The Mahabharata
  Srimad Bhagavatam

  Rig Veda
  Yajur Veda
  Sama Veda
  Atharva Veda

  Bhagavad Gita
  Sankara Bhashya
  By Edwin Arnold

  Brahma Sutra
  Sankara Bhashya I
  Sankara Bhashya II
  Ramanuja SriBhashya


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  Manu Smriti

  Bhagavad Gita
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See for the online version with illustrations, music and links to the previous translation: http://bhagavata.org/ 


"The story of the fortunate one"  




Chapter 1 King Sudyumna Becomes a Woman

Chapter 2 The Dynasties of Six of the Sons of Manu

Chapter 3 The Marriage of S'ukanyâ and Cyavana Muni

Chapter 4 Ambarîsha Mahârâja Offended by Durvâsâ Muni

Chapter 5 Durvâsâ Saved: the Cakra-prayers of Ambarîsha

Chapter 6 The Downfall of Saubhari Muni

Chapter 7 The Descendants of King Mândhâtâ

Chapter 8 The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord Kapiladeva

Chapter 9 The Dynasty of Ams'umân

Chapter 10 The Pastimes of Lord Râmacandra

Chapter 11 Lord Râmacandra Rules the World

Chapter 12 The Dynasty of Kus'a, the Son of Lord Râmacandra

Chapter 13 The Story of Nimi and the Dynasty of his Son Mithila.

Chapter 14 King Purûravâ Enchanted by Urvas'î

Chapter 15 Paras'urâma, the Lord's Warrior Incarnation

Chapter 16 How Lord Paras'urâma Came to Destroy the Ruling Class Twenty-one Times

Chapter 17 The Dynasties of the Sons of Purûravâ

Chapter 18 King Yayâti Regains His Youth

Chapter 19 King Yayâti Achieves Liberation: the Goats of Lust

Chapter 20 The Dynasty of Pûru up to Bharata

Chapter 21 The Dynasty of Bharata: the Story of Rantideva

Chapter 22 The Descendants of Ajamîdha: the Pândavas and Kauravas

Chapter 23 The Dynasties of the Sons of Yayâti: the Appearance of Lord Krishna

Chapter 24 The Yadu and Vrishni Dynasties, Prithâ and the Glory of Lord Krishna


 Chapter 1

King Sudyumna Becomes a Woman

(1) The king said: 'I've listened to your descriptions of all the periods of the Manus and all the wonderful actions of the Lord of Eternal Heroism performed in those periods. (2-3) He who was known by the name of Satyavrata, the saintly king and ruler of Dravidades'a, received at the end of the previous day of Brahmâ the spiritual knowledge by rendering service to the Male Principle [the purusha]. From You I heard how he indeed as a son of Vivasvân [the sungod] thus became the Manu. You have spoken about his many sons, the kings headed by Ikshvâku [8.13: 1]. (4) O brahmin, please describe each of the dynasties of those kings and what characterized them, o greatly fortunate one, as that is the eternal of our service unto You indeed. (5) Please tell us about the exploits of all those pious and celebrated souls who have lived, who will live in the future and who are there around right now.'

(6) S'rî Sûta said: "Thus in the assembly of all the brahmin followers requested by Parîkchit gave the most learned in the dharma, the powerful S'uka a reply. (7) S'rî S'uka said: 'Now listen to me about the dynasty of Manu, o subduer of the enemies, as far as possible broadly discussed, as otherwise not even in a hundred years one would be done. (8) The Supersoul, that is the Original Transcendental Person of all higher and lower forms of life, indeed existed there at the end of the kalpa when nor this universe nor anything else was there. (9) From His navel generated a golden lotus and on that lotus, o King, was there the selfborn one with his four heads [see also 3.8]. (10) From his mind took Marîci his birth and from him there was Kâs'yapa who thereafter in the daughter of Daksha, Aditi, begot Visvasvân as his son [see also 6.6: 38-39]. (11-12) From him appeared in Samjñâ, Manu S'râddhadeva and in his wife S'râddha he of his self-control begot ten sons that by him were named Ikshvâku, Nriga, S'aryâti, Dishtha, Dhrishtha, Karûshaka, Narishyanta and Prishadhra, and Nâbhaga and the mighty Kavi. (13) At first had he, the Manu, no son but the great personality, the powerful Vasishthha, made sure to execute of the demigods Mitra and Varuna a sacrifice for getting sons. (14) But in that sacrifice begged S'râddha, Manu's wife, the performing priest, approaching him as prescribed with obeisances being on a payo vrata [vow of drinking only, see 8.16], for a daughter. (15) Thus requested executed the rtvik priest the ceremony, with great attention taking the ghee to commence the oblation to which the brahmin chanted the mantra 'vashat' ['to the Living Being'].

(16) By the transgression of the performing priest was a daughter born named Ilâ ['the libation'] and Manu upon seeing her, not being satisfied, then said to his guru: (17) 'O my lord, what is this, as a result of the actions of you, followers of Brahmâ, alas there is this painful deviation - to the mantras this opposite that should not have taken place! (18) How could, of the society of the wise and learned of you all aware of the Absolute Truth, composed of penance, with all impurities burnt away, there be such a discrepancy to the determination - such a falsehood?'

(19) Hearing that been said by him, the most powerful one, the Manu, spoke their great-grandfather, Vasishthha to the son of the sungod, with understanding for the flaw with the performing priest. (20) 'To this discrepancy to the purpose of your priest deviating to the intended outcome, I'm still from my own prowess capable to bring you a nice son.'

(21) Thus decided, o King, offered the renown powerful master Vasishthha prayers unto the Original Person to have of Ilâ a turn to manhood. (22) Pleased with him granted the Supreme Controller Hari the desired benediction of Ilâ becoming consequently a nice man called Sudyumna. (23-24) Sudyumna once on a hunting tour in the forest, o King, accompanied by a couple of associates and riding a horse from Sindhupradesha, went north in pursuit of the animals as a hero holding bow and arrows and wearing a most remarkable armor. (25) At the foot of mount Meru he entered the Sukumâra forest wherein the mighty Lord S'iva is enjoying with his wife Umâ. (26) Having entered there saw Sudyumna, the hero above all, himself indeed changed into a woman and his horse into a mare, o ruler of man [see also 5.17: 15]. (27) So were all of his companions transformed to the opposite sex and seeing each other like this they became very depressed.'

(28) The honorable king [Parîkchit] said: 'How can that realm have this quality or why, o mighty one, did that happen, this is what I ask you very eagerly awaiting you to deliberate on this.'

(29) S'rî S'uka answered: 'Once upon a time came the great saints to see the Lord of the Mountain, S'iva, there in that forest; best in the vow having cleared the darkness of each direction they so arrived there. (30) Ambikâ [Durgâ] naked on her husbands lap was very ashamed when she saw them and quickly got up covering her breasts. (31) The saints seeing the two enjoying sex desisted from proceeding further and left immediately that place for the âs'rama of Nara-Nârâyana. (32) Because of this said the mighty lord for the pleasure of his sweetheart: 'Anyone who enters this place will as a consequence verily turn into a woman!' (33) Ever since do in particular males not enter that forest about which she [Sudyumna] accompanied by her associates was sure to keep wandering around. (34) With her, the most enticing woman, this way surrounded by other woman loitering nearby his âs'rama, desired the powerful Budha [the son of the moon and deity of Mercury] to enjoy her. (35) She who also longed to have him, so beautiful as the son of king moon, for her husband and in her womb he thus begot Purûravâ, a son. (36) This way having achieved femininity did Sudyumna, as a king born of Manu, remember Vashishta, the preceptor of the family, so I've heard. (37) He upon seeing him in that condition was very aggrieved and desiring maleness began he out of his mercy to worship Lord S'ankara [S'iva]. (38-39) Pleased with him said he, o servant of rule, keeping true to his given word and to show the sage his love: 'This disciple of your line will every other month be a female and with this settlement may Sudyumna as desired rule the world.' (40) With this arrangement by the mercy of the âcârya having the desired maleness ruled he the whole world although the citizens were not satisfied with him. (41) Of Sudyumna there were three sons listening to the names of Utkala, Gaya and Vimala, o King; they became kings over the southern realm and were very religious. (42) Thereafter when the time was ripe handed the master of the kingdom so mighty the world over to his son Purûravâ and departed he for the forest.


Chapter 2  

The Dynasties of Six of the Sons of Manu

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'After Sudyumna, the son, thus had accepted his destination, executed Vaivasvata Manu, desirous of getting sons, austerities at the Yamunâ for a hundred years. (2) After Manu had been of worship unto the Godhead, Lord Hari, for the purpose of offspring, got he ten sons alike him of whom the eldest was named Ikshvâku [see also 8.13: 2-3]. (3) Among the sons of Manu was Prishadhra by his guru ordered to herd cows and for the purpose of their protection at night he had taken the vow of vîrâsana to guard them in the field [see also 4.6: 38]. (4) One night while it was raining, entered a tiger the land of the cowshed and got all the cows lying down, up in fear, scattering all around in the field. (5-6) When the strong animal seized one of them began that cow to cry of distress and fear. Prishadhra upon hearing the creaming followed it hastily having taken up his sword, but under the by clouds covered stars cut he in the dark of night without realizing it the cow its head off mistaking her for the tiger. (7) The tiger also hit had his ear cut off and next fled most afraid leaving blood on its trail. (8) Prishadhra, the hero to conquer all though, thinking he had killed the tiger, to his dismay discovered the next morning that he had killed the cow. (9) The family preceptor [Vasishthha] cursed him for for the - unintended - sinful deed with: 'Having acted like a s'ûdra, you cannot belong to the kshatriyas, and therefore shall it of that unholy deed be your karma to become one.' (10) The hero thus being cursed by his guru accepted it with folded hands and took up the vow of celibacy as approved by the sages. (11-13) Unto Vâsudeva the Supreme Lord and Soul of all, the Transcendent and Pure, was he unalloyed in the mode of bhakti equal and kindhearted to each living being. Freed from attachments, peaceful within and self-controlled, was he, not after possessions, of a vision in which he could accept whatever that was available for his bodily needs as being arranged by His grace for the benefit of the soul. Always with his mind to the Supreme Self within, fully absorbed satisfied in spiritual realization, traveled he all over the earth appearing as if he were deaf, dumb and blind. (14) After In that order of life having entered the forest achieved he as a saint the ultimate transcendental goal when seeing a forest fire out there he allowed the fire to consume him [see also B.G. 4.9].

(15) Another son, Kavi [or Vasumân], the youngest, had no attachments to material pleasures and after he gave up his fathers kingdom, entered he, still a young man, in the company of his friends the forest and reached he the transcendental world always keeping the effulgent Supreme Person in his heart.

(16) From he son of Manu Karûsha [or Tarûsha] was there a dynasty of kshatriyas called the Kârûshas who as kings of the northern realm were highly religious protectors of the brahminical.

(17) From Dhrishtha [or Shrishtha] came about a caste of kshatriyas who in the world, having achieved the position of brahmins, were named the Dhârshtha. Of Nriga there was the succession of first Sumati, Bhûtajyoti and thereafter Vasu. (18) Of Vasu his son Pratîka was there one named Oghavân ['the uninterrupted tradition'] who was the father of another Oghavân who had a daughter also named Oghavatî. She married Sudars'ana.

(19) From Narishyanta there was Citrasena, Riksha was his son, and of him was there Mîdhvân. Mîdhvân's son was Pûrna and Indrasena was Pûrna's son. (20) From Indrasena there was Vîtihotra, of him there was Satyas'ravâ, Urus'ravâ was his son and of him was Devadatta born. (21) Devadatta's son became the most powerful Agnives'ya who was Agni in person; he was a maharishi well known as Kânîna and Jâtûkarnya. (22) From Agnives'ya came forth a dynasty of brahmins known as the Âgnives'yâyanas. O King, thus I described the descendants of Narishyanta, now hear next about the dynasty of Dishtha.

(23-24) The son of Dishtha was Nâbhâga [unlike his uncles Nâbhaga or the Nâbhâga that was also called Nriga]. He, different, answered to the profession of the vais'yas [a merchant, see 7.11: 23]. His son was Bhalandana and of him there was Vatsaprîti. From him there was the son named Prâms'u and his son was Pramati. Know Khanitra as Pramati's successor. He was followed by Câkshusha and his son Vivims'ati . (25) Vivims'ati's son was Rambha and his son was a very religious one named Khanînetra. Of him there was the scion Karandhama, o great King, (26) The latter's son was Avîkchit whose son was Marutta who became emperor. The great mystic Samvarita, the son of Angirâ, engaged him in performing a yajña. (27) The like of Marutta's sacrifice has never been seen since, as all he used was made of gold and everything he had was of the greatest beauty. (28) Indra became intoxicated of drinking the soma-rasa, the twice-born were royally compensated, the shining ones [the Maruts] offered foodstuffs and all divinities of the universe were part of the assembly. (29) Marutta's son was Dama and of him there was one with the power to expand the kingdom: Râjyavardhana. From his son Sudhriti was a son born named Nara. (30) His son was called Kevala and Dhundhumân was his. From him came Vegavân and from Vegavân there was Budha whose son was Trinabindu, a great king. (31) Alambushâ accepted him as her husband, she was a goddess worthy of him, a girl of heaven and reservoir of all good qualities from whom a couple of sons and a daughter named Ilavilâ were born. (32) In her begot Vis'ravâ, a saint and master of yoga who had received his knowledge from his father, Kuvera: the one who brings wealth. (33) From Trinabindu's sons Vis'âla, S'ûnyabandhu and Dhûmraketu rose from Vis'âla, the king, a dynasty and was a palace constructed named Vais'âlî. (34) Hemacandra was his son and Dhûmrâksha was his and from his son Samyama there were two sons named Kris'âs'va and Devaja. (35-36) From Kris'âs'va there was a son named Somadatta. He achieved by worshiping the Supreme Person in an as'vamedha sacrifice unto the best of all, the Lord of all Praise [Vishnu], the supreme destination where all great mystics reside. A son of Somadatta named Sumati then begot one called Janamejaya. All these kings of Vais'âlî continued the fame of king Trinabindu.


Chapter 3  

The Marriage of S'ukanyâ and Cyavana Muni

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'The son of Manu named S'aryâti was a brahminical king and so he became one who gave instruction on things as the functions to be performed on the second day in the arena of sacrifice of the descendants of Angirâ. (2) There was a lotus-eyed daughter of him called S'ukanyâ with whom he went to the forest to visit the âs'rama of the sage Cyavana. (3) As she in the company of her friends was collecting fruits and flowers from the trees, saw she in an anthill some sort of two shining lights [compare 7.3: 15-16]. (4) As the young girl, ignorantly trying, poked in the light objects with a thorn, oozed there blood out of them. (5) The youngsters startled instantly froze on the spot so that the king, observing what had happened, had to address the surprised ones belonging to him. (6) 'Alas, we have done something wrong with ourselves trying for the illumined sage; it may be clear that with what one of us has perpetrated here his âs'rama has been fouled!'

(7) Afraid said S'ukanyâ to her father: 'It was I who, not knowing what I did, with a thorn have pierced two shining things.'

(8) When he heard his daughter saying this was king S'aryâti of the greatest concern to appease him, the sage who turned out to be residing within the anthill. (9) Understanding what was needed to set things right handed he, having the greatest trouble, his daughter over to the muni and took he permission to return home. (10) S'ukanyâ after having Cyavana for her husband had understanding for him who remained very grumpy with her and tried to satisfy him serving him free from wantonness. (11) But after some time had passed this way reached the two As'vins [the healers of heaven] the âs'rama. Offering them his respects said the sage: 'Please give me youth, o Masters! (12) I promise you to offer a pot of soma-rasa - although you don't drink soma - just give me back the youth and beauty so desirable to young women.'

(13) 'So be it' they thus granted the learned one complimenting him as the two great healers, 'Just dive into this lake that will bring you all perfection'.

(14) Thus being addressed was the aged one with his gray hair, loose skin and frail body of which the veins were visible, by the As'vins helped into the lake. (15) The three that rose from the lake were of the great beauty that would allure women: with lotus garlands, earrings, similar features and nice clothes. (16) After the young beauty saw them could the chaste woman not tell which of them was her husband as they were all equally beautiful shining like the sun and so took she shelter of the As'vins. (17) Pleased with the strength of her faith showed they her the saint that was her husband and returned they, taking his permission, in their celestial chariot to the heavenly worlds. (18) Having left for Cyavana's âs'rama, wishing to perform a yajña, saw king S'aryâti thus how at his daughters side there was a man as radiant as the sun. (19) The King then did not give his daughter, after she had paid her respect, his blessings as he didn't turn out to be very pleased: (20) 'What do you think you are doing now cheating on your husband the great sage honored by all the people? Did you, because he's decrepit of age, unfaithful one, not thinking him very attractive, give him up taking this man, this street beggar, for a lover? (21) Have you lost your mind? You keeping this lover, as a daughter from the most respectable family, are a disgrace to the whole dynasty; you, so shameless, are bringing your father as well as your husband down in darkness.'

(22) Chaste laughing she replied her father who was thus rebuking her: 'O father this one here is your son-in-law, the son of Bhrigu!.'

(23) She described her father everything of how he had changed in age and beauty and utterly pleased and surprised embraced he happily his daughter. (24) Cyavana Muni by his own prowess incited the great man to perform the soma-sacrifice, delivering the As'vins, who had no interest in drinking it, a pot full of the soma-rasa. (25) Greatly perturbed took Indra to kill him, impetuously, his thunderbolt up immediately but the man of Bhrigu paralyzed the arm of Indra that held the thunderbolt. (26) With the permission of all the demigods were henceforth the As'vins, who as physicians before had been denied a share in the soma-yajña, of the full pot of soma-rasa.

(27) Uttânabarhi, Ânarita and Bhûrishena were S'aryâti's three sons and begotten by Ânarita was Revata born. (28) He after in the deep of the ocean building a town called Kus'asthalî, lived materially happy and ruled kingdoms like Ânarita and others, o subduer of the enemies, and his hundred sons of whom the eldest was Kakudmî were born to the best of it. (29) Kakudmî took his own daughter Revatî before Lord Brahmâ going for his abode beyond the modes, to ask for a husband for his daughter. (30) Because he was engaged in enjoying the celestial musicians playing had he not a second for him but when it had ended could Kakudmî submit his desire to Lord Brahmâ offering him his obeisances. (31) The all-powerful Lord had to laugh about what he heard and said to him: 'Alas , o King, in the course of time, have all those that you'd like to close in your heart disappeared! (32) We do not hear anymore of the sons, the grandsons, the descendants and the dynasties as a period of three times nine mahâ-yugas has passed! (33) Therefore seek Baladeva, He is the great one of power to the God that is God's plenary portion [Lord Vishnu], and give Him, the Excellence of Man, this beautiful daughter o King. (34) The Supreme Lord, the Ever Well-wisher to lessen the burden of the world, the Virtue of the hearing and singing, has now descended with all that belongs to Him.' [see also 5.25] (35) Thus ordered returned the king, after paying the Unborn One his respects, to his own residence to find it abandoned by his brothers; they in fear of the holy had spread in all directions. (36) After handing his perfectly shaped daughter over to the most powerful One, Lord Baladeva went the king in order to perform austerities to Badarikâs'rama, the place of Nara-Nârâyana.


