain later. (2) They estimate that the sun has a width of ten thousand yojanas, that the moon is twenty thousand yojanas wide and that Râhu is thirty thousand yojanas large [compare 5.21.15] and that it on occasion, with inimical intentions overruling the sun- and moongod their influence, obstructs the distribution of the moon- and sunshine. (3) The Supreme Lord around for the protection of both operates by the supreme presence of the wheel of time [the Sudars'ana Cakra] which is deemed the dearmost devoted and most favorite weapon that by its power and unbearable heat makes Râhu, with its fearful mind and frightened heart, flee away from that position of being around for almost an hour and of which the people thus speak of a solar eclipse.

(4) To an equal measure of distance are there beneath it [compare 5.22.8] indeed the residential places of the perfected ones, the venerable ones of the Veda and the ones founded in knowledge [the Siddhas, Câranas and Vidyâdhara's]. (5) Nether from them there are the places of sense gratification of the mad, the possessed, the demonic and alike [the yaksha's, Râkshasa's and Pis'âca's], that stretch out as far as the wind blows the clouds one can see in the atmosphere. (6) Beneath that atmosphere that is a hundred yojanas thick and thus is as high as swans, vultures, eagles and other birds of size can fly, there is this earth [according modern measurements does the regular, uniform atmosphere reach up to 80 km above the earth].

(7) As stated before [see 2.1:26-27] is there to the planet earth, according the arrangement of its different places, a nether region of seven other spheres of its width and length, that are positioned one after another with intervals of countless [more existential] yojanas. (8) In these worlds that for sure are hollow to the heavenly ones is there even a greater lust experience and enrapture in opulence; under the influence of the things of wealth offer the houses and gardens of them a better opportunity to the demons, ghosts and snakes of sense gratification. Always overjoyed out of attachment to the wives, children, family, friends and followers are the leaders of the households, living in an illusory heaven, even better than the ones of control, the godly, capable of an unimpeded fulfillment of desires. (9) There, my dear King, are by Maya [the asura architect of the Daityas] with faithless trickery and a plethora of rich ornamentation, constructed cities surrounded by walls with gates, which have excellently built wonderful houses, offices, halls, schools and public facilities. The landowning leaders to that hollow sham there occupy the best of houses that shine bright of decoration and are crowded by snakelike, godless people and couples of pigeons, parrots and myna's. (10) The gardens and parks have a great appeal on the mind and senses, giving pleasure with their masses of flowers and fruits of which the by creepers embraced branches of the trees nicely bent low in attraction. By the magnificence of the variety of birds in pairs frequenting the ponds filled with sparkling clear water agitated of jumping fish, by the lotusflowers in those waters, the lilies, the kuvalaya and kahlâra flowers, the blue and red lotuses and the greatest of them with thousands of petals, and by the uninterrupted joy of the varieties of all the sweetly vibrating birds who built their nests in the forests is, surpassing the beauty of the residential places of the godly, the sense enjoyment invoked. (11) For certain is one there of no anxiety about the divisions of time to the operations of night and day. (12) All darkness there is driven away by indeed the best of the gems on the hoods of the great serpent. (13) Nor are the ones residing there, eating, drinking and bathing a divinity of herbs, juices and elixirs, either anxious about diseases, mental troubles, being of age, having wrinkles, gray hair, etc. or about the miseries of losing one's strength with a fading luster, bad smelling perspiration, fatigue or a lack of energy. (14) No way can any of the virtuous or death itself influence them, except for the weapon of the Lord His powerful wheel of time. (15) It is practically always out of fear for the Lord his cakra-order that the wives of the godless lose their fetuses in miscarriage.

(16) Now then, in the world of Atala resides Bala the godless son of Maya and by him indeed are there propagated the ninety-six types of illusion of which some characters handy with the illusory even today make use. Also were of his yawning mouth generated the svairinî [class-loyal], kâminî [lusty class-disloyal] and pums'calî [promiscuous] women who, thus so sure initiated into the nether worlds, for their personal enjoyment with glances, smiles, talks and embraces, prepare man for indulging in sexual pleasure to their own liking by means of a herb called hâthaka [cannabis indica]. It is said that a man under the influence of it thinks of himself full of pride and conceited as 'I am the ruler' and 'I am as strong as a thousand elephants'.