Chapter 4

Ambarîsha Mahârâja Offended by Durvâsâ Muni  

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Nâbhâga, the learned youngest son of Nâbhaga [see 9.1: 11-12, not the uncle also called Nriga nor the Nâbhâga of Dishtha, see: 9.2: 23] returning from a celibate life had the father when the elder brothers divided the property [among themselves].

(2) 'O, my brothers' [he said] 'What have you reserved for me as my share?'

'We allot you our father as yours' [they answered].

[To his father he then said:] 'O father, my elder brothers have not given me my share!'

[The father thereupon replied:] 'My son, take no heed of that! (3) All these so very intelligent descendants of Angirâ [see 6.6:19] are today performing a sacrifice but every sixth day after having such a day, o learned one, will they fall in ignorance because of their karma. (4-5) You yourself describe all of them great souls, two vedic hymns relating to the God of the Universe so that after they resume their own course they will deliver you the wealth of what remains of the sacrifice of their own property; therefore go to them there.'

He then did as his father had told him and so gave they him the remnants of the yajña as they returned to their own heavenly places. (6) As he was cashing in the riches said some black-looking person who had arrived from the north to him: 'All these riches remaining from the sacrifice are mine!'

(7) [He replied:] 'They're all mine, the sages have handed them over to me!'

[The black man said:] 'Let us to this head for the son of Manu, your father and ask him', and so inquired he with his father as was proposed.

(8) [Father Nâbhaga said:] 'Everything that belongs to the sacrificial arena, and what remains sometimes is by the sages set apart as a share for Lord S'iva; he is the demigod deserving it all.'

(9) Nâbhâga offered him [S'iva] his obeisances and said: 'As my father said: it's yours, o Lord, and so is for sure all that belongs to the sacrificial arena - o you of Brahmâ [see: 3.12-6-14], let me bow my head before you, I beg your pardon.

(10) [Lord S'iva said:] 'All your father said is true and also you are speaking the truth; let me, the knower of the mantras, grant you the spiritual knowledge that is transcendental and eternal. (11) Please take all the riches; I give you all that was offered on my behalf', and having spoken thus, vanished Rudra, the great lord and guardian of the dharma. (12) Anyone who in the morning and in the evening with great attention remembers this becomes learned: like a self-realized soul will he be a knower of the mantras and the destination. (13) By Nâbhâga was the most exalted and highly celebrated devotee Ambarîsha born; a curse of a brahmin against him failed: it could never ever touch him.

(14) The king said: 'O lordship, I would like to hear about him, that king who was such a sober personality that the so insurmountable power of a brahmins measure had no effect on him.'

(15-16) S'rî S'uka said: 'Ambarîsha, the man of great fortune, meant that, after achieving on this earth consisting of the seven continents an unlimited opulence, that all that is so rarely obtained by many a ruler is as the riches imagined in a dream: coming to one's senses it is all gone; it the reason because of which a man lands in ignorance. (17) Unto Vâsudeva, the Supreme Personality, unto the devotees as also unto the saints was he as one who has achieved the reverence and devotion in the transcendental of which one holds this whole universe for something as insignificant as a piece of stone. (18-20) He was sure to fix his mind upon the lotusfeet of Krishna, his words upon the description of the qualities of Vaikuntha, his hands to things like cleaning the Lord His temple and to engage his ears in the Infallible. Hearing the transcendental talks, using his eyes to see the deities, the temples and buildings of Mukunda, being physically in touch with the bodies of the devotees, smelling the fragrance of the tulsi leaves at the lotusflower of His feet, to have on his tongue the food offered to Him, to walk his legs to the Lord's holy places, to bow his head to the feet of Hrsîkesa, to set his desires more to being a servant than to sense-gratification, was he as the one man [Prahlâda] that seeks his refuge with the Lord Glorified in the Scriptures. (21) Thus in his prescribed duties always of sacrifice unto the Transcendence, the Original One of the Sacrifice, the Supreme Lordship and Him Beyond the Senses, exercised he all different forms of love for the True One of the Soul and ruled he, directed by the Lord His faithful ones of learning, this planet earth in the past [see also 5.18: 12 and B.G. 5: 29]. (22) In horse-sacrifices executed by brahmins like Vasishthha, Asita and Gautama, worshiped he, everywhere the Sarasvatî river flowed through the desert countries, the Lord of sacrifice, the Supreme Controller, with great opulence and all the prescribed paraphernalia and remuneration. (23) The loyals of penance and experts who as the members of the sacrifice were the priest to perform for him the offerings were, dressed up the finest, seen as the unblinking demigods. (24) The heavenly existence so dear to even the demigods, was not a thing desired by his citizens who were accustomed to hear and chant the glories of Uttamas'loka, the Lord hailed in the Verses. (25) Because such aspirations are not conducive to the happiness of those that are saturated in their constitutional position of rendering service, are the persons used to so having Mukunda in their hearts, rarely after the perfections of the great [see siddhis]. (26-27) He, the king, of bhakti-yoga and at the same time of austerity, in his constitutional activities unto the Lord satisfying all sorts of desires, this way gradually gave it up to set his mind to the untrue as one finds in one's home, the wife, in children, in friends and relatives, a good elephant, a nice chariot, fine horses and in durable goods like jewels, ornaments, an outfit and such and a never empty treasury. (28) Pleased with his unalloyed devotional service gave the Lord him for the protection of the devotees His cakra so intimidating to the ones opposed [see also 7.9: 43 and B.G. 9: 31]. (29) Aspiring with his equally qualified queen to worship Krishna together, accepted the King the vow of dvâdas'î [fasting on certain lunar days] for a whole year. (30) Once at the Yamunâ, at the end of his vow, observed he in the month Kârtika [Oct.-Nov.] for three nights a full fast after which he took a bath and worshiped the Lord in Madhuvana [a part of the Vrindâvana area]. (31-32) To the rules of bathing the deity bathing it [mahâbhisheka] with all paraphernalia for the honoring - nice clothing and ornaments, fragrant flower garlands and other means of worship - did he the puja with a mind filled with divine love in bhakti unto the greatly fortunate of Kes'ava and the brahmins, with also with himself being in perfect peace. (33-35) The brahmins and learned who had arrived at his place fed he, the twice-born first, sumptuously with the most heavenly, delicious food after having donated sixty crores nicely decorated, young and beautiful cows with gold-covered horns and silverplated hooves, full udders and extra calves next to them. With the full of their satisfaction and their permission to complete the fast was he just about to observe the concluding ceremony when all of a sudden they were confronted with a unexpected visit of the mighty sage Durvâsâ. (36) Although he came there uninvited showed the king him his respect by standing up and offering him a seat, with all regards fallen to his feet asking him to eat something. (37) He gladly accepted that request and went to perform the necessary rituals to the Yamunâ to dip into the auspicious water and meditate on the Supreme Brahmân. (38) That, with less than an hour to go before the ending of the dvâdas'î fast observed, made him wonder with the twice-born about what now would be the right idea of dharma in the dangerous situation he had ran into: (39-40) 'Failing to respect the brahmin sage is an offense as well as not to break with the fast of dvâdas'î at the right time; what now is the best thing to do, what would be irreligious and what not? So let me touch water only so that I meet with the end of the vow correctly, as o, learned ones, it is said that the act of drinking water is indeed as well eating as not eating.'

(41) The great king, after thus drinking water, with his mind put to the Infallible One awaited the return, o best of the Kurus, of him, the brahmin mystic. (42) When Durvâsâ was done with the rituals at the bank of the Yamunâ and returned was he well received by the king but from his intelligence he understood what had taken place. (43) Incensed trembling all over, with his face screwed up and frowning, being very hungry, addressed he the perpetrator standing there with folded hands. (44) 'Alas, this one here, this 'love of all', has mad of his opulence, for everyone to see, transgressed the dharma; not a devotee of Vishnu at all, he thinks he is the Controller Himself! (45) This man has towards me, unexpectantly arriving here, after welcoming me as his guest taken food without giving it me also: right now I'll show you what the repercussion is. '

(46) Speaking thus pulled he out, red of anger, a bunch of hair and created he from it a demon appearing like the fire at the end of time. (47) As the demon came at him with a trident blazing with fire in his hand and a footstep that made the earth tremble, did the king, seeing him clearly, not move an inch from the spot [compare 6.17: 28]. (48) The way it by the Original Person of the Supersoul was arranged for the protection of His devotees burnt the cakra [that Ambarîsha had received, see verse 28] like fire that angry serpent of a created demon to ashes [see also B.G. 18: 66]. (49) Seeing how the disc moved at him and how his own attempt had failed, began Durvâsâ to run in great fear wherever he could go to save his life. (50) As a snake pursued by a forest fire blazing high with flames ran the muni, seeing how the disc, that wheel from the Lord His chariot, burnt his back, quickly to mount Meru to enter a cave there. (51) But, gone in each direction, in the sky, on the earth's surface, in caves, in the seas, in all places with all rulers of the three worlds - wheresoever he went, saw Durvâsâ the acute of His presence [Sudars'ana cakra] so frightening. (52) Without the shelter of a protector was he everywhere, with a constant fear in his heart, looking for someone who could give him shelter. At last he approached Lord Brahmâ: 'O my Lord protect me, o Selfborn One, from the fire released at me by the Invincible One.'

(53-54) Lord Brahmâ said: 'With a flick of His eyebrows will the place where I am, my residence, along with this whole universe at the end of the Supreme Lord His pastimes, upon the desire of Him in the form of time to burn it after one day of my life [a dvi-parârdha, see 3.11: 33], be vanquished indeed. I, Lord S'iva, Daksha, Bhrigu and others under their lead, the rulers of man, the living beings and the demigods - we and all lead by us, who are bowing our heads for the good of all living beings surrendered to the principles regulating, do carry out His orders.'

(55) Turned down by Lord Brahmâ went Durvâsâ, scorched by the cakra, for his shelter to him who always resides on Kailasa [Lord S'iva]. (56) S'rî Sankara said: 'We relative to the Supreme One lack in power, my dear - with us rotating in Him, the Transcendence, can [I and] the other living beings up to the Unborn One, Lord Brahmâ, and the universes also not, by time become [that power]; indeed can we and all of the thousands and millions of our worlds not grow alike this. (57-59) I, Sanat and the other Kumâras, Nârada, the great Lord Unborn, Kapila, Vyâsadeva, Devala [the great sage], Yamarâja, Âsuri [the saint] and Marîci, and the others all-perfect in knowledge headed by them have met with the limits of all knowing, but none of us can fully comprehend His illusory energy and that which is covered by it. The Controller of the Universe His weapon [the cakra] is indeed even for us difficult to handle and therefore should you seek your refuge with the Lord who will not fail you in His auspiciousness.'

(60) Disappointed went Durvâsâ thereafter to the Supreme Lord His place known as Vaikuntha where He as Srinivâsa, the Master of the Abode, perpetually resides with the goddess of fortune. (61) Scorched by the fire of the invincible weapon fell he down at His lotus feet trembling all over and said he: 'O Infallible and Unlimited One, o Desire of the Saintly, o Master give me, this great offender, protection, o Well-wisher of the Entire Universe! (62) Not knowing of Your inconceivable prowess have I committed a great offense at the feet of the ones dear to Your Lordship; please be so kind to do whatever is needed to counteract an offense like this o Vidhâta, Lord of Regulation, by whose name, when awakened, even a person destined for hell can be delivered.'

(63) The Supreme Lord said: 'Precisely o twice-born one, I am not self-willed, I indeed am fully committed to My bhaktas; it is because they are devotees that My heart is controlled by the saintly and by those that hold those bhaktas dear. (64) I as their ultimate destination am, without My saintly devotees, not for the blissful essence or the Supreme of My opulences [see om pûrnam]. (65) Their wife, house, children, relatives, their very lives and wealth - if they unto Me for the Transcendence gave up on all these taking their shelter, then how can I be after those things and give up on them? (66) The way a chaste woman does with a gentle husband, do the saintly, pure and equalminded [see also 7.9: 43], in their hearts firmly attached to Me, in settling for their devotional service, have Me under control. (67) In My service do they automatically achieve the four types of liberation and do they hanker, simply serving, not for the complete [the pûrnam] so that there is no question of other things: in the course of time have they been overcome. (68) The saintly are always in My heart and I am verily always in theirs; they know nothing apart from Me and and I do not have the least interest apart from them [see also B.G 9: 29]. (69) Let Me tell you how to protect yourself with this, o learned one, just listen to what I say: with this action of you have you become your own enemy; now waste no time and forthwith go to him [Ambarîsha] because of whom this happened - you see: the power applied against the devotee is harmful to the one who employs it. (70) Penance and knowledge are the two causes for the upliftment of the learned ones, but with an upstart do they bring the performer the exact opposite. (71) O brahmin, go therefore to the king, the son of Nâbhâga, to pacify him the great personality - then there will be peace.'


Chapter 5  

Durvâsâ Saved: the Cakra-prayers of Ambarîsha

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Durvâsâ [meaning: 'the difficulty of residing'] who, harassed by the cakra, thus was directed by the Lord, approached Ambarîsha and caught most aggrieved his lotus feet. (2) Seeing him in that endeavor felt he ashamed for him touching his feet and offered he to that, in the mercy distressed, prayers to the weapon of the Lord [see also 6.8: 23]. (3) Ambarîsha said: 'You are the fire, the supreme power of the sun and the moon you are, you are the master of all the luminaries, the waters, the earth, the sky, the air, and the senses and their objects. (4) O acute presence and auspicious vision [or Sudars'ana], my obeisances unto you with your thousands of spokes, o love of the Infallible One, you are the defeat of all weapons, be favorable unto this brahmin, o master over the world. (5) You are the dharma, the original nature and religion, you encourage the statements of the Ultimate Truth, you are the full and complete enjoyer of the results of the sacrifices and maintain the variety of worlds; the all-pervading prowess you are of the Transcendental Personality. (6) All respects unto you, the auspicious center of spin, the measure of the complete nature, who indeed art like a bad omen to the unenlightened bereft of the religion; the maintainer of the three worlds you are, the supreme goodness whose effulgence so wonderfully active is as speedy as the mind I try to voice. (7) By your strength carrying all religiousness is the darkness dissipated and are all directions illumined; for the great personalities are your glories unsurpassable, o master of speech, your manifestation comprises the manifest and unmanifest, the superior and the lower. (8) When you, sent by the Transcendental Personality, for true join with the soldiers of the daityas and dânavas, o indefatigable one, do you, staying in the battlefield, never tire to separate their arms and bellies, thighs and legs. (9) For the person of learning that I am, is your good self, o protector of the universe, the one who, empowered by the Full Authority of the Club, is engaged in bringing defeat; please may we enjoy the favor of your doing good to the fortune of our dynasty? (10) If there is charity, the worship of the deity or either the proper performance of one's duty and if our dynasty is blessed by the scholars, then let this twiceborn soul become free from being burnt by you. (11) If with us unduplicitous the Supreme Lord, the reservoir of all qualities and life and soul of all living beings, is satisfied, may this twiceborn soul then be excused from the fire?'

(12) S'rî S'uka said: 'With him begging the sovereign did the cakra of Vishnu named Sudars'ana thus being prayed to by the king, by no means any longer disturb the learned one whom he was burning. (13) He, Durvâsâ, freed from the heat of the fire of the weapon most contented then praised him, the ruler of the earth, blessing him with the highest benedictions. (14) Durvâsâ said: 'What a greatness may I witness today of the servants of the Eternal One; despite of the wrong I perpetrated have you, o King, prayed for my good fortune! (15) What indeed would be difficult to do or impossible to forsake for those saintly, great souls, those persons who achieved the leader, Hari, the Supreme Lord of the Devotees. (16) What is there else to do for the servants if by simply hearing the holy name of Him whose lotusfeet are the holy places, a person becomes purified? (17) O King, you so utterly merciful have, on top with my offenses, favored me very much and doing so by that saved my life.'

(18) The King, who had awaited his return fasting, was of mercy for him in every way and desired to approach his feet feeding him sumptuously. (19) He after having eaten of the different foodstuffs that, catering to every taste, were given with the greatest respect, said thus fully satisfied to the king: 'Please partake', and proved this way his care. (20) [He continued:] 'I'm very happy to be favored so much by the purity of your devotion; indeed am I, seeing you, touching your feet, talking to you and enjoying your hospitality, much obliged. (21) The purity of the things you've done will for ever be sung by the maidens of heaven; the entire world will never cease singing the glory of your supreme virtue!'

(22) S'rî S'uka continued: 'Thus glorifying the king took Durvâsâ, satisfied in all respects, permission to leave from that place and reached he by the sky the abode of Brahmâ where there is no other motive. (23) One complete year had passed and for the time that the great muni had not returned had the king, desiring to see him back, [next to his food] kept himself to only drinking water [a milk-fast]. (24) Upon Durvâsâ's return then gave he, Ambarîsha, the best of whatever food to eat that would befit a twiceborn and considered he, seeing how the sage had been released from the sin, that what he had done from his own strength as also the result of being devoted to the Supreme [see also B.G. 6: 47]. (25) This way endowed with all good qualities did he, the king, unto the Supersoul, the Brahmân and unto Vâsudeva, with practical settlements proceeding in devotion of those actions know of the precarious [of 'what is to the letter' or 'what is done'] from the highest place to the lowest [compare: 6.17: 28].'

(26) S'rî S'uka said: 'Thus entered Ambarîsha, as the wisest dividing his kingdom among his equally qualified sons, the forest setting his mind to the True Self that is Vâsudeva and vanquished he the waves [the gunas] of the material ocean. (27) By chanting or regularly meditating this tale of piety can one consequently become a devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. (28) They all who hear of the character of this great soul Ambarîsha will simply through bhakti by the mercy of Vishnu advance towards the end that is the liberation.'



Chapter 6

The Downfall of Saubhari Muni

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'The three sons of Ambarîsha [see previous chapters] were Virûpa, Ketumân and S'ambhu; from Virûpa there was Prishadas'va and from him there was a son called Rathîtara. (2) Rathîtara had no sons and so was [sage] Angirâ requested to beget children with his wife, which led to the birth of ['ksetra jâta'-] sons with brahminical qualities. (3) They again were all sons of Rathîtara, the head, as they, born from his wife, belonged to his family indeed, but they were remembered as the dynasty of Angirâ and called double-born [of mixed caste] since they were born from that field [or kshetra]. (4) When once Manu sneezed was from his nostrils the son Ikshvâku born [see also 8.13] and of his hundred sons were Vikukshi, Nimi and Dandakâ the most prominent. (5) Twenty-five of them became kings in Âryâvarita in the east [in the Himalaya and Vindhya mountains], o King, as also [did twenty-five of them] in the west [of that region], three ruled in the middle, while the others ruled over other places. (6) He, king Ikshvâku, once during ashthaka-s'râddha [offerings to the forefathers made in January, February and March] ordered his son: 'Bring me pure flesh [from hunting] o Vikukshi, go for it right now, without delay'.

(7) So he thereto went to the forest to kill animals suitable for the oblations, but when he was fatigued and hungry ate the hero forgetful [that the flesh was meant for the sacrifices] a rabbit [•] (8) He offered what remained to his father who on his turn asked their guru [Vasishthha] to purify it and he replied: 'All this is polluted and unfit to be used.'