(17) Beneath it on Vitala, surrounded by his ghostly associates, remains the master of gold, Lord S'iva with his wife Bhavânî in sexual union in order to increase the population of the founding father his creation. From that world thus emanates from the fluids of that union the great river named Hâthakî of which the firegod, by the wind being brightly inflamed with great strength, drinking of it, hissing spits out the gold called Hâthaka for the ornaments that are worn by the men and women of the homes of the great asura's.

(18) Beneath that world is there on Sutala the greatly celebrated, very pious and spiritually advanced son of Virocana, Bali Mahârâja. Desiring to settle the welfare of king Indra, did the Supreme Lord from Aditi assume a body, appearing in the form of a vâmana, a dwarf. It was by the causeless mercy of the Supreme Lord who wrested away from him the three worlds, that even today he, certain in worshiping by his own religious duty, remains fearless unto the most venerable Supreme Personality; he was blessed with the good fortune of regaining an even to the gods of Indra's heaven unparalleled opulence. (19) This truly was not the direct result of donating lands; that which was given with great respect, an attentive mind and with faith, in approaching the topmost one, the Supreme Lord who is the most worthy recipient and best sacrificial ground, the life and soul and supreme regulator Lord Vâsudeva of the scores of beings, was directly the gate which liberated to the opulence of the nether imitation of heaven. (20) He, of whom a person, being helpless when in hunger, falling down or stumbling and such, indeed once practices the holy name, washes one the bondage of karma away, that otherwise for persons trying to find liberation for sure is such an inevitable great stumbling block. (21) Of all the great devotees and the selfrealized of the true self who give themselves without reservation is He that Supreme Soul, the Paramâtma. (22) It is in truth not because of the material opulence thus surely extended that the Supreme Personality showed His favor to especially him again, as being robbed of the remembrance of the soul is an attribute of the illusory of matter, mâyâ. (23) To that which was done by the Supreme Lord who by no other means can be perceived, namely the taking away of the three worlds by means of the trick of begging [three steps of land] so that nothing remained but his own body which was then completely bound by the ropes of Varuna and detained in a mountain cave, he thus factually said: (24) 'How regrettable it is indeed that I myself, this very learned and to his self-interest very experienced Indra of heaven, who chose as his prime minister and one preceptor Brihaspati, personally ignoring the Lord in the form of Upendra [Lord Vâmana], with neglect for the certainty of the very blessings of serving the Reality of Him that lasts for ever, for himself requested the three worlds of which the value will change after the time of a manvantara [an age of Manu]! (25) Certainly was the service of Him by our grandfather [Prahlâda] readily accepted, but not the offer of his paternal property [the kingdom of Hiranyakas'ipu]; it was none other than the Supreme Personality he thus wanted, being offered that sure shelter of freedom from fear when his father was killed by the Supreme Lord [Lord Nrisimhadev]. (26) In other words: what, to the desire to follow, is a materially contaminated person who like us is deprived of the Lord His mercy, compared to that great follower on the path of devotion?' (27) Later on in the narration about him [see canto eight] I will explain how the Supreme Lord [Vâmanadeva] as the master of the three worlds, Nârâyana in person, with an always graceful heart towards His devotees standing at the gate with the club in His hand, by the big toe of His foot did put the ten headed demon [known as Râvana] who wanted to conquer over him, at the farthest distance of countless yojanas.

(28) Below Sutala in the world of Talâtala rules the dânava [demon] king named Maya; by the most powerful Tripurâri [S'iva], the Lord of the three cities, were, desiring the good fortune of the three worlds, his cities burnt; but by the grace of mercy did he obtain a kingdom as the master of all sorcery and thus being protected by Mahâdeva [the great god that is S'iva], he thinks he need not fear the Sudars'ana Cakra [the acute presence of the Lord in the form of Time] that is worshiped.