(9) Informed by the spiritual master knew the ruler what his son had done and so drove he out of anger over him having violated the vidhi his son out of the country. (10) He indeed with the scholar for his tutor in discussions thereto incited, accordingly, as a yogî gave up his vehicle of time, and so he achieved the supreme position. (11) Upon the abdication of his father came Vikukshi back to rule over this planet earth in worship of the Lord with different yajñas and was he thus celebrated as S'as'âda ['the rabbit-eater']. (12) Purañjaya ['the conqueror of the residence'] was his son. He was also known as Indravâha ['carried by Indra'] and Kakutstha ['sitting on the hump of a bull'] indeed. Hear now about what he did to get these names. (13) There had been a devastating war, a fight of the godly with the dânavas, in which he being of the best assistance, for the godly turned out to be a hero in conquering the demoniac. (14) By word of the God of Gods Lord Vishnu, the Supersoul and Master of the Entire Creation, became Indra engaged in his service as his carrier, as a great bull. (15-16) He, highly praised and well-equipped, with a first-class bow taking up the sharpest arrows, mounted him and sat on the hump, prepared to fight. Favored by the power of Vishnu, the Original Person and Supersoul, captured he, surrounded by the servants of the heavens, in the western direction the daitya residence. (17) A battle took place between them and him that was so fierce that it makes one hair stand on end to hear how he in the fight came forward and sent the daityas with his arrows to Yamarâja. (18) Confronted with his shower of arrows fierce as the fire at the end of time, gave the daityas all together their attack up and ran they who were not killed off to their own places. (19) Conquering over them turned he, the saintly king, all their wealth and wives over to the carrier of the thunderbolt [Indra] and were him thus given the names.

(20) From Purañjaya was a son born called Anenâ, his son was Prithu and the son from him was Vis'vagandhi who on his turn had a son called Candra whose son was called Yuvanâs'va. (21) S'râvasta was his son and he built a town called S'râvastî; by S'râvasta was then Brihadas'va begotten and from him was there Kuvalayâs'va. (22) It was him of great power who, together with the twenty-one thousand sons that surrounded him, for the satisfaction of sage Utanka killed a demon named Dhundhu. (23 -24) He was thus known as Dhundhumâra [the killer of Dhundhu]. All but three of his sons had been burned by the fire from the mouth of Dhundhu. The only ones that remained alive were Dridhâs'va, Kapilâs'va and Bhadrâs'va, o son of Bharata. Dridhâs'va's son was Haryas'va and the renown Nikumbha was his son. (25) Nikumbha's son was Bahulâs'va and his was Kris'âs'va. After him was there Senajit of whom Yuvanâs'va was born. Yuvanâs'va had no sons and retired in the forest. (26) Together out there with his hundred wives was he depressed so that the sages very merciful with him all together with the greatest care started with a [fertility] ceremony known as Indra-yajña. (27) He one night being very thirsty entered the sacrificial arena and seeing all the learned lying down, drank he of the sanctified water himself [instead of keeping it for his women]. (28) After they all woke up and next found the waterpot empty, o prabhu, inquired they who was responsible for drinking the water that was meant for giving birth to a child. (29) Understanding that by providence it was drunk by the king offered they all their obeisances unto the Supreme Controller saying: 'Alas, the power of God is what rules!' (30) So was, lo and behold, thereafter when the time was ripe, the lower abdomen of king Yuvanâs'va at the right side pierced by a son who was born with all the good symptoms of a king. (31) Who now would supply the child with milk? It was crying so much thirsting for it that king Indra said: 'don't cry my child, just drink from me' and gave it his index-finger to suck. (32) The father didn't die of the baby because of the mercy of the divine scholars. Yuvanâs'va afterwards achieved the perfection doing tapas in that very place. (33-34) Dear king, Indra gave the child the name Trasaddasyu ['the fear of the rogues'], and of him indeed were crooks like Râvana and such, most afraid. Thus ruled Yuvanâs'va's son Mândhâtâ by the power of the Infallible One the surface of the earth with its seven continents as its one and only master. (35-36) He also in full awareness of the true self worshiped Yajña, the Lord of Sacrifices, the God and Supersoul of everyone above the sensual, in great ritualistic performances that were attended by all the godly and to which he donated large sums. All ingredients, the mantra's, the regulative principles, the worship and the worshiper, the priests and the religion and the proceeding to the time and place, all together contributed as things favorable to the interest of the true self. (37) From where the sun rises above the horizon to everywhere it did and still does pass and from everything before mentioned, speaks one of the field of action of the son of Yuvanâs'va, Mândhâtâ.

(38) In the daughter Bindumatî of a king called S'as'abindu begot the ruler [Mândhâtâ] Pûrukutsa, Ambarîsha and Mucukunda who was a great yogî. Their fifty sisters accepted sage Saubhari as their husband. (39-40) He [Saubhari] performing an uncommon austerity saw, submerged in the deep of the Yamunâ river, in his penance how a big fish was enjoying in sexual matters. Sexually awakened begged the learned one the king [Mândhâtâ] for a single daughter. The king said: 'You may take my daughter, o brahmin, if it is the choice of her desire'.

(41-42) He thought to himself: 'Women don't like me, I'm too old, I'm not attractive to them, wrinkled, with gray hair and a head-tremor; I'll be rejected! Let me make it this way that my body is desirable to the women of heaven, not to mention the daughters of worldly kings!'. Thus was the resolve of the mystic. (43) On word of an envoy was the sage admitted into the in every way opulent quarters of the princesses and was he, only one person, by all the fifty princesses accepted as their husband. (44) They had a lot of argument giving up their good relationship for his sake: saying 'He's the person fit for me, not for you', were they thus moved in minding him. (45-46) He, knowing many a mantra, enjoyed with his wives as a result of his austerity an unlimited opulence with everything that one could wish for: all kinds of finely furnished houses and quarters, parks, the clearest water in ponds amidst fragrant gardens, costly bedding and furniture, clothing and ornaments; there were bathing places, palatable dishes, there was sandalwood paste and a dress-up with garlands and decorations of all men and women who in constant glee were followed by the song of birds, bumblebees and professional singers. (47) Just to observe his family life struck the ruler over the seven continents [Mândhâtâ] with wonder so that he no longer took pride in his own position as the emperor of the world blessed with all opulence. (48) Thus always engaged in the happiness and diversity of material affairs of his household was he in his enjoyment, just as a fire fed with fat, never satisfied. (49) He one day, sitting down wondering how the degradation away from the true self could have taken place, established that it had been caused by a couple of copulating fish: (50) 'Alas, see how I, who was such a great ascetic, so observant and strict to the vow, have fallen down from the ascetic life I practiced for so long; just because of what aquatics fare under water! (51) He who desires liberation has to give up the association of people vowed to sensual affairs; he should in every respect avoid to employ his external senses, he should move alone in a seclude place and fix his heart on the lotus feet of the Lord Unlimited and if he seeks company, he may associate with like-minded people like saints. (52) On myself as a renunciate was I, under water, associating with fish (!) and got I fifty wives, not to mention the five thousand sons I begot; I see no end to my duties here and hereafter that are occupying my mind. Under the influence of the modes of matter am I, out for my own interest, lost in the great attraction for material things.'

(53) This way living at home passed the time and became he, detached, situated in the renounced order of life; he went to the forest and was followed by all his wives as he was their object of worship. (54) There in his penance of the severest austerity conducive to self-realization, engaged he, for sure familiar with the fires of the personal self, himself with the Supreme Soul. (55) O mahârâja, the wives who saw their husband spiritually progressing, could follow under that influence just like flames can with a fire extinguishing [compare B.G. 9.32].

*: To this there is a quote from the Brahmâ-vaivarita Purâna so said S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu:
'as'vamedham gavâlambham
sannyâsam pala-paitrkam
devarena sutotpattim
kalau pañca vivarjayet'
"In this age of Kali, five acts are forbidden: the offering of a horse in sacrifice, the offering of a cow in sacrifice, the acceptance of the order of sannyâsa, the offering of oblations of flesh to the forefathers, and a man's begetting children in his brother's wife."  


Chapter 7

The Descendants of King Mândhâtâ

(1)  S'rî S'uka said: 'One prominent son of Mândhâtâ, was by word of his grandfather Yuvanâs'va celebrated as Ambarîsha [to the Ambarîsha of Nâbhâga, see 4.13] and he had a son called Yauvanâs'va. His son was Hârita whose son became the most prominent of all members of the Mândhâtâ dynasty. (2) Narmâda was by her serpent brothers given away to Pûrukutsa [another son of Mândhâtâ] who by her in the service of the king of the serpents [Vâsuki] was taken to the lower regions. (3) There did he, factually empowered by Lord Vishnu, shatter the ones who, abiding by the song of heaven, deserved it to be chastised [because of their Gandharva sin of gambling]. From the serpentine he received the benediction that those who remember this incident are safe from snakes.

(4) The son of Pûrukutsa Trasaddasyu [named after the other one: 6: 32-34] was the father of Anaranya whose son had the name Haryas'va [after: 6: 23-24]. From him there was Prâruna and Prâruna's son was Tribandhana. (5-6) Of Tribandhana there was a son named Satyavrata [after the Manu, see 8.24: 10], who, being cursed by his father [for kidnapping a brahmins daughter at her marriage], had acquired the quality of an outcast [cândâla] and was thus called Tris'anku ['afraid of the heavens']. Under the influence of Kaus'ika [sage Vis'vâmitra] went he to heaven where he, having fallen down there, fixed [half way in his fall] by the sage his supreme and divine power, until the day of today indeed can be seen hanging with his head downward from the sky. (7) Tris'anku's son was Haris'candra; because of him was there between Vis'vâmitra and Vasishthha a great quarrel because of which the two for many years were as birds [*]. (8) He was very morose of having no successor and took on the advise of Nârada shelter with Varuna whom he asked: 'O lord, let there be a son born from me.'

(9) O mahârâja, then he said: 'And if there is a son, am I even willing to make with him an offering if you so desire'. Varuna accepted it and so was there indeed a son born to him that was named Rohita ['to the blood'].

(10) 'Since a son has been born can you, my dear, make me a sacrifice with him', so Varuna said to Haris'candra who then replied: 'Ten days after [its birth] should an animal be considered fit for being sacrificed.'

(11) Ten days later said he coming there again: 'And now: sacrifice!'. Thus replied Haris'candra: 'When the teeth of an animal have appeared, then it has become fit for being sacrificed!'.

(12) When the teeth had grown said Varuna: 'Sacrifice now', upon which Haris'candra replied: 'When he looses his [milk] teeth, then will he be fit'.

(13) When the teeth fell out told he him: 'Sacrifice now then!', upon which came the reply: 'When the 'sacrificial animal' its teeth have grown back, then it is pure!'

(14) Varuna, upon them having grown, then said: 'You offer now.', after which Haris'candra said: 'When he as a warrior can defend himself with a shield, o King, then will the 'sacrificial animal' be pure.'

(15) This way with his mind under the control of his affection for his son cheated he the god on the time that it would take and had he him so waiting for the moment to arrive. (16) Rohita aware of what his father had planned to do, took, trying to save his life, his bow and arrows and left for the forest. (17) When he heard that his father because of Varuna was plagued by dropsy and had grown a large belly, wanted Rohita to return to the capital, but Indra forbade him to go there. (18) Indra told him to travel the world for the purpose of holy places and pilgrimage sites and that he had to live in the forest for one year. (19) And so it happened for a second, a third, a fourth and a fifth year as well that Indra in the form of an old brahmin appeared before him to tell him that again and again. (20) The sixth year that Rohita wandered in the forest, went he to the capital where he with Ajîgarita bought out his second son S'unahs'epha to use as the 'animal of sacrifice'. Him he offered to his father bringing his obeisances. (21) Thereafter sacrificing the [worldly life of the] man in the yajña [**] became Haris'candra as famous and celebrated as demigods like Varuna are in making sacrifices and was he freed from the dropsy. (22) Vis'vâmitra was in the sacrifice offering the oblations [the Hotâ], the self-realized Jamadagni lead the recitations of the [Yayur-veda] mantras [as the Adhvaryu], Vasishthha was the leading brahmin [the brahmâ] and Ayâsya [or Âgastya] did the [Sâma-veda] hymns [as the Udgâtâ]. (23) Indra, very pleased, delivered him a golden chariot. The glories of S'unahs'epha will be recounted with the description of the sons of Vis'vâmitra.

(24) To see truthfulness, solidity and forbearance with the ruler [Haris'candra] and his wife pleased Vis'vâmitra very much and so gave he them the imperishable knowledge to reach their destination. (25-26) Merging the mind with the earth, the earth with the water, the water with the fire, the fire with the air and the air with the sky as also merging that with the material identification, that false ego with the totality of matter and that complete with the spiritual knowledge in all its branches, was by that specific process of meditation the ignorance subdued and the material ambition forsaken. By loving selfrealization and liberating transcendental bliss remained they with the Inconceivable, completely freed from being bound materially.

*: Prabhupâda comments: 'Vis'vâmitra and Vasishthha were always inimical. Formerly, Vis'vâmitra was a kshatriya, and by undergoing severe austerities he wanted to become a brâhmana, but Vasishthha would not agree to accept him. In this way there was always disagreement between the two. Later, however, Vasishthha accepted him because of Vis'vâmitra's quality of forgiveness. Once Haris'candra performed a yajña for which Vis'vâmitra was the priest, but Vis'vâmitra, being angry with Haris'candra, took away all his possessions, claiming them as a contribution of Dakshina. Vasishthha, however, did not like this, and therefore a fight arose between Vasishthha and Vis'vâmitra. The fighting became so severe that each of them cursed the other. One of them said, "May you become a bird," and the other said, "May you become a duck." Thus both of them became birds and continued fighting for many years because of Haris'candra.'

**: Sacrificing a human being has to be considered here as something non-violent since the vidhi preaches compassion with all living creatures (dayâ or ahimsa) and the Bhâgavatam for sure condemns the sacrifice of human lives by the story of Jada Bharata [see 5.9: 17]. The context here suggests, and from 9.16: 31-32 it appears, that because Haris'candra had been the cause of a fight between the sages Vis'vâmitra and Vasishthha that the sacrifice of a human being meant that some man had to give up his worldly life to serve the sages in their reconcilliation. The heir to the throne, the most likely candidate for the job, could not give up his worldly responS'ibility, so was another man chartered to take that duty upon him.


Chapter 8

The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord Kapiladeva

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Hârîta was the son of King Rohita [see previous chapter] and his son Campa built a city called Campâpurî. After him there was Sudeva who also had a son called Vijaya. (2) Bharuka was the son of Vijaya, he had one called Vrika and Vrika had Bâhuka who had all his land taken away by his enemies so that the king entered the forest with his wife. (3) When he had died of old age wanted his queen to die along with him but sage Aurva, who understood that she was pregnant with a son in her womb, forbade it. (4) The co-wives finding out gave her poison with her food, but with the poison was Sagara ['with poison'] born, who became an emperor of great repute. His sons were responsible for the place called Gangâsâgara. (5-6) It was he who, not killing the antisocial [tâlajangha, or tree-people], the opposing [the yavanas, also: invaders like the Muslims and the Europeans], the godless [the s'akâs], the ruffians [haihayas] and barbarians [barbaras], on the order of the guru, made them appear in odd dresses, shaved clean, wearing mustaches or sometimes accepted them as people with loose hair, being half-shaven, having no underwear and others not clad at all. (7) He was on the word of Aurva, in yoga with the Supersoul of all vedic knowledge and the enlightened, with horse sacrifices of worship unto the Lord, the Original Self and Controller in which he [some day] had the sacrificial horse of use in the sacrifice stolen by Purandara [Indra, see also 4.19: 17]. (8) The proud sons born from Sumati [a wife of Sagara] on the order of their father turned the earth up side down everywhere looking for the horse. (9-10) In the northeastern direction they saw the horse near the âs'rama of Kapila and said: 'Now we know where the horse-thief, with his eyes closed, lives; kill him, kill him that sinner!'. While thus the sixty-thousand men of Sagara raised their weapons approaching him, opened the muni at that time his eyes. (11) With their minds stolen [by Indra] and in offense with such a great personality [as Kapila see also 3.25-33], self-ignited their bodies instantly and turned they to ashes. (12) It is not the opinion of the saintly to say that the sons of the emperor were thus burnt to ashes by the anger of the muni; how can with him [Him] as the abode of goodness from whom the whole universe is purified, the mode of ignorance dominate and anger rise - how can earthly dust pollute the ether? (13) With him who so thoroughly explained the world analytically [see 3.25-33] and in this world is there as a boat by which a seeker can cross over the ocean of nescience that in one's mortal existence is so hard to overcome - how can there, with a learned person elevated in transcendence, be a sense of distinction between friend and foe? [such a one is always jubilant: prasannâtmâ]. (14) He who born from Kes'inî [Sagara's other wife] was called Asamañjasa had as a prince a son of his own known as Ams'umân who always did the best he could for his grandfather. (15-16) Formerly a yogî, as he could remember from another life, had Asamañjasa fallen down from the path of yoga because of bad association and personally proven himself a most disturbing way. Behaving badly was he of trouble for everybody in the society and had he, sporting with his relatives, been acting unkind throwing all the boys into the river the Sarayû. (17) Of these acts [the boys had disappeared] was he by his father, who gave up his love for him, banned indeed. By the power of yoga [though] managed he to present the boys and went he away. (18) O King, the inhabitants of Ayodhyâ were astound to see their sons turning up again while the king was truly sorry [that now his son was gone]. (19) Ams'umân ordered by the king to search for the horse went out following the path his uncles had described and found the horse near a pile of ashes. (20) Seeing the one from the beyond [the Vishnu-avatâra] known as Kapila, offered the great personality attentively prayers with folded hands prostrating himself.

(21) Ams'umân said: 'No one of us living beings can envision You as the Transcendental One. To the day of today can not even Lord Brahmâ fathom You and by what meditation or guesswork would others, we creatures of the material world who, considering the body to be the self, miss the transcendence [see also B.G. 7: 27]? (22) They who accepted a material body under the influence of the three modes [the gunas, see also B.G. 14:5] can only see those modes so one says and bewildered by the illusory energy not know You who resides in goodness in the core of the heart of one's body; they see but the external byproducts. (23) By Sanandana and other worshipable sages free from the contaminating and bewildering illusory differentiation caused by the gunas, is all wisdom with the original nature [svabhâva] rolled in one [see B.G. 14:26 & 2:45], but how can I as a fool of matter keep You, that Personality, in mind? (24) O Peaceful One, I offer my obeisances unto You, the Original Supreme Personality, who without a name and form, transcendental to the temporal and eternal, in order to distribute the transcendental knowledge, to the modes of matter has assumed a material body symptomized by fruitive action. (25) In their hearth and home, accepting Your material energy as the real thing, do they [birth after birth] wander around in this world in their hearts bewildered by lust, greed, envy and illusion. (26) O Supreme Lord, by simply seeing You has today this hard and tight knot of our illusion been broken of which one sensual is under the influence of lust and the profitmind, o Soul of All beings!'

(27) S'rî S'uka said: 'O master of man, the great sage and Supreme Lord Kapila this way having sung the glory, told Ams'umân mercifully the following about the path of knowledge. (28) The Supreme Lord said: 'Take this horse, my son, it is the sacrificial animal of your grandfather, but all these bodies of your forefathers burnt to ashes can by no other means be saved but by Ganges-water.' (29) After circumambulating him bowing to his satisfaction brought he the horse back to Sagara and was by means of that animal the concluding ceremony executed. (30) Following the path laid out by Aurva handed he [Sagara], freed from attachments and desires, the kingdom over to Ams'umân and achieved he the supreme destination.


Chapter 9

The Dynasty of Ams'umân

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Ams'umân for a long time doing penance with a desire to bring the Ganges down was unsuccessful and then died in due course of time. (2) His son Dilîpa, like his father, couldn't do so either and also died a victim of time. Next was his son Bhagîratha in his penance of the greatest austerity. (3) Unto him the goddess [of mother Gangâ] appeared who said: 'Very pleased as I am will I answer your prayers', and thus addressed seeing his wishes granted [that the Ganges would wash away the ashes, see 9.8:28] bowed that ruler of man respectfully.

(4) [Mother Gangâ said:] 'What person indeed can sustain the force of the waves with me falling down upon this earth? Without him I'd split open its surface, o master of men, and head for the lower worlds! (5) Moreover, I can't head for the earth as - please take this into account o King - of the people cleansing themselves with my water I will have to wash away the sinfulness.'

(6) S'rî Bhagîratha said: 'The saintly forsakers of the world who peaceful and expert to the rules deliver all, will take the sinfulness of you away, as bathing in your water they carry within them the Defeat of all Sin, the Lord [see also 1.13: 10 and 6.1: 15]. (7) The god of destruction, Rudra, will sustain your force as he of the embodied beings indeed is the Supersoul in whom all the universe long and wide is situated as threads in cloth [*].'

(8) After this was said was he, the ruler, of penance with Lord S'iva; not wasting any time propitiated he the All-auspicious One so that the lordship indeed soon was satisfied, o King [**]. (9) 'So be it', said Lord S'iva ever auspicious to all, thus having been addressed by the king, and with great attention sustained he the Ganges pure of washing from Vishnu His toes [see also 5.17]. (10) He Bhagîratha, the saintly king, brought her who could deliver the whole universe to the place where the ashes laid of the bodies of his forefathers. (11) Leading the way, driving a chariot at the speed of the wind, was he followed by her sanctifying all the countries and flowed she over the burnt sons of Sagara. (12) Even though the sons of Sagara were condemned for offending a brahmin, could the simple touch of her water with their remains only, make them reach the divine. (13) If Sagara's sons whose bodies burnt to ashes went to heaven after contacting [the Ganges], then how would that be with those determined in vows who with faith and devotion worship the goddess? (14) That which herewith is described of her water is not such a supreme wonder indeed as emanating from the Lotus feet of the Eternal One it is capable of cutting the bondage. (15) Saintly people who in faith with their minds are of full attention, are purified despite of the difficulty to give it up with the three modes of nature; by them is the spiritual quality of the Supreme immediately achieved.

(16-17) From Bhagîratha was a son born named S'ruta, of him there was Nâbha - different from the one I before described [see 5.3] - and from Nâbha was born Sindhudvîpa of whom thereafter Ayutâyu was born. His son Ritûparna was a friend of Nala. From Nala he received the art of training horses in exchange for secrets of gambling. Ritûparna had a son named Sarvakâma. (18) From him there was Sudâsa whose son [Saudâsa] as the husband of Damayantî ascended the throne and also was known, so one says, as Mitrasaha and Kalmâshapâda. He, because of sin without a son, once got cursed by Vasishthha to become a man-eater [a râkshasa].

(19) The king said: 'Please tell me, if it is not a secret, what the reason was for the curse of the spiritual master against Saudâsa, this great soul? That I would like to know.'

(20-21) S'rî S'uka said: 'Saudâsa sometimes went out to hunt and had in the past killed a râkshasa, but the brother that he let go, thereafter pursued him in revenge. With evil intentions he posed as the king's cook and presented his spiritual master who came to dine at his home, the flesh of a human being he had cooked. (22) Checking his food found the mighty master it from his inner sense unfit for consumption and cursed he the king very angry with: 'For this you'll become a man-eater indeed!'. (23-24) Finding out that the râkshasa was to blame performed he, to atone, for twelve years a penance. Saudâsa though had taken a palmful of water in order to curse his guru, but his wife Madayantî forbade it. He spilled the water potent of the [s'apa-] mantra over his legs after which that lord of man in all directions in the sky everywhere could see the surface of the earth teeming with life. (25) He acquired the propensities of a wild man and acquired a black spot on his leg [for which he was known as Kalmâshapâda]. Living in the forest saw he [once] a brahmin couple at the moment they had sexual intercourse. (26-27) Suffering from hunger caught he the brahmin but his wife said: 'You must be very unhappy, poor and hungry, but a râkshasa you're not; in fact you're a great warrior from the Ikshvâku-dynasty, the husband of Madayantî, o hero, it is nothing for you to act against the dharma. Please release my husband, this twice-born soul whose desire to get a son has not yet been fulfilled. (28) O King, this human body does good to the Complete of the Living Being and so would, so to say, the killing of him, o hero, be the killing of all good chances! (29) He here is a brâhmana well-versed in the Veda, who austere, of good behavior and endowed with all good qualities is determined to honor the Brahmân, the Supreme Personality known as the Living Soul of all beings above whom He's the quality. (30) He, this brahmin and best of all sages, how can he, like it is with a son with his father, from you the best of all saintly kings, with your awareness of the religion o power of the state, deserve it to be killed? (31) He's a saint free from sin, a speaker of Absolute Truth; how can you of your good self appreciated in the highest circles, think of killing him: that would be like killing an embryo or a cow! (32) Without him I can't live for even a moment and am I as a dead body; if you want to take him for food then eat me instead.'

(33) With the wife, this way pleading so pitiably and lamenting as a woman bereft of her man, devoured he, Saudâsa, condemned by the curse, him like a tiger does with its prey. (34) The brâhmana wife, the chaste woman, upon seeing how the man, who was about to impregnate her, by the râkshasa was eaten, cried loudly from her deepest being and pronounced angered a curse against the king. (35) 'Because you've devoured the husband of a woman in pain for intercourse will you, o sinner, suffer the curse of also finding death when you try to discharge semen, o traitor of civilization!'

(36) After this way cursing Mitrasaha ['indulgent toward friends' or Saudâsa] found she, inclined to stay with him, her destination stepping into the fire ablaze with the bones of her husband. (37) When after twelve years Saudâsa was released [from the curse of Vasishthha] and tried to have sex with his wife was he checked by the queen who reminded him of the curse of the brâhmanî. (38) Thus had he henceforward to forsake it to be happy with his wife and remained he by destiny sonless. Vasishthha then was permitted to beget a child in Madayantî, his wife. (39) She verily bore the child for seven years in her womb not delivering, but with her abdomen struck by a stone was there a son from her who therefore was called As'maka ['of us']. (40) From As'maka was Bâlika born. This child was protected by a human shied consisting of women and named thereafter [as 'Nârîkavaca']. When there were no rulers around anymore [as Lord Paras'urâma had killed them all] became he Mûlaka ['springing from'], the progenitor of the kshatriyas. (41) From Bâlika there was a son named Das'aratha, his son was Aidavidi and from him was there the famous king Vis'vasaha who for his son had Khathvânga who became emperor. (42-43) He very fierce on the request of the godly killed the daityas in battle and coming home, knowing that he had only a second longer to live, fixed he his mind by praying: 'Nor the earth, my kingdom or my dearest wife; nor my sons and daughters, my opulence or life are as worshipable to me as are the godly of the brahmin community respected in my family [***]. (44) Not even as a child was I attracted or enjoying the irreligious, nor did I at any time see anything else but the Lord Hailed in the Scriptures, Uttamas'loka, as something substantial. (45) By the godly I was granted the boon to have whatever I wanted but that claim over the three worlds I could not accept; all that I desire in this world is to be fully absorbed in the Supreme Lord [compare B.G. 9:34]. (46) If even they, the godly, in their senses and minds always are distraught not knowing the Dearmost Eternal One of the Soul residing in their hearts, what then to expect with others [see B.G. 18:55]? (47) Let me therefore in loving service give up the attachment to the modes of nature, the so powerful material control of mâyâ in manmade things which are like castles in the sky, and surrender myself unto Him, the One Soul who created the whole universe.'

(48) Thus intelligently with a firm resolve fully in the grip of Nârâyana, gave he up on all other concerns that are but ignorance and found he thereafter himself situated in his original position of loving service. (49) That which as such is known as the Supreme Brahmân defying all description is not something impersonal or void as one might think; it is the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva of whom the truthloving people indeed are singing [see also 1.2: 11].'

 *: Prabhupâda quotes: Lord S'iva is described in the Brahmâ-samhitâ (5.45):
ks'îram yathâ dadhi vikâra-visesa-yogât
sanjâyate na hi tatah prthag asti hetoh
yah S'ambhutâm api tathâ samupaiti kâryâd
govindam âdi-purusam tam aham bhajâmi
"Milk changes into yogurt when mixed with a yogurt culture, but actually yogurt is constitutionally nothing but milk. Similarly, Govinda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, assumes the form of Lord S'iva for the special purpose of material transactions. I offer my obeisances at Lord Govinda's lotus feet."

**: Lord S'iva is also called Âsutosa: quickly pleased.

 ***: The vaishnava daily expresses his respects for the brahminical in his offerings worshiping the Lord with this prayer
namo brâhmanya-devâya
go brâhmana-hitâya ca
jagad-dhitâya krsnâya
govindâya namo namah
"I offer my respectful obeisances to the Supreme Absolute Truth, Krishna, who is the well-wisher of the cows and the brâhmanas as well as the living entities in general. I offer my repeated obeisances to Govinda, who is the pleasure reservoir for all the senses."    


Chapter 10

The Pastimes of Lord Râmacandra

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'From Khathvânga there was Dirghabâhu, from him was the renown and dexterous Raghu born, from whose son Aja was born the great king Das'aratha. (2) On the prayers of the god-conscious were there from him the Supreme Lord Hari and all those of the Absolute Truth who were directly there as parts of Him, the plenary portion [or vishnu-tattva]; they, assuming the form of four sons, were thus known as: Râma, Lakshmana, Bharata and S'atrughna. (3) Of His transcendental exploits as the husband of Sîtâ, o King, have you more than enough [*] heard trough the nice descriptions by the many seers and knowers of the Reality [compare B.G. 4:34]. (4) Loyal to the teachings [answering to a promise his father made] abandoned He the royal position and wandered He, accompanied by His loved ones [Sîtâ and Lakshmana] who relieved Him of His fatigue on the path, from forest to forest on His bare lotus feet that were as tender to the touch as a hand palm. He was [by Râvana] separated from His sweetheart Sîtâ because of disfiguring Sûrpanakhâ [the sister of Râvana who got her nose cut off] and found support with the king of the monkeys [Hanumân]. Over the ocean, that was afraid of His eyebrows raised in anger, was a bridge constructed [to Lankâ, the residence of Râvana] and became He, like a forestfire burning the envious ones, the king of Ayodhyâ. May His mercy be upon us.

(5) With a [as'wamedha-] sacrifice of Vis'vâmitra was His honor defended of indeed under the supervision of Lakshmana, having killed the wanderers of the dark headed by Mârîca, the great chiefs of the Râkshasas.

(6-7) It was He who of all the heroes in the world in the hall where Sîtâ would select her husband took up the mighty bow of S'iva that had to be carried by three hundred men, and fastening the string, o King, bending it broke it in two like a baby elephant breaks a stick of sugar cane. With first by the victory gaining to His chest the divine girl named Sîtâ, who in her qualities, behavior, age and limbs was a perfect match for Him, met and defeated He on his way home with her the deep-rooted pride of Bhrigupati [Paras'urâma] who three times [seven, thus twenty one times] had rid the earth [of its burden of unrighteous rulers] that now without royalty had Him as the seed. (8) He had indeed to the order on his head of His father, who so very attached had made a promise to his wife [**], to accept that he had to abandon the kingdom, residence, opulence, relatives and friends and go live in the forest like a liberated soul. (9) With Him, wandering through the forest living a life of hardship, had the sister of the râkshasa her body maimed because she had a mind foul of lust and were, with in His hands His invincible bow and arrows, the fourteen-thousand of her many friends headed by Khara, Tris'ira and Dûshana, killed by Him.

(10) O ruler of man, hearing the stories about Sîtâ, stirred the heart of ten-head Râvana and made him lust to see her. Mârîca in the form of a golden deer then distracted Him away from their stay and was, like S'iva did with Daksha [see 4.5: 22], by Him killed on the spot with a sharp arrow. (11) With Him together with His brother in the forest, was the unprotected daughter of the king of Videha [Janaka] by the tiger, the most wicked râkshasa, kidnapped and wandered He around posing as a man who attached to women is in distress over being separated from his dearest wife, thus giving an example [sringâra-rasa] of what attachment leads to. (12) After cremating the one who had died for His sake [the eagle Jathâyu], killed he Kabandha [a headless monster] and made he friends with the leaders of the monkey hordes in order to free Sîtâ. He whose feet are worshiped by Brahmâ and S'iva, but appeared as a normal man, next in their acquaintance killed Vâli [a wicked brother of Hanumân] and proceeded, accompanied by the monkeys soldiers, to the shore of the ocean. (13) The ocean silent of fear for His angry glance - of which all the crocodiles and sharks were agitated - carried, taking a personal form, on its head all that was needed to worship Him and said, reaching the lotus feet, the following: (14) 'We, the dull-minded, are truly not capable of , o Supreme One, knowing You as residing in the core of the heart as the Original Person and Supreme Master of all Universes; the God-conscious under Your direction fixed are infatuated with goodness, the controllers of the people are infatuated with passion, while the rulers of the physical existence are [ghosts] under the influence of slowness, but Your Lordship as such is the Master over these modes. (15) You may cross as you like! Just conquer that son of Vis'ravâ called Râvana, that urine pollution of the three worlds, and regain you wife o hero. Build a bridge here so that Your fame may spread; the great kings and heroes still to come will all glorify You for it.'

(16) After the Master of the Raghu-dynasty with all sorts of mountain peaks, complete with trees and plants, that were transported by hand by the mighty monkeys, had constructed a bridge in the ocean [***], entered He, helped by the directions of Vibhîshana [a virtuous brother of Râvana], with the soldiers led by Sugrîva and Hanumân [the island of] Lankâ that just before had been set afire [by Hanumân's tail]. (17)  There were the houses of pleasure, granaries, treasuries, palace doors and city gates, assembly houses, palace frontages and [even the] pigeon houses by force taken in and dismantled by the Vânara [monkey people]-leaders who like an elephant herd turned the squares and crossroads, with all their flags and golden waterpots on the rooftops into one swirling river. (18) The master of the râkshasas upon seeing that summoned Nikumbha, Kumbha, Dhûmrâksha, Durmukha, Surântaka, Narântaka and others to fight, calling as well as for his son Indrajit, his followers Prahasta, Atikâya, Vikampana and in the end Kumbhakarna [his mighty brother, see 4.1: 37, 7.1: 44 and 7.10: 36]. (19) All the râkshasa soldiers with hard to defeat swords, lances, bows, barbed missiles and spears, firebrands, javelins and scimitars [a curved sword] came in front of Him who was surrounded by Sugrîva, Lakshmana, Hanumân, Gandhamâda, Nîla, Angada, Riksha, Panasa and others.

(20) The commanders of the soldiers of the Ruler of the Raghudynasty, together out to defeat all the enemies, fought the hordes by elephant, on foot, from chariots and on horseback. By the warriors lead by Angada and others were they with trees, mountain peaks, clubs and arrows all killed as the luck of Râvana's dependents had ran out being condemned by the anger of mother Sîtâ. (21) The râkshasa leader fuming of seeing his forces defeated thereupon drove his carriage forward proceeding towards the effulgent Râma who, glittering on the chariot of Indra that Mâtali [the driver] had brought, struck him with the sharpest arrows. (22) Râma said to him: 'You servant of scum, since you criminal like a dog have kidnapped My helpless wife will I, in my heroism unfailing, for that shameless act, as a result today punish you, abominable evildoer, as the Time itself in person [see also B.G. 16: 6-18]!'

(23) Thus rebuking him released He the arrow he had fixed on His bow and that arrow like a thunderbolt pierced his heart. Vomiting blood from his ten mouths he fell from his heavenly vehicle while all his folk, just like the pious do when they fall down [see also B.G. 9:21], roared: 'Alas, what befell us?'. (24) Thereafter came the wives of the demons headed by Mandodarî [Râvana's wife] out of Lankâ to lament there in approach [of their dead husbands]. (25) Embracing their beloved and friends all killed by Lakshmana's arrows beated they, so poor, their breasts and cried they, [for the victors] pleasant to hear, piteously: (26) 'O alas, killed is he who in the past protected us all! O, Râvana, cause of our cries, to whom must the state of Lankâ, overcome by the enemy, turn for shelter, now that it is bereft of your good self? (27) O Greatest Patron, as a result of having fallen under the influence of lusty desires, had you really no idea of how mother Sitâ could put you in a situation like this. (28) O glory of the dynasty, because of what you did are we and the state of Lankâ now without a protector and is your body there as fodder for the vultures and your soul destined for hell [compare B.G. 16:19].'

(29) S'rî S'uka said: 'On the approval of the King of Kosala [Râma] performed, of the [Râvana-] family, Vibhîshana the funeral rites that for a deceased one have to be observed to save him from hell. (30) Next found the Supreme Lord in a small cottage in an as'oka forest His love back, very lean suffering the separation from Him, taking shelter at the foot of a s'ims'apâ [as'oka] tree. (31) Râma finding His dearmost wife so poor off became very compassionate with her upon which, seeing her beloved, a great ecstasy manifested itself from her lotuslike mouth. (32) The Supreme Lord, putting Vibhîshana in charge of the rule over Lankâ's râkshasas for the duration of a kalpa, placed her on his vehicle and got in Himself together with Hanumân and the brothers [Lakshmana and Sugrîva the commander] to return to the home town [Ayodhyâ] finishing the time of the vow [to stay away for 14 years]. (33) On the road was He showered by a choice of fragrant flowers offered by the higher class in honor of His uncommon activities and were the Seer of the Absolute Truth [Brahmâ] and those belonging to him of great jubilation. (34) The One of Great Compassion was very sorry to hear how His brother Bharata with matted locks was lying down on a Kus'a mat, ate from barley cooked in cows urine and had covered Himself with tree bark. (35-38) Bharata hearing of the arrival took the two sandals on His head [that Râma had left behind on the throne to represent Him] and went, accompanied by all citizens, the ministers and the priests, out to receive His eldest brother. Departing from His camp Nandigrâma were there songs, the sounds of musical instruments, the constant recitation of mantra's by brahmins, with gold embroidered flags on golden chariots pulled by the most beautiful, with gold harnessed, horses and soldiers in gold-covered armor. In procession with nicely dressed courtesans and servants and also soldiers on foot indeed and everything more that would befit a royal reception like a mass of all kinds of jewelry, fell He down at the lotus feet in an ecstatic love that softened the core of His [ascetic] heart and moistened His eyes. (39-40) Placing the two slippers with folded hands before His golden brother embraced He Him with tears in His eyes, bathing Him in His arms for a long time with the water from His eyes. Râma, together with Lakshmana and Sîtâ, personally offered the learned and the others worthy of worship their obeisances and received them also back from all the citizens. (41) Seeing their Lord returning after so many years waved the citizens of Kosala with their upper garments, offered they Him garlands and started they to dance in great jubilation. (42-43) The sandals were carried by Bharata, the whisk and luxurious fan by Vibhîshana and Sugrîva, a white parasol by the son of the maruts [Hanumân], the bow and two quivers by S'atrughna, Sîtâ had the waterpot with water from the holy places, Angada had the sword made of gold and the king of the rikshas [Jâmbavân, leader of the bears that also assisted in the war] held the shield, o King. (44) To sit on Kuvera's heavenly chariot [the 'Pushpaka' captured from Râvana] made Him, the Supreme Lord, with the worshipful prayers of the women and the reciters, o King, appear as beautiful as the moon risen between the planets.