(29) Beneath that world there is the world of Mahâtala which is of the descendants of Kadrû who have a name as a bunch of ever angry many hooded cruel snaketypes, as there are the notorious Kuhaka, Takshaka, Kâlya, and Sushena. Greatly sensual they are constantly afraid of the king of all birds [Garuda], the carrier of the Original Personality, who sometimes infuriates them when they are sporting in the company of their wives, children, friends and relatives.

(30) Situated below that world there is Rasâtala that is of the daitya's and danava's [the evil minded sons of Diti and Danu] named the Panis, the Nivâta-kavacas, the Kâleyas and the Hiranya-puravâsîs; they are from birth so said the very cruel and greatly powerful enemies of the demigods and are inevitably defeated by the might of the Supreme Lord Hari so favorable to all the worlds. Living like the snakes are they in truth afraid of the King of Heaven through the words of a mantra of Saramayâ, a female votary of Indra.

(31) Below that world there is Pâtâla, the world of the master snakes; headed by Vâsuki are there S'ankha, Kulika, Mahâs'ankha, S'veta, Dhanañjaya, Dhritarâshthra, S'ankhacûda, Kambala, As'vatara and Devadatta and so on. With the shortest temper do they all live very enslaved to material happiness and have they verily indeed five, seven, ten, a hundred or a thousand hoods, with on their crests fixed the most valuable gems of which the effulgence disperses the vast darkness of the caves of Pâtâla.  


Chapter 25

The Glories of Lord Ananta

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'At a distance of thirty-eight thousand yojanas beneath the base of Pâtâla [see footnote *] remains He who is indeed the part of the Supreme Lord that relates to darkness and is called Ananta [the eternal one]; the truthful of vision and understanding derive the idea of the self-concept of having an I, an ego, as a symptom [of that darkness] thus, from Him, Sankarshana, so the learned declare [see also 3.26: 25 and 4.24: 35]. (2) This universe is, as seen sustained on only one of the thousands of hoods of the Supreme Lord in the form of Anantadeva, just like a white mustard seed [like a single galaxy among many others in deep space]. (3) Of His desire to, in due course of time, by anger destroy this so very beautiful spinning world, is indeed from between His eyebrows a Rudra [an incarnation of Lord S'iva] named to Sankarshana formed from which eleven three-eyed expansions upholding pointed tridents arose. (4) On the round surfaces of the brilliant pink gemlike toenails of His lotusfeet do the leaders of the snakelike with the best of the devotees in unalloyed devotion offering their prayers, see, to the effulgence of the glittering earrings decorating their cheeks, their own faces beautifully reflected and are their minds truly refreshed. (5) The marriageable princesses of the serpent kings for certain hoping for the blessings of Him indeed, smear with an ointment of saffron, aloe, and sandalwood paste the gleaming roundings of His auspicious, beautiful, white, spotless arms that are like columns of silver; by the contact are due to the entrance of Cupid their hearts beating faster and see they, bashfully as lotusflowers, His appreciative, very attractive delicate, beautiful smiles that intoxicate them mad with delight about his rolling, pink and kindly glancing eyes and face. (6) That Ananta is for certain the Supreme Lord, the reservoir of all transcendental qualities and the original Godhead who in restraint of the force of His intolerance and wrath remains for the welfare of the humans of all worlds. (7) Being constantly meditated upon by the scores of the enlightened and unenlightened, the semi-divine snakelike, the perfected, the heavenly singers and the ones founded in knowledge and the wise, does he, delighted under the influence roll His eyes to and fro. By the nectar of a fine choice of words and sweet song are His associates, the leaders of the different groups of intelligence, pleasing Him whose luster never fades, who is ever fresh with the fragrance of the tulsî blossoms that with their honey madden the bees about His thus even more beautiful vaijayantî flowergarland. Clad in blue with only one earring and the beauty of His auspicious hands placed on the handle of His plow is He, wearing a golden belt, engaged in transcendental pastimes being the Supreme Lord in person, as invincible as Indra's elephant. (8) Those after liberation who by mouth of the tradition hear about the glories of this one Lord, find the knot that since time immemorial of the illusory energy, consisting of passion, goodness and slowness, in the unconscious of fruitive action was tied in the core of their hearts, very soon cut.