(45-46) Properly welcomed by His brother was He thereafter festively received in the city of Ayodhyâ. Upon entering the royal palace paid He mother Kaikeyî, His other stepmothers and His own mother [Kaus'alyâ] His respects. The spiritual teachers, friends of their age and the younger ones were all of worship and befittingly was the welcome returned by Him, the princess of the Videhas [Sîtâ] and Lakshmana. (47) As bodies awakening from sleep came their mothers alive and moistened they, keeping their sons on their lap, them with a continuous flow of tears in giving up their grief [of being separated for so long from them]. (48) Shaving off the matted locks, was by the family priest and the elders of the family according the vidhi with the water of the four oceans and other paraphernalia a bathing ceremony performed to the like of the purification of King Indra [see 6: 13]. (49) Thus having been bathed completely, nicely dressed, decorated and garlanded, shone He brightly with His brothers and His wife. (50) Pleased at the surrender He accepted the throne submitted to him by His brother and also the citizens who, engaged in the occupational duties of their status-orientations [varnâs'rama, see B.G. 4: 13], all had become fit for His protection; Râma was therein just like a father and by them was He also considered as being their father.

(51) Although it was Tretâ-yuga became the period equal to Satya-yuga because of Râma's presence as the ruling king in full respect of the dharma that made all living beings happy [see also 12.3: 15]. (52) The forests, rivers, hills and mountains, the lands, the islands, the oceans and the seas yielded all the living beings all they could desire for their existence, o best of the Bharata's. (53) There was no suffering [due to oneself, others and nature], no disease, old age, bereavement, distress, lamentation, fear and fatigue or an unwanted death when Lord Râma, the One beyond All, was king. (54) Vowed not to take another woman [for reasons of principle He separated from Sîtâ, see next chapter] was He, as a saintly King pure of character in His dharma, especially teaching the householders by example of His personal dutifulness. (55) In loving service unto her husband was Sîtâ by her good character always submissive and ready to please, chaste and unafraid, bashfully, understanding her husbands position, captivating His mind.

*: This and the next chapter are a summary of Vâlmiki's Râmâyana, the original scripture describing the st0ry of Râma.

**: Prabhupâda explains: 'Mahârâja Das'aratha had three wives. One of them, Kaikeyî, served him very pleasingly, and he therefore wanted to give her a benediction. Kaikeyî, however, said that she would ask for the benediction when it was necessary. At the time of the coronation of Prince Râmacandra, Kaikeyî requested her husband to enthrone her son Bharata and send Râmacandra to the forest. Mahârâja Das'aratha, being bound by his promise, ordered Râmacandra to go to the forest, according to the dictation of his beloved.'  

***: This bridge is till today really present there in the form of a narrow passage of land close to the surface of the ocean between Lanka and India. It is called the Adam's Bridge and consists of a chain of shoals, c.18 mi (30 km) long [see picture and article].

 Verse 12.3: 51 says to the decay over the yuga's: "My dear King, although Kali-yuga is full of faults, there is still one good quality about this age: simply by chanting the Hare Krishna mahâ-mantra, can one become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom."


Chapter 11

Lord Râmacandra Rules the World

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'The Supreme Lord Râma, the Godhead, heart and soul of the godly, accepted an âcârya so that of Himself by Himself with the greatest opulence there was worship in the performance of sacrifices [see also 4.31: 14]. (2) The hotâ priest [the one offering oblations] He gave the entire east, the brahmâ priest [supervising the proceedings] received the southern side from His Lordship, the adhvaryu priest [who chant the yâyur-mantra's preparing the sacrifice] got the entire west and the northern side went to the udgâtâ priest [singing the Sâma-veda hymns]. (3) Thinking that the brahmins free from desire deserved the complete of it, gave He the teacher of example, the âcârya, the balance of whatever land in between the regions. (4) All that He kept for Himself this way were His personal ornaments and garments while for for the queen, the daughter of the king of Videha, just her nose ring remained. (5) But when they saw how He as the God of the brahmins was of such a great care melted, pleased with Him, their hearts and worshiped they Him with prayers returning it all saying: (6) 'What indeed have You not given us o Supreme Lord, o Master of the Universe? With You entering the core of our hearts do You, with Your effulgence, dissipate the darkness of our ignorance. (7) Our obseisances unto You, Râmacandra, best of all the renown, whose memory and knowledge, in Your divine respect for the brahmins, are never disturbed by anxiety. Those beyond the sanctions [the sages] are delivered to Your feet!'

(8) One night curious about the public opinion walked Râma in disguise unnoticed and heard He someone speaking who was referring to his [and His] wife. (9) 'I can't maintain you since you are an impure, unchaste woman keeping it with another man; I'll not again accept to be the henpecked one like even Râma is with Sîtâ!'. (10) Afraid of folk who, not knowing where to stop, in their poor fund of knowledge speak a lot of nonsense, was she [Sîtâ] thus by her husband abandoned and went she to the hermitage of Prâcetasa [Vâlmîki Muni]. (11) There delivered she, pregnant, when the time had come twin sons who thus from the sage performing the birth-rituals received the names Kus'a and Lava ['from the grass' and 'what's cut off']. (12) Also Lakshmana had two sons: Angada and Citraketu [named after 6.14-17] and Bharata, o great ruler, had two who were remembered as Taksha and Pushkala. (13 -14) Subâhu and S'utrasena were born of S'atrughna. Those of the Gandharvas [pretenders and gamblers] were by the millions killed by Lord Bharata who conquering brought all directions under the control of the King [Râma] whom He offered all their riches. The râkshasa listening to the name of Lavana, a son of Madhu, was killed by S'atrughna in the great forest of Madhuvana where he established the great town known as Mathurâ. (15) Entrusting the sage her sons did Sîtâ, who banished by her husband kept meditating on Râma's feet, enter the earth. (16)  Hearing about this was He, Râma, the Supreme Lord remembering her qualities in the different circumstances, not able to check His grief, however much he tried to ban it with His intelligence. (17) An attraction between husband and wife like this is universally a source of worries; even to the great controllers - what then would it be for the common people enslaved to a household existence? (18) After she went to heaven observed He complete celibacy and performed the Lord a ceremony, a fire-sacrifice [Agnihotra], that continued for a thirteen-thousand years without interruption. (19) Thereafter placed Râma the lotuspetals of His feet that were pierced by the thorns of the Dandakâranya forest [were He stayed during His exile] in the hearts of those remembering Him, and entered He, the Light of the Soul [âtma-jyoti], the Beyond.

(20) The Lord of the Raghu-dynasty [Râma], spiritually relating to us in His pastimes, had, with no one greater or equal to Him, [personally] no need for all this fame, all the prayers of the godly, the killing of the râkshasas, bridging the ocean and His bow and arrows, nor needed He the monkeys to assist Him in defeating the enemy [compare B.G. 3: 20-26]. (21) Unto Him whose spotless fame in royal assemblies till to day is glorified, unto Him whose sin-devouring lotusfeet are to the saintly as the cloth covering the elephant of victory is to the gods of heaven and kings of earth greeting it with their helmets - unto that Master of the Raghu dynasty I do offer my surrender. (22) He, who the people of Kosala looked for and wanted to touch, was by them all, whether they ate and slept with Him or respected Him as a servant, followed to the place for which He left where all [bhakti-] yoga-practicioners go to [see also B.G. 4: 9]. (23) Any person hearing about the activities of Lord Râma will simply by this process be freed from the human weakness [envy, or original sin], o King, and be liberated from the clutches of karma.

(24) The King asked: 'How did He, the Supreme Lord, Râma, relate to His brothers who were His personal expansions and how did they as well as all His people, His subjects, behave towards Him, their Controller?

(25) The son of Vyâsadeva said: 'After accepting the throne ordered He, the Lord of the Universe, His younger brothers to conquer the world [*] while He personally gave audience to His people supervising the affairs of the capital with other assistants. (26) The streets were sprinkled by elephants spraying perfumed water - to see Him, the master and ruler, present in person was the highest and greatest delight. (27) In the palaces, at the palace gates, in the assembly-houses on the platforms and the houses of God and such were, together with flags, the golden waterpots placed. (28) Everywhere was He received with the charm of reception gates, tapestries, garlands, betel nut, flowers and fruits, banana-trees, colorful flags and mirrors. (29) Approaching Him, carried the locals, whenever He came visiting, their articles of worship to receive His blessings saying: 'O my Lord, maintain this land that You, like You did before [as the other vishnu-avatâras], have rescued'. (30) The men and women in the city thereafter, desirous to see their king returning after so long a time, vacated their homes to get on the rooftops of the greater mansions in order to feast their hungry eyes on the Lord with the Lotus-eyes and shower Him with flowers. (31-35) He thereafter entered His home occupied by His family members which by His ancestors had been turned into an unlimited treasury all around prosperous with the most costly paraphernalia. The door-posts were of coral, the pillars lining up on the polished marakata floors [of emerald] were of vaidûrya-stone, there were dazzling marble fountains, all sorts of flowers and flags, draperies and an utter heaven to each his desire of paraphernalia embellished with pearls and the most valuable effulgent gems. Full with bunches of flowers, fragrant incense and lamps appeared the men and women there, whose bodies competed in beauty with their ornamentation, like demigods. (35)  There enjoyed He, the Supreme Lord Râma [lit.: 'the source of joy'], ever pleased by His dearmost wife, mother Sîtâ, His personal happiness as the leading man of the greatest of all learning indeed. (36) All the time and for many many years, enjoyed He, with the people meditating His lotus feet, without transgressing the dharma, all the pleasures.

*: S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu said to this Râma-mission of conquering of the world: 'prithivîte âche yata nagarâdi grâma sarvatra pracâra haibe mora nâma'; A pure devotee, therefore, must execute the order of the Lord and must not gratify his senses by remaining stagnant in one place, falsely proud, thinking that because he does not leave Vrindâvana but chants in a solitary place he has become a great devotee. He also said: 'yâre dekha, târe kaha 'Krishna'-upades'a'; every devotee, therefore, should spread Krishna consciousness by preaching, asking whomever he meets to accept the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.


Chapter 12

The Dynasty of Kus'a, the Son of Lord Râmacandra

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Of Kus'a [the son of Lord Râma] there was Atithi, and from him there was Nishadha; Nishadha's son was Nâbha, Pundarîka came after him and Kshemadhanvâ became his son. (2) Devânîka was the son of Kshemadhanvâ, his was Anîha whose son was Pâriyâtra; Pâriyâtra's son was Balasthala who had a son called Vajranâbha who stemmed from the sun-god. (3-4) From Sagana [from Vajranâbha] there was a son called Vidhriti from whom the son Hiranyanâbha was born who became a teacher of yoga after Jaimini. With him studied Yâjñavalkya as a disciple the spirituality of Kausalya [âdhyâtma yoga see 6.15: 12-15]: the most elevated yoga of becoming a seer able to cut through the material knots in the heart. (5) From Pushpa, the son of Hiranyanâbha, was born Dhruvasandhi from whom there was Sudars'ana. After him came Agnivarna whose son was named S'îghra and Maru was his son. (6) The person of him still exists in Kalâpa-grâma ['bundle of communities'] as a perfect one of yoga; remaining there will he at the end of Kali-yuga, in order to revive the lost dynasty of the sun-god, beget a son. (7) There was a son of him: Prasus'ruta who had Sandhi and of him there was a son named Amarshana from whose son Mahasvân the person of Vis'vabâhu took birth. (8) From him there was Prasenajit from whom again Takshaka would take birth. From Takshaka there was Brihadbala, the one who then by your father was killed in a fight. 

(9) All these kings of the Ikshvâku-dynasty are dead and gone. Now listen to the ones to become: after Brihadbala there will be a son named Brihadrana. (10) Brihadrana's son will be Ûrukriya, of him will Vatsavriddha take birth, Prativyoma will be his son and of him there will be Bhânu, whose son Divâka will be a great military commander. (11) Sahadeva from him will beget a great hero: Brihadas'va, from whom there will be Bhânumân. From Bhânumân will Pratîkâs'va father the son Supratîka. (12) Marudeva will be born thereafter and after him there will be Sunakshatra; next will there be Pushkara and his son Antariksha will have Sutapâ whose son will be Amitrajit. (13) Brihadrâja then of him will bring Barhi, Kritañjaya born of him will have a son called Ranañjaya and of him Sañjaya will take birth. (14) From him will thereafter be S'âkya whose son will be the memorable S'uddhoda, the father of Lângala of whom there will be Prasenajit who on his turn will father Ks'udraka. (15) Ranaka will take birth from him, Suratha will be the next son, and the one of him named Sumitra will end the line of all these kings in the Brihadbala-dynasty. (16) Of all these descendants of Ikshvâku will Sumitra be the last to appear in the future because getting to him as a king will be the culmination indeed for Kali-yuga.



Chapter 13  

The Story of Nimi and the Dynasty of his Son Mithila.

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Nimi [see 9.6: 4], the son of Ikshvâku, planning for a sacrifice appointed Vasishthha to be the priest who said: 'I have already been engaged by Lord Indra, o Mahârâja. (2) When I have finished that sacrifice will I return, wait for me till then'.

Nimi remained silent and [Vasishthha] performed the sacrifice for Indra. (3) With the guru for a long time not returning thought Nimi: 'Life is short' and inaugurated the sacrifice with another self-realized soul as the officiating priest.

(4) Having ended the ceremonies did the guru upon his return find deviation from the instructions given and so he pronounced a curse: 'May the body of Nimi, who thinks he's so learned, come to a fall!'.

(5) Nimi [on his turn] cursed the guru that tried to thrive in denial of his religious practice back with: 'And may your body, so ignorant of the dharma with your greed, fall down too!'.

(6) Thus had Nimi, fully conversant with the spiritual knowledge, to give up his body. Vasishthha, the great-grandfather [died also but] was by Mitra and Varuna born [again] from Urvas'î [the heavenly courtesan, see also 6.18: 5-6]. (7) Nimi's body was preserved in fragrant substances and at the end of the Sa(t)tra-sacrifice [a long-standing Soma-sacrifice] formulated the assembled ones of God the following: (8) 'May this body of the potent king cherished by us, come alive!'.

Thus having expressed themselves answered Nimi: 'Do not bind me to a physical frame! (9) Shunning to be falsely united do spiritual philosophers [jnânis] neither desire to get into contact that way nor to be of the service of the great saints absorbed in thoughts about the Lord at the lotus feet [see bhajan]. (10) I do not wish to assume a material body doomed to die, it is for each everywhere, like with fish living in the water, the cause of all distress, lamentation and fear [see also 1.13: 47 and B.G. 9: 3]. '

(11) The godly said: 'Live as you like without a body; in the vision of the embodied you may become manifest or unmanifest now we've seen you in your spiritual existence!'

(12) In respect of the common people afraid of anarchy churned the great seers the past body of Nimi and was thus a son born [compare: 4.14: 43 and 4.15:1]. (13) Because of his uncommon birth became he known as Vaideha ['free from a body'] because of being born from Videha [Nimi that was without a body]. He and the city he founded, were also known as Mithila from the being born of the churning. (14) From him there was a son named Udâvasu, the one born from him was Nandivardhana, Suketu followed him and his son had the name Devarâta, o great ruler. (15) From him there was Brihadratha, Mahâvîrya was his and he became the father of Sudhriti who had a son named Dhrishthaketu. He on his turn had Haryas'va after whom there was Maru. (16) Maru's son was Pratîpaka and from him was Kritaratha born. From him came Devamîdha and his son Vis'ruta had one named Mahâdhriti. (17) Kritirâtha followed and from him there was Mahâromâ as a son whose son Svarnaromâ had a son called Hrasvaromâ to follow in the dynasty. (18) From him was S'îradhvaja [King Janaka] born who for the performance of sacrifices plowing the earth from the front of his plow [or s'îra] had Sîtâdevî [the wife of Râma, Sîtâ means 'furrow'] born, for which reason he was celebrated as S'îradhvaja. (19) Kus'adhvaja was S'îradhvaja's son and his son was king Dharmadhvaja whose two sons were Kritadhvaja and Mitadhvaja. (20-21) Kritadhvaja had Kes'idhvaja and Mitadhvaja's son was Khândikya, o King. Kritadhvaja's son was an expert in the science of transcendence and Khândikya was an expert in vedic rituals. The latter fled because he feared Kes'idhvaja. From Bhânumân, Kes'idhvaja's son, there was the son S'atadyumna. (22) S'uci was his son and of him was the son Sanadvâja born. Ûrjaketu, his son, had Aja who thereafter had Pûrujit as his son. (23) Also he had a son: Arishthanemi, and from his son S'rutâyu was there Supârs'vaka who fathered Citraratha of whom the son Kshemâdhi became the king of Mithilâ. (24) His son named Samaratha had one named Sathyaratha. From him was Upagupta born. Upagupta was a partial expansion of Agni [the god of fire]. (25) Vasvananta [of Upagupta] his son thereafter was known by the name of Yuyudha who had a son called Subhâshana and his son was S'ruta. He had Jaya and Jaya had Vijaya. Vijaya's son was Rita. (26) Of him was the son S'unaka born, then came Vîtahavya and his son was Dhriti. Dhriti begot the son Bahulâs'va and of him there was Kriti who had a son called Mahâvas'î. (27) These are the descendants of Mithila, o King, who by the grace of the Lord of Yoga were all true knowers of the soul finding liberation from the worldly duality, even though they stayed at home.



Chapter 14  

King Purûravâ Enchanted by Urvas'î

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'And now after this [after the stories about the dynasty of the sungod] hear about, o King, the dynasty of the moon, as it, that listening to the purifying descriptions of the kings headed by Aila [Purûravâ] of that dynasty, is a glorious thing. (2) From the Supreme Spirit who has thousands of heads, Dhâtu [the 'original element' or Lord Brahmâ], who had appeared on the lotus that sprang from the lake of the navel [of Vishnu], there was a son called Atri with the same qualities as his father. (3) From his tears of jubilation was born a son [see also 4.1: 15]: Soma, the god of the moon with its nectarine rays who indeed by Brahmâ was appointed as the supreme authority over the learned, the medicinal herbs and the luminaries [see also B.G. 10.21 and 6.6: 23]. (4) He, after conquering the three worlds, performed a râjasûya sacrifice and kidnapped in his arrogance with force the wife of Brihaspati named Târâ. (5) When over and over the spiritual master of the godly pleaded with him did he in his lust not release her and was there because of this a fight between the suras and the dânavas. (6) Because of the enmity of S'ukra ['semen', the spiritual master of the asuras] towards Brihaspati took S'ukra with the asuras the side of the moongod, but S'iva with the hideous and ghostly following him sided affectionately with [Brihaspati,] the son of his guru [that was Angirâ whom he had learned from]. (7) The great Indra followed by all the different demigods joined the spiritual master [Brihaspati] and the fight that so ensued brought, just because of Târâ, great destruction over sura and asura. (8) The Mover of the Universe, Lord Brahmâ, who was fully informed on this by Angirâ severely chastised Soma and delivered Târâ unto her husband who found out she was pregnant.

(9) [Brihaspati said to her:] 'You foolish woman, deliver now, deliver immediately from that womb that was meant for me; though impregnated by another shall I not put you, unfaithful, on the stake as you were a woman in want of a child.'

(10) Târâ deeply ashamed delivered a child that had an effulgence like that of gold which made Brihaspati and Soma truly desire for the child. (11) 'Mine it is, not yours!' thus they cried over the child fighting one another while Târâ could not tell all the saintly and gods inquiring anything in her shame about it.

(12) The child said angered to its mother: 'What is the need for this shame, why don't you speak up and do you keep it a secret; tell me right now what mistake you've made!'

(13) Putting her at ease took Lord Brahmâ her separate and inquired he in detail with her upon which she admitted hesitantly: 'This child belongs to Soma'. Immediately took Soma then charge of it. (14) Because of its profound intelligence was the god of the moon in great jubilation about having gotten such a son and honored Lord Brahmâ it with the name Budha. (15-16) From him was, as I said [in 9.1], from Ilâ [formerly Sudyumna] born Purûravâ. When Urvas'î [see also 9.13: 6] in Indra's court heard Nârada speaking about his beauty, qualities, magnanimity, behavior, wealth and power got the devî near him and was she struck by the arrows of Cupid. (17-18) From Mitra and Varuna's cursing had the woman acquired human habits and did she, seeing the best of males as beautiful as Cupid, patiently and submissively seek his company. He, the king, when he saw the divine woman addressed her enthused with sweet words, bright eyes and his hairs erect in jubilation. (19) The honorable king said: 'Be welcome o greatest of all beauty, please be seated, what can I do for you? Keep me company and share my bed for many many years!

(20) Urvas'î said: 'What woman would not be attracted by the sight and thought of you, o beautiful man, and desist from enjoying your chest in lust and love? [see also 7.9: 45] (21) These two lambs, o King, have fallen down and need your protection, o honorable host; in the company of a superior husband so one says can a woman enjoy the sexual union. (22) What is prepared with ghee, o hero of mine, shall be my food and I will not see you at any other time naked but at the time of intercourse.'

'That is how it shall be' promised the great soul, (23) 'See your beauty and your poise, no one on earth is as attractive, who can withstand such a goddess that in person has arrived among the human beings!'

(24) With her enjoyed he, the best among man, whatever there was to enjoy to his desire in the best of all places and gardens like Caitraratha [see also 5.16: 13-14]. (25) Delighted with her and ever more aroused by the fragrance of her beautiful face enjoyed he day by day for long to live with her, the gods gift as sweet as the saffron of a lotus. (26) Not seeing Urvas'î told Indra the singers of heaven: 'Without my Urvas'î is my abode not as beautiful'.

(27) Thus came they in the dead of night, when it was dark all around, to steal Urvas'î's two lambs that she as his wife had entrusted the king. (28) Hearing them, whom she treated as her sons, cry as they were taken away said she: 'I am finished with such a bad eunuch of a husband who thinks himself to be a hero! (29) I've now lost my two 'sons' depending on him who, during the day a male, lies down at night as a woman afraid of plunderers.'

(30) Pierced by the arrows of her harsh words took he, like an elephant fired up, in the dark a sword at hand and went he out naked and angry. (31) They [the gandharva's] , after giving up the lambs, lit, shining like lightening, the place up so that Urvas'î could see her husband naked returning with the two in his hands [and so she left]. (32) He not seeing his wife in bed, very morose in his attachment to her, totally upset lamented and started to roam the earth like a madman. (33) He spotted Urvas'î in Kurukshetra [a place of pilgrimage, see also B.G. 1: 1] at the Sarasvatî with five companions and happy and smiling all over addressed Purûravâ her with sweet words: (34) 'Ah, my wife, stay, stay o cruel one. You shouldn't have given up on me because I thus far didn't make you happy. Let's talk a little. (35) This nice body, taken far far away from home by you, will drop dead on the spot o devî, and the foxes and vultures will eat it if it is not worthy your grace!'

(36) Urvas'î said: 'You're a man, don't adhere to death, do not let these foxes of the senses eat you up; be sure not to expect any friendship from the heart of the women that are [can be] like foxes. (37) Beware, women [when men forsake their duty, see B.G. 1: 40] have no mercy, they're cunning and hard to handle, they dare do whatever pleases them and put you indeed as a faithful husband and brother down for the smallest reason so one says. (38) They establish false hopes in the unsuspecting, run out of their well-wishers, ever desire for newer and newer things, are easily allured and real captains of independence. (39) At the end of every year may your good self count on one night only with me, my husband, to have sex so that you one after the other can put children on this world, my dearest [see also 6.18: 38-42].'

(40) Seeing that Urvas'î was pregnant returned he to his palace to see at the end of the year at that very spot Urvas'î, the mother of a hero, again. (41) Getting her association he in great jubilation reunited with her enjoying her company. When the night had passed said Urvas'î to the poor-hearted one who was afflicted by the thought of separation: (42) 'Go and take shelter with the singers of heaven, the gandharvas, they will deliver you the like of me when you satisfy them with prayers', and that [agnisthâlî] girl delivered from the fire of sacrifice o King, made him, walking the forest, think that she was real. (43) Giving up the substitute girl [sthâlî means substitute] began he, returning from the forest, at home to meditate the whole night during the time that Tretâ Yuga was about to begin and were before his mind's eye the three [tri-kânda principles of the Veda's, of upâsanâ: sacrifice, song and prayer; karma: fruitive labor and, jnâna: spiritual knowledge] revealed. (44-45) Going to where he left his sthâlî-woman saw he that an Asvattha had sprouted from the inside of a s'amî tree. From the both of them made he, desiring to get to were Urvas'î was, two sticks [to ignite fire] and meditated he, the master of the kingdom, with mantras [*] on Urvas'î as the lower stick, himself as the upper one and what was between them as the child he had begotten. (46) From the friction was born the fire to enjoy vedically the three principles of which by the King a son of three letters [AUM] turned out to be born [see B.G. 9: 17, 8: 13 and 17: 24]. (47) That way he worshiped, desirous to reach Urvas'î's place, the Controller of the Sacrifices, the Supreme Personality of Godhead beyond the senses that is the Lord, the Reservoir of all Demigods [see also B.G. 3:10]. (48) Formerly indeed were with only one mantra, knowing the pranava of omkâra, all oral [vedic, atharva] expressions covered, was Nârâyana the only God and was there for Agni assuredly no other varna [class, color or vocation] but one [called hams'a **]. (49) Thus were there from Purûravâ the vedic three at the onset of Tretâ Yuga, o ruler of man; by simply generating as his son the sacrificial fire achieved the king the abode of the gandharvas.

 * In this context are mentioned the mantra's: 'samî-garbhâd agnim mantha' 'from within the s'amî is the fire churned' and 'urvasyâm urasi purûravâh': 'by Urvas'î the best of Purûravâ'.  

** In Satya-yuga, Lord Nârâyana was worshiped by meditation (krite yad dhyayâto vishnum): everyone meditated and achieved success contemplating Lord Vishnu, Nârâyana. In the next yuga, Tretâ-yuga, the performance of yajña began (tretâyâm yajato mukhaih). In Dvâpara yuga is the Lord worshiped as a king, while in Kali-yuga the Lord is there as his own devotee [a covered or channa-avatâra] to lead in devotion.


Chapter 15  

Paras'urâma, the Lord's Warrior Incarnation

(1) The son of Vyâsadeva said: 'By Purûravâ were there from Urvas'î's womb six sons, o ruler of man: Âyu, S'rutâyu, Satyâyu, Raya, Vijaya and Jaya. (2-3) S'rutâyu had a son Vasumân, Satyâyu also had one called S'rutañjaya, of Raya there was a son called Eka and of Jaya there was a son called Amita. Bhîma was the son of Vijaya and next came Kancana as Bhîma's son. From Hotraka, Kancana's son, there was the son Jahnu who drank the water of the Ganges in one sip. (4) Of Jahnu was indeed Pûru [see 1.12: 15 & 3.8: 1] born and of him came next Balaka and his son Ajaka. Kus'a followed and of Kus'a next then came the four sons Kus'âmbu, Tanaya, Vasu and Kus'anâbha after whom Gâdhi came as the son of Kus'âmbu. (5-6) Of Gâdhi there was the daughter Satyavatî who by the brahmin Ricîka was requested to be his wife, but not considering him fit replied King Gâdhi that son of Bhrigu: 'Please deliver me as a dowry to this daughter of the Kus'a-dynasty we belong to, one thousand horses as brilliant as the light of the moon with each one black ear. (7) Thus requested understood the sage the point he made and went he to where Varuna was from where he brought and delivered those horses upon which he married the beautiful daughter. (8) He as a seer was by his wife and his mother-in-law wishing for a son [for each of them] requested to cook a preparation, which he with mantra's offered to them both [to his wife with a brâhmana mantra and to his mother-in-law with a kshatriya mantra]. Then the muni went out for a bath. (9) In the meantime was Satyavatî by her mother thinking it to be better asked to give the oblation that was meant for her. She handed it over to her while she herself ate her mothers oblation.

(10) Learning about this said the sage to his wife: 'That is a most regrettable thing you did, your son will be a fierce punitive personality while your brother will be a learned scholar of spirituality!'

(11) Satyavatî beseeched him that it would not be so, and thus said that son of Bhrigu: 'If not, then should his son become like that!', and next was Jamadagni born.

(12-13) She [Satyavatî] also became great and sacred as the Kaus'ikî [a river] purifying all the world. Jamadagni so married Renukâ, the daughter of Renu, who from the seer of Bhrigu indeed gave birth to many sons of whom Vasumân was the eldest and the widely famed Paras'urâma [also known as Râma] was the youngest son. (14) Of him [Paras'urâma] who twenty-one times acted as the annihilator of the Haihaya-dynasty, do all speak as an [ams'a-] incarnation of Vâsudeva; he rid the earth of all its kshatriyas. (15) He wiped off the planet the burden of the arrogant governing class that, covered by passion and ignorance void of respect for the brahminical rule, was killed by him despite of the fact that it had committed no great offense [see also 1.11: 34].'

(16) The honorable king said: 'What was of those degraded nobles out of control the offense committed unto the Supreme Lord, because of which time and again the dynasty was annihilated?'

(17-19) The son of Vyâsa said: 'The king of the Haihayas, Kârtavîryârjuna, the best of the kshatriyas, had, being of full-duty worship with Dattâtreya - who is a plenary portion of a part of Nârâyana -, received thereafter a thousand arms and was, most difficult to conquer, invincible in the midst of enemies, of the strongest sense, of beauty, of influence, power, fame and physical strength. With the opulence of yogîc control wherein the perfections like animâ [see siddhi] etc. are found, went he all over the world like the indefatigable wind. (20) Surrounded by beautiful women enjoying [once] in the water of the Revâ [the Narmadâ], stopped he, overly proud being decorated with the garland of victory, the flow of the river with his arms. (21) The imagined hero Ten-head [Râvana] could not bear that influence as the water going upstream because of him had inundated his camp. (22) Having insulted him [the king] in the presence of the women was he without much difficulty arrested and held in custody in [their capital] Mâhishmatî and then released again as if it concerned a monkey.

(23) One time during a hunt wandering undirected alone in the forest, ran he [Kârtavîryârjuna] into the âs'rama where Jamadagni muni had his shelter. (24) Unto him, that god of men together with his soldiers, ministers and the rest of his retinue, could the great sage as the triumph of austerity from his cow of plenty [kâmadhenu] offer everything that was needed. (25) He [the king] seeing what source of wealth greater than his own personal opulence it in fact was, could not appreciate it really and became with his Haihayas desirous after that cow of the fire sacrifice. (26) In his conceitedness encouraged he his men to steal the sage his cow of plenty that by them was taken to Mâhishmatî with the calf crying of the violence. (27) After the king was gone became Paras'urâma, upon returning to the âs'rama [of his father], as furious as a snake trampled upon when he heard of that nefarious act. (28) Taking up a ghastly chopper, a quiver, a bow and a shield went he, the One Ever more Angry, after them like a lion attacking an elephant. (29) With him, the best of the Bhrigu's coming after him in fury carrying a bow, arrows and a chopper for his weapons saw he him, entering the capital with his black deerskin covering his body and his matted locks, radiating like sunshine. (30) He sent seventeen akshauhinî's [*] to fight him with elephants, chariots, horses and infantry, with swords, arrows, lances, slings and weapons of fire but Paras'urâma, the Supreme Master, most fierce killed them all by himself. (31) Wherever, whomever was by him as an expert with the chopper as fast as the wind and as speedy as the mind slashed; with all the force of the killer of the false order lay scattered here and there the cut off arms and legs and shoulders of the drivers of the elephants and horses that slain had fallen on the field. (32) Seeing his soldiers by the axe of Râma in mud and blood on the field with all arrows, shields, flags and bows and dead bodies scattered, rushed Haihaya [Kârtavîryârjuna] infuriated over there. (33) Kârtavîryârjuna then fixed with five hundred of his arms simultaneously as many arrows on as many bows to kill Râma but he as the best with all the weapons cut with one bow only all of them to pieces. (34) Again attacked he with by himself uprooted hills and trees in the field, but by Paras'urâma's razor-sharp axe were with great force on the spot all the arms of him who was rushing in cut off like they were the snakehoods. (35-36) Rid of his arms was the mountain peak that was his head severed and fled all the ten-thousand sons away in fear when their father was killed. Fetching the cow and calf of the fire sacrifice that had suffered badly, returned the Killer of False Heroism to his fathers hermitage to hand them over to him. (37) After recounting to his father and brothers all that he had done, spoke Jamadagni after listening to that as follows:

(38) 'O Râma Râma, o great and mighty one, you have committed a sin unnecessarily killing that master of man, who embodies all the godly. (39) We indeed are brahmins, my dear, who with their forgiveness have achieved a position of respect; it is this quality by which the god that is the spiritual master of the universe [Lord Brahmâ] has achieved his position as the supreme authority. (40) Simply forgiving becomes the Goddess of Fortune pleasing and will she relate to the brahminical as the light of the sun-god; with the merciful will the Supreme Lord Hari, our Controller, quickly be pleased. (41) To kill the king famed as an emperor is a thing worse than killing a brahmin, and so wash out that sin, my best, worshiping the holy places in the consciousness of the Infallible One.'

*: The Mahâbhârata describes an akshauhinî in the Âdi parva, chapter two: "One chariot, one elephant, five infantry soldiers and three horses are called a patti by those who are learned in the science. The wise also know that a senâmukha is three times what a patti is. Three senâmukhas are known as one gulma, three gulmas are called a gana, and three ganas are called a vâhinî. Three vâhinîs have been referred to by the learned as a pritanâ, three pritanâs equal one camû, and three camûs equal one anîkinî. The wise refer to ten anîkinîs as one akshauhinî. The chariots of an akshauhinî have been calculated at 21.870 by those who know the science of such calculations, O best of the twice-born, and the number of elephants is the same. The number of infantry soldiers is 109.350, and the number of horses is 65.610. This is called an akshauhinî."



Chapter 16  

How Lord Paras'urâma Came to Destroy the Ruling Class Twenty-one Times

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'O son of the Kuru-dynasty, Paras'urâma by his father thus advised said: 'So be it!', and traveled for a year all the holy places to return to the âs'rama thereafter. (2) When once Renukâ (his mother) went to the bank of the Ganges, saw she the king of the gandharva's [see also 14:31] garlanded with lotus flowers sporting with the girls of heaven, the apsara's. (3) Looking at his affairs as she went to the river for some water forgot she, slightly drawn by Citraratha, the time for the fire-sacrifice. (4) Seeing the time wasted stood she, returning, afraid to be cursed by the sage with folded hands before him having put the waterpot in front of him. (5) The sage understood she had yielded to temptation and became angry with his wife saying: 'Kill her my sons, she's full of sin', but the sons did not carry out his order. (6) By his meditation and austerity fully aware of the prowess of the sage did Râma on the encouragement by his father immediately kill his mother and all his brothers. (7) By the pleased Jamadagni asked for any benediction that he would like he said: 'Let the dead today of this Râma return to life and have no remembrance of having been killed by me!' (8) And soon they rose happily alive like awaking from deep sleep as Râma had executed the killing of his kin in the awareness of this power of austerity of his father.

(9) They who were the sons of Kârtavîryârjuna [9: 15: 17], o King, never found any happiness always remembering how their father had been overcome by the superior power of Paras'urâma. (10) So once when Râma with his brothers was away from the âs'rama in the forest, took they the opportunity to approach their residence seeking revenge. (11) When they at the fireplace found the muni sitting fully absorbed in contemplation on the Supreme One Praised in the Verses, did they, determined to sin, kill him. (12) Most cruel with the poor and unprotected mother of Râma begging for the life of her husband, took they, those 'kshatriya'-brothers, violently his head cutting it off. (13) Renukâ the chaste wife down in tears grieving stroke her body with her hands and cried loudly: 'O Râma, o Râma, my dear son!'. (14) Hearing that most sad outcry 'Oh Râma' however far they were away, hastened they themselves back to the âs'rama and saw they that the father had been killed. (15) They all bewildered by the force of being hurt, angry, depressed, indignant and aggrieved cried out: 'O father, o saint, now have you, such an example of the dharma, left us for heaven!' (16) Lamenting like this over their father entrusted Paras'urâma the body to his brothers and took he in person up the ax with the determination to put an end to the kshatriyas. (17) Because a brahmin had been killed went Paras'urâma to Mâhishmatî [the capital] to the doom of them: he severed all their heads, o King, and made in the middle of the town a great pile of them. (18-19) Their river of blood was a terror causing fear to all kings in defiance of the brahminical. His having to accept the murder of his father had been the cause that led to the twenty one times over wiping off of the earth of all the royal class whenever they acted badly; as a Master of war he thus at Samanta-pañcaka created nine lakes filled with blood instead of water [see also B.G. 4:7].

(20) Joining his father's head with the body keeping it on Kus'a-gras, worshiped he with sacrifices the Omnipresent Godhead Pervading All Divinity. (21-22) The hotâ priest he gave as a gift the eastern direction, the brahmâ priest he gave the southern direction, the adhvaryu he gave the western side and the udgâtâ received the north indeed [compare 9.11: 2]. The others and Kâs'yapa Muni he donated the different corners and the middle Âryâvarita portion [*] he gave to the upadrastâ-priest supervising the mantra's; the associate sadasya priests got whatever remained. (23) When he thereafter took a bath was he on the bank of the major stream that was the Sarasvatî cleansed of the endless reactions to the sin and appeared he like a cloudless sun [see also B.G. 3: 9]. (24) Because of the worship of Paras'urâma regained Jamadagni his own body with all the symptoms of life, knowledge and remembrance of the great seers and became he the seventh star in a constellation of seven [the seven sages, see 8.13:5, linked to the saptarshi-mandala stars around the polestar]. (25) The son of Jamadagni, Paras'urâma, that is also the Supreme Lord with the lotus-petal eyes, will in the coming period of Manu, o King, be a propounder of the vedic knowledge [as one of the seven sages, see 8.13: 15-16] (26) He, having given up the clout in peace with the intelligence, is still around today in the hills of Mahendra and is worshiped and revered for his character and activities by all the perfected, singers of heaven and venerable ones. (27) This way has, appearing as an incarnation in the Bhrigu dynasty and killing the rulers of man many times, the Soul of the Universe, the Supreme Lord Hari, the Controller, relieved the earth of its great burden.