The greatly powerful son of Brahmâ, Nârada, along with his instrument the tumburu, describes him in the brahman assembly in select poetry: (9) 'By whose form unlimited and beginningless and by whose glance, with goodness leading, the modes of material nature were enabled to act as the primal causes for creation, maintenance and destruction; He who is one of Soul and diverse in manifestation, how can His path with certainty be understood? (10) Out of His mercy for us He exhibited His existence in different forms as being completely transcendental to this manifestation of cause and effect; He who in His pastimes, to the minds of His devotees, shines as the most liberal and powerful master of all beings, taught us to conquer free from material concerns. (11) Any person in distress who accidentally heard of, or whatever fallen soul who just for fun could chant or repeat His name, will instantly see the endless sinful of human association vanquished; of whom else but Lord Ananta S'esha should any seeker of salvation take shelter? (12) This universe with its mountains, trees, oceans and beings is like an atom fixed on the crest of Ananta, the thousand headed one; whomever, however many his tongues, is, due to His inscrutable power, able to enumerate His potencies? (13) Existing completely self-sufficient at the base of the nether worlds is Ananta the so very powerful Supreme Lord of insurmountable prowess and the great of all transcendental qualities and glory, who playfully for its maintenance keeps the earth from falling.'

(14) All the destinations that those desiring after material enjoyment, according their karma, in this thereof fashioned universe can achieve, have thus for true as was received been described. (15) As you inquired, have I shown you, o King, what, to the people their inclinations and nature, are the inevitably resultant different higher and lower kinds of destinations; what else should I tell you about?'

* : The mentioning of distance in connection with the transcendental reality of Ananta suggests a physical correlate in the universe that compares to the darkness of the intergalactic space that as an organic existence of eternity, purity and divinity or void of self envelops all the galaxies in the cosmos, giving each his own 'snake'-foundation in the darkness of an awareness of 'I'. The actual shortest distance between the center of our stellar system and the outerspace of darkness below it is about 3500 lightyears.


Chapter 26

The Hellish Worlds or the Karmic Rebound

(1) The king said: 'O great saint, from where came the variegated of living in the different worlds?'

(2) The sage said: 'Because of the varying degrees of belief of the ones engaged with the three modes of material nature became so the complete of the resulting diversity of destinations possible. (3) Now, of the impiety of what we know as forbidden actions will there accordingly no doubt, depending the different faith of the performer, be a different consequence to the karmic action; let me explain you about the extend of the thousands of hellish conditions typical for the ones of desire who from time immemorial out of ignorance indeed in so many different ways were out for their advantage.'

(4) The king said: 'What one calls hell out here, my Lord, is that a particular place on earth or is that outside of the worlds we know, or somewhere in between?'

(5) The rishi said: 'It is certainly found between the three worlds towards the lower region, beneath the earth; somewhere above the causal waters live they, the forefathers headed by Agnishvâttâ, who in the directing of their own families with great absorption in the truth for sure are longing for the blessings. (6) It is there that their ruler, the son of the Sungod [Yamarâja] has his kingdom; the dead brought there by his people are according the weight of their karmic faults subjected to punishments that are executed by him who with his followers is never in transgression with the Supreme Lord. (7) Some are sure to count there to be twenty-one hells, o King, of which the names, forms and characteristics, I thus, one after another outlining them, will recount to you. There are: Tâmisra, Andhatâmisra, Raurava, Mahâraurava, Kumbhîpâka, Kâlasûtra, Asipatrâvana, Sûkaramukha, Andhakûpa, Krimibhojana, Sandams'a, Taptasûrmi, Vajrakanthaka-s'âlmalî, Vaitaranî, Pûyoda, Prânarodha, Vis'asana, Lâlâbhaksha, Sârameyâdana, Avîci, Ayahpâna, and some more like Kshârakardama, Rakshogana-bhojana, S'ûlaprota, Dandas'ûka, Avatha-nirodhana, Paryâvartana and Sûcîmukha. These twenty-eight hells are the different places of requital.