(28) From Gâdhi [see 9.15: 4-5] was born the most powerful one [Vis'vâmitra] who as flaming as a fire by his austerities had given up the position of a kshatriya and had achieved the quality of a brahmin [see 7.11: 35 and footnote at 9.7: 7]. (29) With Vis'vâmitra one could also count on sons: one hundred-and-one in number indeed, o ruler, that because of the middle one called Madhucchandâ as a group were celebrated as the Madhucchandâs. (30) He accepted as his son S'unahs'epha, who as Devarâta ['saved by the godly'], in the Bhrigu-dynasty came forward as the son of Ajîgarita; he ordered his own sons to accept him as the eldest. (31) He indeed was for the yajña of Haris'candra sold [to Rohita] as the man-animal of sacrifice who by his offering prayers to the godly headed by Lord Brahmâ was released from being bound like an animal [see 9.7: 20]. (32) He, protected in the arena of the godly, managed by those god-fearing people in the dynasty of Gâdhi to advance in spirituality and was thus in the line of Bhrigu celebrated as well as Devarâta as as S'unas'epha. (33) Those of the Madhucchandâs that were the [fifty] eldest could not wholeheartedly accept that [of him as their eldest brother] and were all cursed by the muni being angry with them saying: 'May all of you bad sons become mlecchas [**]!' (34) It was Madhucchandâ indeed who with the second fifty then said: 'We'll abide by whatever to your pleasure would be ours, o father!' (35) The eldest they accepted as a seer of mantras saying him: 'You we have agreed to follow and so for true we surely will '. Vis'vâmitra said the sons: 'You all will become fathers of sons to my honor as you have accepted me as a father of worthy sons. (36) This one Devarâta is, just like you are, my son, o Kus'ikas [***], just obey him', and many other sons followed: Ashthaka, Hârîta, Jaya, Kratumân and more. (37) Thus came about the dynasty of Kaus'ika from the sons of Vis'vâmitra from whose different positions they as such had taken, as a consequence thus different types could be ascertained.  

 *: The tract of land in India between the Himalaya Mountains and the Vindhya Hills is called Âryâvarita.

** Mleccha's are people opposed to the Veda's, non-Aryans that are also known as the meat-eaters that Lord Kalki will slay at the end of Kali-yuga. 

***: 'One of Kaus'ika' is another name for Vis'vâmitra and his sons, see also 6.8: 38.


 Chapter 17  

The Dynasties of the Sons of Purûravâ

(1-3) The son of Vyâsa said: 'Of one son of Purûravâ, Âyu, there were the powerful sons Nahusha, Kshatravriddha, Rajî, Râbha and Anenâ. O royal ruler hear now about the dynasty of Kshatravriddha. Of Kshatravriddha's son Suhotra there were three sons: Kâs'ya, Kus'a and Gritsamada. From Gritsamada there was S'unaka and from him came S'aunaka, a muni most excellent in the sacred [Rig Veda] verses. (4) Kâs'i the son of Kâs'ya had Râshtra who fathered Dîrghatama. From Dîrghatama there was Dhanvantari who as an incarnation of Vâsudeva, the Enjoyer of Sacrifices, was the founder of âyur-vedic medicine; remembering Him all disease can be overcome [see also 8.8]. (5) From His son Ketumân took birth a son named Bhîmaratha and from him was there Divodâsa whose son Dyumân was also known as Pratardana. (6) He indeed well-known also carried the names S'atrujit, Vatsa, Ritradhvaja and Kuvalayâs'va. From him there were Alarka and other sons. (7) No one before, o King, had enjoyed the surface of the earth as much as Alarka like a young man did for a sixty-six thousand years. (8) From Alarka there was Santati, from him came Sunîtha, his son was Niketana and Niketana's son was Dharmaketu from whom Satyaketu was born. (9) After Dhrishthaketu was there from him Sukumâra who ruled the entire planet. Vîtihotra was his son and Bharga born from him brought forth a son named Bhârgabhûmi, o ruler of man.'

(10) Thus have I described all descendants born in the dynasty of Kâs'i. In the line of Kshatravriddha was from Râbha Rabhasa, a son, born. From him came Gambhîra and Akriya was his son. (11) The descendant that took birth from him was called Brahmâvit. Now hear about the descendants of Anenâ. There was a son S'uddha from whom S'uci was born who had Citrakrit for his son who was also known as Dharmasârathi. (12) From him was S'ântaraja born who performed all kinds of vedic rituals; he was a selfrealized soul [and so the line ended with him]. Of Rajî there were five-hundred sons who were most powerful. (13) On the request of the godly killing the demons returned he the heavenly kingdom back to Indra, the king of heaven. But Indra, afraid of the enmity of Prahlâda and others, gave it back and clasped Rajî's feet surrending himself to him. (14) When their father passed away did his sons requested to return the heavenly kingdom to the great Indra not do so; they [instead] gave him his share of the sacrifices. (15) By the guru [Brihaspati] were oblations offered in the fire so that Indra could kill all of Rajî's sons fallen from the path. None of them remained alive. (16) From Kus'a, Kshatravriddha's grandson, was Prati born. A son of him named Sañjaya had a son Jaya who had as son Krita of whom next king Haryabala was born. (17) From Sahadeva, his son, there was Hîna of whom Jayasena as his son had SanKriti. SanKriti had also one named Jaya, a dutiful kshatriya and mighty warrior. These were are all the kings in the dynasty of Kshatravriddha, now hear from me about the descendants of Nahusha.  



Chapter 18  

King Yayâti Regains His Youth

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Of king Nahusha [another son of Purûravâ's son Âyu] were there just like the six senses [the mind as the sixt] of an embodied soul, the six of Yati, Yayâti, Samyâti, Âyati, Viyati and Kriti. (2) The eldest son Yati, knowing what assuming power entails, did not accept the kingdom offered by his father, [with the argument that] the person who enters such a position cannot be serious in self-realization. (3) When his father by the brahmins was forced to leave his elevated position because of having offended Indra's wife S'acî and he had degraded to the life of a snake, became Yayâti the king. (4) The four brothers younger than him he allowed to rule the different directions. Yayâti so ruling the world married with the daughters [Devayânî] of S'ukrâcârya and [S'armishthhâ of] Vrishaparvâ.'

(5) The king said: 'The mighty seer S'ukrâcârya was a brahmin while Yayâti belonged to the kshatriya class; how could there against the customs be a [pratiloma-] marriage of a brahmin [daughter] with a kshatriya?' [anuloma, the other way around, was more common].

(6-7) S'rî S'uka said: 'One day was Vrishaparvâ's daughter named S'armishthhâ, a girl with a high strung character, together with thousands of friends and the daughter of the guru Devayânî, as innocent as she was walking in the palace garden that full of lotus flowers and crammed with blossoming trees nicely buzzed of the bumblebees. (8) All the lotus-eyed girls arriving at the side of the lake there gave their dresses up on the bank and began sporting in the water splashing one another. (9) Seeing Lord S'iva pass by with the goddess [Pârvatî] seated on his bull got the young girls quickly out of the water ashamed covering themselves with their garments. (10) S'armishthhâ unknowingly put on as her own the dress of the guru's daughter to which Devayânî irritated said this: (11) 'Alas see how she, like a maid-servant, acts against the etiquette. Just like a dog after the ghee for a sacrifice has she put on the garment that was meant for me! (12-14) Of those by whose austerity this entire world was created, of those who are the face of the Personality of Transcendence and of whose piety the light of the right path is known, of those unto whom the masters of the world, the enlightened of control and even the Supreme Lord, the Purifying Supersoul and Husband of the Goddess are offering prayers, of us descendants of Bhrigu better than the rest has she, whose cloudy father is is a disciple of our father, like a low-class laborer put on what was meant to be worn by us - as if an unchaste one could do the Veda's!'

(15) S'armishthhâ thus rebuked breathed heavily like a trampled serpent and said very angry biting her lip to the guru's daughter: (16) 'What a non-sense, you beggar! You don't know your place. Isn't it you who waits outside our house [for food] like the crows do?'

(17) With these unkind words took S'armishthhâ after her reprimand angry the garments of the virtuous daughter of the spiritual teacher away and threw she her into a well. (18) As she went home happened Yayâti, wandering around for a hunt, to arrive there and found he, thursting for water, her in the well. (19) Untying his upper garment reached the king down to the nude of her and put he his hand into hers in his kindness to pull her out. (20-21) Unto him, the hero, said the daughter of the thinker of the heat [Us'anâ or S'ukrâcârya, see also B.G. 10: 37] with words full of love and kindness: 'O King by your taking my hand have you, o conqueror of all other kingdoms, accepted my hand! May it not be touched by anyone else but by you as the relationship between you and me, that what we by providence now have o hero, is not something arranged by man! (22) Because of me having landed in this well have I met with the good of you; [please know that] no qualified brahmin can become my husband o stong-armed one, because Kaca, the son of Brihaspati, in the past has cursed it for me cursing him [*].'

(23) Yayâti did not like what by God had been arranged, but thinking for himself however abided he, attracted to her, what she told him. (24) After the king had left submitted she, having returned home, in tears everything to her father recounting everything that S'armishthhâ had done and what was said thereafter. (25) The mighty thinker was very unhappy about it and condemning the priesthood and praising the business of collecting the grains [uñcha-vritti, see 7.11: 16 and 7.12: 17-19] left he with his daughter his residence. (26) Vrishaparvâ understanding that his spiritual master did so for chiding or cursing him propitiated him on the road [meeting him halfway] falling with his head down to the feet. (27) The mighty son of Bhrigu, whose anger wouldn't last but for a minute, then said to his disciple: 'Please fulfill her desire, o King, by my life I'am not able to give up on this girl!'

(28) With him consenting to have things settled expressed Devayânî her desire: 'To whomever my father gives me, I will go, with my servant [S'armishthhâ] and her friends.'

(29) At the time wisely understanding the danger as well as the benefit of the greatness of him [his âcârya], did the father give S'armishthhâ along with her friends to Devayânî so that she with the thousands of other women would take care of Devayânî as her servant. (30) Giving the descendant of Nahusha his daughter in marriage together with S'armishthhâ said Us'anâ to him: 'O King, never ever alow S'armishthhâ into your bed!'

(31) When S'armishthhâ [though later on] saw Us'anâ's daughter having nice children asked she him once at the right time for it in a secluded place, whether he as the husband of her girl-friend wouldn't like her as a faithful wife. (32) Remembering what S'ukra had said directing to a time like this, decided he, requested by that princess to have a son with her, from his own sense of duty and the general principles of religion to give in to her [compare B.G. 7: 11]. (33) Yadu and Turvasu as well were the ones that Devayânî gave birth to and Druhyu, Anu and Pûru were there from S'armishthhâ, the daughter of Vrishaparvâ. (34) Finding out that S'armishthhâ was pregnant of him left Devayânî boiling with anger in her pride for her fathers house. (35) Following his sweetheart, his great desire, tried he to propitiate her with meaningful words but he couldn't even appease her massaging her feet. (36) S'ukra angry with him said: 'You womanizing deceitful man, may you fool enter the old of age that disfigures the human body.'

(37) S'rî Yayâti said: 'As yet has my lust not been satisfied with your daughter, o brahmin!'

[S'ukra replied:] 'For as long as you are lusty you may exchange the memorable of you with the youth of one who wants to take your place.'

(38) Thus took he the opportunity to change place asking from the eldest son: 'O Yadu, beloved son, please give me your youth in exchange for this old age! (39) With what the father of your mother gave me my dear son am I not satisfied in my sensual needs, let me by the good of your age enjoy life for a few more years!' [see also 7.5: 30]

(40) S'rî Yadu said: 'I'm not happy with accepting your old age while you remain in youth. Without [having had] the experience of bodily happiness will a person [like me] never become indifferent about material pleasures!' [see also: 7.12: 9-11 and B.G 4: 13].

(41) Turvasu requested by the father and Druhyu and Anu also, o son of Bharata, refused to accept as they, not knowing the true nature [of the soul], thought their temporary indeed to be something permanent. (42) Although a son younger of age asked he Pûru saying: 'You, of a better quality, should not like your older brothers, refuse me, dear son.'

(43) S'rî Pûru said: 'What o King, best among the people, of this world if a person is able to repay the father who gave him his body, for it is by his mercy that he may enjoy a higher life. (44) He who acts in respect of his fathers idea is the best, he who acts on his command is but mediocre and low class is he who acts without faith, but like stool is he who defies his fathers words.'

(45) This way was it Pûru's pleasure to accept the old age of his father who also was very satisfied with all the desires of the youth of his son that he had asked for, o ruler of man. (46) As the master of the entirety of the seven continents ruled he like a father his subjects enjoying as much as he wanted the material happiness without any impairment of his senses. (47) Devayânî also for twenty-four hours a day served as the dearest of her beloved in all privacy with all her body, mind and words and everything thereto to bring him divine bliss. (48) Worshiping with different rituals Hari, the Personality of Sacrifice, the God and Reservoir of All Divinity and Object of All Vedic knowledge, was he of an abundant charity. (49) He in whom the entire creation as settled by Him is found is manifested as the sky to the clouds of the different varieties of life and is non-manifest like a dream-image for the mind to traverse [see also B.G. 7: 24-25]. (50) Certain of Him, Lord Vâsudeva in his heart, the One Nârâyana existing within each but visible to no one, worshiped he free from desire the Supreme Master. (51) Though he thus for a period of thousand years proceeded with the mind and the five senses in an idea of worldy happiness, could he, impure in his sensuality, not be satisfied, even though he was the ruler of all.

 * Swâmi Prabhupâda explains: 'Kaca, the son of the learned celestial priest Brihaspati, had been a student of Sukrâcarya, from whom he had learned the art of reviving a man who has died untimely. This art, called mrita-sañjîvanî, was especially used during wartime. When there was a war, soldiers would certainly die untimely, but if a soldier's body was intact, he could be brought to life again by this art of mrita-sañjîvanî. This art was known to S'ukrâcârya and many others, and Kaca, the son of Brihaspati, became S'ukrâcârya's student to learn it. Devayânî desired to have Kaca as her husband, but Kaca, out of regard for Sukrâcarya, looked upon the guru's daughter as a respectable superior and therefore refused to marry her. Devayânî angrily cursed Kaca by saying that although he had learned the art of mrita-sañjîvanî from her father, it would be useless. When cursed in this way, Kaca retaliated by cursing Devayânî never to have a husband who was a brâhmana.'     


Chapter 19

King Yayâti Achieves Liberation: the Goats of Lust

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'He [Yayâti] this way behaving in lust with the women did disgusted, for his own well-being counteracting with intelligence, narrate the following story to his wife [Devayânî].

(2) 'Please listen o daughter of S'ukra to this tale that exemplifies perfectly the behavior of someone worldly like me, someone over whom the sober ones of the forest [who retired] always lament as being too attached to material enjoyment. (3) There was one goat in the forest searching for some food for his dearmost self. By chance met he with a she-goat that as a consequence of her own actions had fallen into a well. (4) Motivated for lust thought the he-goat of a way to free her and engaged he with the tip of his horns in digging into the earth around the well. (5-6) She getting out of the well had to the taste of the he-goat indeed nice hips and she too fancied him as a sex-partner just as the many other onlooking she-goats did. Stout with a nice beard being a first class seed donor and master lover could that he-goat, the number one goat to them all, like someone haunted, ever more lusty as the only one enjoy the great number of them forgetting himself completely [compare 6.5: 6-20]. (7) When the she-goat of the well saw him, her beloved, engaged in delighting with another one could that business of the goat not be tolerated. (8) Him as a lusty cruel-hearted pretender, a friend to the occasion only sensually interested, she aggrieved gave up to return to her former caretaker. (9) He then under her spell in pain poorly followed her and tried to pacify her on the road with what goats so say, but he couldn't satisfy her. (10) Angry were thereupon by the brahmin caring about some [other] she-goat [-wife] his dangling testicles cut off but they were for his own good by the yoga-expert reattached.

(11) O dearest wife, with his testicles restored could he with the she-goat whom he got from the well for a time of many, many years up to the day of today not get his lusty desires satisfied. (12) I am a poor miser just like that; in the company of you with your beautiful eyebrows am I tied in love and could I as yet so bewildered by your outer appearance not be of the soul [compare 3.30: 6-12, 4.25: 56, 4.28: 17, 5.4: 18 , 7.14 and 8.16: 9]. (13) What of the food grains, barley, gold, animals and women in this world; they do not satisfy the mind of the person that is a victim of lust. (14) Never at any time will the lust of the lusty be pacified under enjoyment just like feeding fire with butter again and again indeed will ever more increase the fire. (15) When a man does not envy, nor goes at the detriment of any living being will, of that person who then has an equal vision, all directions be in a happy position [see also B.G. 2: 56, 2: 71 , & 4: 10]. (16) That which is so difficult to forsake for people that are too attached, that root cause of all tribulation not overcome even when crippled by old age, such a desire, should by the one who seeks happiness be given up. (17) With one's mother, one's sister or one's daughter either should one sit close as the senses so very strong will even agitate the most learned. (18) For a full thousand years did I without interruption enjoy in sense-gratifciation, and still increases the desire for this more and more. (19) For that reason will I give up on these desires by fixing my mind upon the absolute Truth, and will I without duality, without falsely identifying myself, wander with the [freedom of the] animals of nature. (20) As one sees them, as one aspires them should one, knowing them to be temporal, not even think of them nor actually enjoy them nor want the prolongation of material life and the forgetfulness about the real self connected to it; he who really knows this is a self-realized soul [see also B.G. 2: 13].'

(21) The son of Nahusha having said this to his wife delivered, freed from desires, to Pûru his youth taking back from him his old age [see 9.18: 45]. (22) He made [of his other sons] Druhyu king over the southeastern direction, Yadu over the southern side, Turvasu over the western part and Anu over the north. (23) The entire planet its riches and wealth he placed under the control of Pûru as the most admirable of the citizens, crowning him emperor over his elder brothers, and thus having settled matters went he away into the forest. (24) Uninterrupted for all those years with the six of his ways [senses and mind] having enjoyed gave he it all up in moment [see also 2.4: 18] like a bird leaving its nest with its wings grown. (25) Doing so was he directly freed from the complete of his attachment and was he, understanding his constitutional position, cleansed of the influence of the three modes [see also 1.2: 17]. Pure to the beyond achieved he the Absolute Truth of Vâsudeva, his destination as an associate of the Supreme Lord known by all. (26) Hearing the tale understood Devayânî it was an instruction for self-realization presented as a joke in the exchange of love between a husband and a wife. (27-28) She understood that living to the waterplace of associating with friends and relatives is like being in the company of travelers to the rules of the Controller [Time] and the laws of the Supreme Lord as imposed by the delusional material world. Giving up on associating wherever in this dreamlike world fixed the daughter of S'ukrâcârya her mind fully on Lord Krishna forsaking the gross and subtle [the linga] of her soul. (29) My obeisances unto You, my Supreme Lord Vâsudeva, Creator of All residing in All beings and abodes; unto You my respect who in perfect peace is the Greatest of All!