(8) There is the person who, but having taken the money, the wife or another man's children away, is sure, by the most terrible men of death to be bound with the ropes of time and by force to be thrown into the hell of Tâmisra ['the darkness'] where he has to starve, crave for water, is beaten up with sticks and is scolded at; the living entity by the severe punishments received there certainly at times loses his consciousness having gotten into that most dark condition. (9) Sure so too is there Andhatâmisra where he, who but cheats another man to enjoy his wife and children, by his life forcibly is thrown into; by suffering always the utmost misery has he, being lost in losing his sense and sight, become much like a tree cut down by the roots, the reason for which one speaks of Andhatâmisra [the 'blind of darkness']. (10) The one who in his life here considers his body either to be his self or his own and who so, envious of others selfish, day after day works to support his own family only, such a person will, giving up on this world, for sure of that sin see himself fall down in Raurava. (11) The beings who in this life were harmed by him, who in the afterlife is being subjected to the miseries of restraint, turn into savage creatures indeed that to the same extend hurt him; because of these savage creatures [called ruru's], that are more vicious than snakes, do the scholars thus speak of the name Raurava [which also refers to the fearful, the unsteady and the dishonest]. (12) So is there the certainty of Mahâraurava [ the 'great beast'] wherein a person, who is only intent upon maintaining his body, is thrown to be killed and eaten by the ruru-animals named kravyâda. (13) But a person who in this life is either very cruel towards animals or cooks them alive is, condemned by even the most cruel hearted man-eaters, in his next life by the servants of Yamaraj thrown in Kumbhîpâka ['the hell of the cooking pot'] to be cooked in boiling oil himself. (14) But anyone out here who kills a brahmin, such a person will be forced into a hell named Kâlasûtra ['the long course of time'] that with a circumference of ten-thousand yojanas and a surface of copper is heated by the sun and by fire from above and below. Internally plagued by hunger and thirst and externally being scorched does his body at times stay down, at times move its limbs; at times standing and at times running here and there, for the duration of as many thousands of years as there are hairs on the body of an animâl. (15) And anyone who in his life for no reason deviates from the path laid out for him in the Vedas resorting to a system of his own making, is forced into Asi-patravana ['the razor-sharp forest'] where he is beaten with a whip so that sure of that he runs hither and tither having his body on both sides cut by the razor sharp edges of palm trees; he who killed his own religious principles will thus suffer the result of following an atheistic path and, in the greatest pain thinking 'Oh how lost I am!', fall down at every step having lost consciousness. (16) But anyone who in this life indeed as a king or servant of the king inflicts punishment upon an innocent man or beats a brahmin's body, that most sinful one will in his afterlife fall down in the hell of Sûkaramukha ['hog's mouth']. There will the different parts of his body by the strong assistants be crushed as if it concerned sugarcane; for sure just like the innocent one taken in for punishment will he then pitiably crying it out, become illusioned, at times fainting. (17) Anyone though, who in this life indeed towards some creatures designed by the Creator which unaware of the pain of others parasite, himself causes pain in his survival very well knowing what he does to others of God, such a person lands in his afterlife in Andhakûpa ['the overgrown well']. Therein will that person indeed fall down according the malice he did to them, the respective entities, the animals, wild beasts, birds, snakes, mosquito's, lice, worms and flies and whatever others; just as the ones with their inferior body will he in the darkness be persecuted, hurt and disturbed by them everywhere and wander around not being able to find a place to rest. (18) Or anyone who in his life without dividing it, eats whatever he obtained by the grace of God, without the five forms of sacrifice [to the gods, the wise, the ancestors, the needy and the animals], is considered to be alike a crow; such a person will in his afterlife fall down into the most abominable hell of Krimibhojana ['to feed on worms'] where, landing in a hundred thousand yojanas wide lake full of worms, he as a worm himself is sure to feed on and on his turn is eaten by the other worms for as many years as that lake is wide. Such is the pain that he, who without atonement eats food not shared and offered, gives himself. (19) Anyone indeed who without apparent reason in this life is of theft or violence, stealing gold, gems and so on from a brahmin or from others, that person, o King, will in his afterlife by the men of Yamarâja with red-hot iron balls and tongs have his skin torn to pieces [because of the tongs is that hell called Sandams'a]. (20) Or any person, both man or woman, who in this life approaches an unsuitable desirous one for sexual intercourse will in his afterlife be beaten by whips and forced to embrace a very hot iron image to the form of a man being a woman or the form of a woman being a man. [: Taptasûrmi, the hell of 'the red hot iron statue']. (21) Anyone who in this life verily indiscriminately has sexual intercourse; he will in his afterlife be in the hell of Vajrakanthaka-s'âlmalî ['thunderbolt-thorn cotton tree'] where hung [on the thorns] he will be pulled down. (22) Or persons who in this life were truly of royalty or of the government, but despite of high birth transgressed the boundaries of dharma, they having died fall down in Vaitaranî ['the river of impetuous passion']; having broken with the principles of rule do they suffer in that moat around hell being eating by ferocious animals in the stream here and there. Unable to separate from the body and carried by the vitality of their sin are they then reminded of their bad deeds pained in the river of stool, urine, pus, blood, hair, nails, bones, marrow, flesh and fat. (23) But persons who in this life indeed as husbands to low class women lost their cleanliness, good behavior and regulated life, shamelessly behaving like animals, they too indeed will, having died, fall in an ocean full of pus, excrement, urine, mucus and saliva, only eating all that which is so extremely disgusting [: the Pûyoda hell of 'fetid waters']. (24) Those though affiliated to the brahminical, who in this life either keeping dogs or asses, take pleasure in hunting, in offense with the rules indeed killing those animals, will after their death themselves become the targets of Yamarâja's men who will pierce them with arrows [the hell of Prânarodha, 'the suppression of breath']. (25) And people who in this life being so very proud of their wealth and position for their prestige in sacrifices kill animals, they will in the next world fall into the hell of Vis'asana ['the sleeplessness'], where the helpers of Yamarâja making them suffer will kill them. (26) But he who in this life indeed as a high class person, deluded by his lusts causes the wife of the same caste to drink his semen, he of that sin will his next life, being thrown into a river of semen and be forced to drink it himself [this is the hell of Lâlâbhaksha, 'to have semen for food']. (27) And persons who out here were real thieves of arson and poison plundering villages and the mercantile class, the royalty and the government or those who are so even belonging to them, they will for certain having died, be devoured by the voracious sevenhundred and twenty mighty toothed dogs of the Yamadûtas [: the hell of Sârameyâdana 'the dogs meal']. (28) He who also in this life speaks a lie or bears false witness in exchange for goods, in giving charity or in some other way, that person indeed after dying will, head first, free fall been thrown into the hell of Avîcimat ['having no water'] from the top of hundred yojana high mountain. There is the land that appears like water, of stone and arid; with the body broken in pieces he does not die but is raised to the top to fall down again. (29) Or anyone or his wife who out of illusion in his life indeed, verily under the vow as a learned one, a ruler or a trader, drinks intoxicating beverages [soma-rasa] or drinks liquor, they all, being brought to hell, will by foot stepped on their chest have red-hot molten iron poured into their mouths [: the hell of Ayahpâna, 'iron-drink'].

(30) Furthermore, anyone also who in his life but by false pride proved himself degraded before a more honorable one of good birth, austerity, knowledge, good behavior and loyalty to the principles, not showing much of respect, is a dead man alive who after dying head down is thrown into the hell of Kshârakardama [the 'pool of acrid mud'] to suffer indeed the most painful conditions. (31) And persons who in this life veritably were men that sacrificed other men in worship [of Kâlî] or women that used men for sacrifice eating them, those killers will like animals be slain in the abode of Yamaraj, punished by the râkshasas alike them who cut them with swords to pieces, drink their blood and dance and sing thereto in delight just like they as man-eaters themselves did in the world [the hell called Rakshogana-bhojana, 'to be the food of the devil']. (32) Persons though who out here brought near innocent creatures seeking shelter in the forest or the village, making them believe to be safe, but giving them pain fixing them like a plaything on a lance or a leash, those people are certain after their death to have their own bodies be fixed likewise and, overwhelmed by hunger and thirst and such, to be tortured by sharp beaked birds like herons and vultures, so that they may remember the sins they committed [the hell of S'ûlaprota, 'pierced on the lance']. (33) Those men of an angry nature, who in this life actually caused unnecessary pain to others, they too will after dying fall down in a hell called Dandas'ûka ['the cudgel in return'] where, o King, five- and seven hooded serpents raise to eat them just like mice. (34) Or, people who in this life either in a blind well, in granaries or in caves, confine living beings will likewise in the next life for sure be forced to enter the same places to be confined there with poisonous fumes, fire and smoke [the hell called Avatha-nirodhana, 'to be thrown in the dark']. (35) But a person who this life as a householder repeatedly receiving guests or visitors, gave them a sinful look of anger as if to burn them with his eyes, he for sure lands in the hell of those with a sinful vision where one's eyes violently by the powerful beaks of herons, vultures and crows are plucked out [the hell of Paryâvartana, 'the eyes plucked']. (36) The egotistic ones whose vision is crooked, who are full of suspicion towards all and whose heart and face by the thought of expenditure and loss have dried up, and who like ghosts protecting the wealth never find happiness, they too, after death will of the sinful acts to protecting those riches and their increase of income, fall down in a hell called Sûcîmukha ['the pin-first'], where indeed the commanders of Yamarâja like expert weavers with thread and needle stitch the limbs of the body of the money grabbing ghost and great sinner.

(37) For all who lack in dharma that I mentioned and also for those I did not mention, are there indeed according the degree of sinfulness all these sorts of hells to fall into of which there are many hundreds and thousands in the realm of Yamarâja, o King; similarly are there elsewhere out here for the ones of principle and piety new births to enter when the results of piety or vice are exhausted [compare B.G. 4:9]. (38) The path of liberation I described to you In the beginning [cantos two and three]; there I showed how the Supreme Lord Nârâyana in the purâna sure could be as much as the universe that is like an egg divided in fourteen parts; I described the gross form of Him, consisting of His own energy and qualities, as directly the Great Person [the Virâth Rûpa]. That person who venerating hears and reads or explains about that song of the Supreme Personality of the Supersoul will, although it is difficult to understand, by faith and devotion have his intelligence purified so that he may comprehend. (39) Hearing about the gross as well as the subtle form of the Supreme Lord, should the adept of transcendence lead the mind conquered by the gross form, thus in contemplation step by step to the subtle, the spiritual form. (40) Of this planet earth, have the different realms and regions, the rivers, the mountains, the sky, the oceans and the direction and situations of the lower worlds, the hellish worlds and the higher worlds above by me been described to you, o King; how wonderful this gross body of the Supreme Controller is where the whole mass of living entities reposes!.' 


Thus ends the fifth Canto of the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam named 'The Creative Impetus'.


Translation: Anand Aadhar Prabhu, http://bhagavata.org/c/8/AnandAadhar.html

Production: the Filognostic Association of The Order of Time, with special thanks to Sakhya Devi Dasi for proofreading and correcting the manuscript. http://theorderoftime.com/info/guests-friends.html

The sourcetexts, illustrations and music to this translation one can find following the links from: http://bhagavata.org/ 

For this original translation next to the Sanskrit dictionary a one-volume printed copy has been used with an extensive commentary by A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda. ISBN: o-91277-27-7 . See the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam treasury: http://bhagavata.org/treasury/links.html for links to other sites concerning the subject.

home      contact us