Chapter 20

The Dynasty of Pûru up to Bharata

(1) The son of Vyâsadeva said: 'I shall now describe the dynasty of Pûru in which you were born o son of Bharata; the kings of that dynasty were one after the other all saintly and many a brahmin line of descendants took from it its beginning. (2) Janamejaya was the one who appeared from Pûru, Pracinvân was his son and from him was there Pravîra after whom Manusyu appeared; it was of him that Cârupada appeared. (3) The son appearing from him was Sudyu who had a son named Bahugava of whom was born Samyâti who had a son named Ahamyâti; the memorable Raudrâs'vâ was his son. (4-5) With an apsara girl known as Ghritacî were there, alike the ten senses [of action and perception] of the life force of the universal self, ten sons born: Riteyu, Kaksheyu, Sthandileyu, Kriteyuka, Jaleyu, Sannateyu, Dharmeyu, Satyeyu,Vrateyu and Vaneyu as the youngest. (6) From Riteyu appeared a son named Rantinâva and his three sons, o ruler of man, were Sumati, Dhruva and Apratiratha. Kanva was Apratiratha's son. (7) Of him there was Medhâtithi of whom there were Praskanna and others who were all twice-born souls. From Sumati there was Rebhi whose son is the known Dushmanta.

(8-9) Once Dushmanta went hunting and arrived at the âs'rama of Kanva. When he came there saw he a woman sitting who shone in her own beauty like the goddess of fortune. Seeing her he directly felt himself strongly drawn towards her, such a manifest divine beauty of a woman, and surrounded by some soldiers addressed he that best of all ladies. (10) Exhilarated by her presence was he relieved of the fatigue of his hunting excursion and asked he, driven by lusty feelings, with pleasing words jokingly: (11) 'Who are you o lotuspetal-eyed lady, whom do you belong to, o beauty to my heart, and what did you think to do here alone in the forest? (12) It appears you're of royal blood. Be sure that I as a descendant of Pûru, o raving beauty, are never of a mind to enjoy against the dharma whenever!'

(13) S'rî S'akuntalâ said: 'I, born from Vis'vâmitra, was all alone left behind in this forest by Menakâ [her mother]; Kanva that finest saint, knows all about it! O my hero, what may I do for you? (14) Please come and sit with me o lotus eyed one, accept my humble service, eat from the nîvârâ ['of a virgin'] rice that I have to offer and stay here if you wish so.'

(15) S'rî Dushmanta answered: 'This o beautiful eyebrows, is worthy your position of being born in the family of Vis'vâmitra; it is indeed so that the daughters of a royal family select to their own idea their husbands [a gandharva marriage].'

(16) Saying Aum [see B.G. 17: 24] to this, married the king, fully aware of what would befit the time and place, S'akuntalâ in line with the dharma to the gandharva rule. (17) Unerring in his virility [only for a child discharging] deposited the saintly king his semen in the queen and returned he in the morning to his own place. After due time gave she then birth to a son. (18) Kanva Muni executed in the forest the prescribed ceremonies for the son who as a child was remembered to capture a lion by force and play with it. (19) Him, insurmountable in his strength as a part of a plenary portion of the Lord, did she, the best of women, take with her going for her husband. (20) When the king did not accept them as his real wife and son, while they had done nothing wrong, could by all people be heard a loud sound from the sky: it was an unembodied voice declaring: (21) 'Since the mother is like a bellows to the son of the father that begot him, belongs the son to the father; just maintain your son o Dushmanta and do not offend S'akuntalâ! (22) What S'akuntalâ said of you being the procreator of this child is the truth; he who discharged the semen, o god of man, your good self, is the one who by the son must be saved from the punishment of [the Lord of] death.'

(23) After his father passed away was the king succeeded by his son and he became an emperor of great fame and glory celebrated as a partial representation of the Lord on this earth [see also B.G. 10: 41]. (24-26) With the mark of the cakra on his right hand and the mark of the lotuswhorl on his soles, was he of worship with a great ceremony and was he promoted to the position of the topmost ruler and master over everything. Fifty-five horses he used for the sacrifices from the mouth to the Ganges to the source for which he, the mighty one, appointed Bhrigu as the priest. In due order he also did so at the bank of Yamunâ where he bound [the as'vamedha plate to] seventy-eight horses of sacrifice. Of him Bharata, the son of Dushmanta, were riches given in charity, was the sacrifice established on an excellent site and were shares of a badva-thousand [13.084] cows received by the brahmins present. (27) The son of Dushmanta brought together for the yajña an astonishing threethousand-threehundred horses and surpassed all kings in achieving the opulence of the demigods and the Supreme Spiritual Master. (28) In the mashnâra sacrifice gave he in charity fourteen lakhs of fine black elephants with the whitest tusks, complete with golden ornaments [Mashnâra refers to the name of the place]. (29) Like it for certain is impossible to seize the heavenly planets by the strength of one's arms is it neither possible to parallel the exalted activities of Bharata, nor will any of the human rulers after him ever be able to attain such a thing. (30) All such barbarian rulers of man against the brahminical culture as the Kirâtas [Africans], the northern tribes [the Huns], the Yavanas [the meat-eaters] the Paundras [the wild men of south Bihar and Bengal] and the Kankas [kankana means bracelet], the Khasâs [the Mongolians] and the S'akas [women/men] he killed conquering all directions. (31) Formerly conquering the godly had all the asuras who had taken shelter of the lower worlds [Rasâtala] brought all the wives and daughters of the godly to below but he took them with all their associates back to their original places. (32) For twenty-seven thousand years provided he whatever his subjects desired both on earth as in heaven and his order and orders went around in all directions. (33) He the emperor, the ruler of all rulers and places, impeccable with the opulences of the power, the realm, the order of state and such, in the end considered all of his life and goods false and thus stopped he enjoying them. (34) Of him there were, o master of man, three wives, daughters of Vidarbha, who all three were most pleasing and suitable. They afraid thinking that their sons, not being as perfect as their father, would be rejected, had killed them. (35) Thus frustrated in generating offspring performed he a marut-stoma sacrifice to beget sons whereupon the Maruts presented him Bharadvâja.

(36) [It had so happened that once] With his brothers pregnant wife desiring sex Brihaspati so inclined was forbidden to engage that way by the son in the womb, upon which he had cursed him discharging his semen anyway. (37) Unto Mamatâ [the mother], who out of fear to be abandoned for the illicit practice wanted to get rid of the child, was at its name-giving ceremony by the god-conscious the following verse enunciated: (38) 'O foolish woman, just maintain it although it's born from a double liaison' [and:] 'Though of an illicit connection, o Bhrihaspati, do maintain it!', and so was with this being said the child named Bharadvâja ['a burden for both'] because both the parents had turned away from it. (39) Though by the godly encouraged to maintain it did the mother reject her child, with what had happened considering it without a purpose, and was it maintained by the Maruts and given [by them to Bharata] when the dynasty was unfulfilled.



Chapter 21

The Dynasty of Bharata: the Story of Rantideva

(1) The son of Vyâsadeva said: 'From Vitatha [Bharadvâja given to Bharata] his son Manyu there were Brihatkshatra, Jaya, Mahâvîrya, Nara and Garga. Of them had Nara the son Sankritî. (2) Sankritî had Guru and Rantideva, o scion of Pându; the glories of Rantideva are sung in this world and the next. (3-5) Living on what fate provided took he [Rantideva] pleasure in distributing to others whatever grain of food he had. Always penniless he with all his family members lived very sober and had to suffer a lot. One morning when forty-eight days had passed and he even was without drinking water, happened to arrive different foodstuffs, prepared with ghee and milk, and water. With the family all shaky of suffering thirst and hunger right at that time arrived a brahmin guest of Rantideva who also wanted to eat. (6) He, with great respect and faith conceiving the Lord as residing in each [see B.G. 5:18], gave him his share of the food after which, having eaten, the twice born one left from there. (7) Thereafter when he had divided the food for the family and just was about to eat arrived another one, a s'ûdra, whom he, remembering the Lord, gave the food allotted to him, the king. (8) With the s'ûdra gone arrived there another guest surrounded by dogs who said: 'O king, provide me with food for me and my hungry dogs!'

(9) He, the one in power, gave with great respect the dogs and their master whatever that remained of the food, honoring them with his obeisances. (10) Only the drinking water remained of the food and that also had to satisfy one out-caste who, arriving there when the king was about to drink, asked him: 'Please, although I'm lowborn, give me some water!'

(11) Hearing the pitiable words of him so very exhausted gave he deeply touched out of compassion and spoke he these nectarean words: (12) 'I do not desire from the Supreme Controller to attain the great of the eight perfections [siddhi's], nor for the cessation of a repeated birth; I accept all hardship in staying among all living beings so that they may become free from suffering. (13) From hunger, thirst, fatigue, a shaky body, from poverty, distress, lamentation, depression and bewilderment, from them all am I, handing over my water, freed, maintaining the life of this poor soul desiring to stay alive!' (14) Thus expressing himself gave he, that sober kindhearted ruler, although he of thirst was on the verge of death, the drinking water to the out-caste. (15) Before him manifested the controllers of the three worlds, that for those desiring the fruits bestow all results, their true identities as it [the brahmin, the dog-man, the s'ûdra and the out-caste] had all been creations of the illusory energy of Vishnu. (16) He truly towards them as one of no material aspirations for any benefit or possessions [see B.G. 7: 20] offered them his obeisances, concentrating in his mind upon Vâsudeva, the Supreme Lord as the ultimate goal. (17) Fully taking shelter with the Supreme Controller fixing his consciousness was he undeviating willing to serve only, o King, and was the illusory energy of the three modes nothing but a dream to him [see also B.G 7: 14 and 9: 34]. (18) Those associating to the lead of him, all followers of Rantideva, became first-class yogî's all devoted to Lord Nârâyana [see also B.G. 6: 47].

(19-20) From Garga [see verse 1] there was S'ini, from him came Gârgya, of whom despite of his kshatriya birth a whole line of brahmins originated. From Mahâvîrya there was Duritakshaya whose sons were named Trayyâruni, Kavi and Pushkarâruni. They in this line all achieved the position of brahmins. Hastî became Brihatkshatra's son who founded the city of Hastinâpura [now Delhi]. (21) Ajamîdha, Dvimîdha and Pûrumîdha became the sons of Hastî. Ajamîdha's descendants headed by Priyamedha were all twice born. (22) From Ajamîdha there was Brihadishu, his son was Brihaddhanu, Brihatkâya came thereafter and his son was Jayadratha. (23) His son was Vis'ada of whom Syenajit was born and his sons were Rucirâs'va, Dridhahanu, Kâs'ya and Vatsa. (24) Rucirâs'va's son was Pâra, from Pâra was Prithusena born and a son called Nîpa, who managed to generate a hundred of them. (25) He in his wife Kritvî, who was the daughter of S'uka [not the one speaking this Bhâgavatam], begot Brahmâdatta, a yogî who in the womb of his wife Sarasvatî created a son called Vishvaksena. (26) By the instruction of the rishi Jaigîshavya was in the past by him [Vishvaksena] a description of yoga [a so-called tantra] compiled. He had a son Udaksena and from him there was Bhallâtha. These descendants were called the Brihadishus. (27) Yavînara born of Dvimîdha had Kritîmân for his son and his son well known is SatyaDhriti whose son Dridhanemi was the father of Supârs'va. (28-29) Supârs'va had Sumati whose son Sannatimân had one called Kritî, who from Lord Brahmâ got the mystic power to teach in the past the six prâcyasâma samhitâ's [Sâma-veda verses]. Of him could Nîpa be ascertained of whom Udgrâyudha was met and his son was Kshemya of whom came thereafter Suvîra. From Suvîra was there Ripuñjaya. (30) The one from him was named Bahuratha. Pûrumîdha [the younger brother of Dvimîdha] was without a son. Of Ajamîdha came from the wife Nalinî, Nîla who then had S'ânti as his son. (31-33) S'ânti's son Sus'ânti had Pûruja, Arka was his son and from him generated Bharmyâs'va who had five sons with Mudgala as the eldest, Yavînara, Brihadvis'va, Kâmpilla and Sañjaya. He prayed to them: 'My sons, if you're really capable, then care for all the different states'. Thus received they the name the Pañcâla's [to the five states]. From Mudgala was there a line consisting of brahmins known as Maudgalya. (34) A non-identical twin, one male one female was born from Mudgala, Bharmyâs'va's son. The male was called Divodâsa and the female was named Ahalyâ. Of her marriage with Gautama was S'atânanda born [personalities also mentioned in the Ramâyana]. (35) Of him there was a son SatyaDhriti, an expert in archery, and of S'aradvân, his son, were, simply by him seeing Urvas'î of his semen falling on a clump of s'ara grass, a male and a female child born that were a great blessing. (36) During a hunt wandering in the forest saw King S'ântanu [or S'antanu] the twin whom he out of compassion took with him, naming the boy Kripa and the girl Kripî. She later became Dronâcârya's wife.


Chapter 22

The Descendants of Ajamîdha: the Pândavas and Kauravas

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'From Divodâsa was Mitrâyu born and his sons, o protector of man, were Cyavana, Sudâsa, Sahadeva and Somaka. Somaka next was the father of Jantu. (2) Of him there were a hundred sons, and the youngest of them was Prishata. From him was Drupada born who was opulent in every way. (3) From Drupada was Draupadî [the wife of the Pândavas] born. His sons were led by Dhrishthadyumna of whom there was Dhrishthaketu. All these descendants of Bharmyâs'va [9.21:31-33] are known as the Pâncâlakas.

(4-5) Riksha was another son born from Ajamîdha. He begot in his wife Tapatî, the daughter of the sungod, Samvarana of whom Kuru was born [see family-tree], the king of Kurukshetra. Parîkshi, Sudhanu, Jahnu and Nishadha were Kuru's sons. From Sudhanu was Suhotra born and from him came Cyavana of whom there was Kritî. (6) Of him there was Uparicara Vasu and his sons headed by Brihadratha were Kus'âmba, Matsya, Pratyagra and Cedipa and others. They all became rulers of the state of Cedi. (7) From Brihadratha was Kus'âgra born. Of his son Rishabha was Satyahita born who as his offspring had Pushpavân whose son was Jahu. (8) Brihadratha being with also a second wife had two parts of him who, because of the mother rejecting them, by Jarâ [the daughter of Time, see also 4.27: 19] playfully were united saying: 'Come alive, come alive', so that a son called Jarâsandha ['Jarâ's hermaphrodite'] was born [that later became a vital enemy of Lord Krishna]. (9) From him was then Sahadeva born of whose son Somâpi there was S'rutasravâ. Parîkshi [another son of Kuru] had no children while of Jahnu one was born named Suratha. (10) From him there was Vidûratha of whom Sârvabhauma was born. He had Jayasena and from his son Râdhika was Ayutâyu born. (11) From him then there was Akrodhana who had a son named Devâtithi of whom Riksha was born who had a son called Dilîpa and of him there was the son Pratîpa. (12-13) Of him there were the sons Devâpi, S'ântanu and Bâhlîka. It was Devâpi the eldest who rejected his fathers realm and left for the forest so that S'antanu became the king. He a life before had been the celebrated Mahâbhisha; whomever he touched with his hands attained youth however old that person would be. (14-15) Because one indeed primarily by the touch of his hands could get the youth of pleasure was he known as S'antanu. When Indra, the might of the heavens, for twelve years had not sent down rain in his kingdom was S'antanu, who at fault as an usurper [parivetta] was enjoying his elder brothers kingdom, by his brahmins advised: 'Give immediately, for the elevation of your stronghold and kingdom, the realm back to your elder brother.'

(16-17) Thus advised by the twice-born asked he Devâpi to take charge of the kingdom but he replied that, by the words in offense with the Veda's that S'antanu's minister in the past had instigated with the learned ones, he had fallen from the principles. When that was said showered [with S'antanu accepting the realm] the demigod the rains. Devâpi later on sought his refuge in the village of Kalâpa taking up the practice of yoga [to the day of today]. (18-19) The Soma-dynasty lost in Kali-yuga will [by him] at the beginning of the next Satya-yuga be reestablished. Bâhlika [S'antanu's brother] generated Somadatta and from him there were Bhûri, Bhûris'ravâ and next the son S'ala. S'antanu begot in his wife Gangâ the selfrealized great devotee and scholar Bhîshma [see also 1.9], the best of all defenders of the dharma. (20) By him, the best of all warriors, was even Paras'urâma to his satisfaction defeated in a fight [*]. By S'antanu was from the womb of [Satyavatî] the daughter of Dâsa [a fisherman **] the son Citrângada born. (21-24) Vicitravîrya his older brother was by a gandharva with the same name of Citrângada killed. By the sage Parâsara incarnated from her [Satyavatî, previous to her marriage to S'antanu] directly an expansion of the Lord who was a great muni protecting the Veda's: Krishna Dvaipâyana from whom I was born to study this [Bhâgavatam] thoroughly. Vyâsadeva, the [partial] incarnation of the Lord, rejected his pupils Paila and others while he unto me, I as his son far removed from sense-gratification, was of instruction with the most confidential of this supreme literature. Vicitravîrya later on married the two daughters of Kâs'îrâja who by force were brought from the arena of selection, but because he was too attached in his heart to the both of Ambikâ and Ambâlikâ died he of an infection with tuberculosis. (25) Therein of the brother having no offspring begot Vyâsadeva commissioned [in devarena sutotpatti, see footnote 9.6] by the mother [Satyavatî] a son called DhritaRâshtra and Pându [with respectively Ambikâ and Ambâlikâ] and was [with Vicitravîrya's maidservant, see also 1:13] also a son begotten named Vidura. (26) From his wife Gândhârî were of DhritaRâshtra a hundred sons born, o protector of man, of whom Duryodhana was the oldest, as well as one daughter called Duhsalâ.

(27-28) Pându because of a curse had to restrain his sexual life, and so were the great [Pândava] heroes, the three sons headed by Yudhishthhira born from [his wife] Kuntî begotten by Dharma, Indra and Vâyu [not mentioning Karna from the sungod]. Nakula and Sahadeva were in the womb of Mâdrî begotten by the two As'vins [Nâsatya and Dasra]. From these five brothers came [with Draupadî] five sons into this world: your uncles. (29) Yudhishthhira had Prativindhya, Bhîma had S'rutasena, from Arjuna came S'rutakîrti and of Nakula there was S'atânîka. (30-31) Sahadeva, o King, had S'rutakarmâ. There indeed were also other sons: from Yudhishthhira was there with Pauravî Devaka, Bhîma had Ghathotkaca with Hidimbâ and Sarvagata with Kâlî, and likewise had Sahadeva with Vijaya, the daughter of the Himalayan king [Pârvatî], Suhotra born from him. (32) Nakula had with Karenumatî a son named Naramitra and Arjuna had the son Irâvân from the womb of Ulupî [a Nâga-daughter] and the son Babhruvâhana with the princess of Manipura, who, although being his son, was adopted by the father -in-law.

(33) From Subhadrâ [Krishna's sister] was [by Arjuna] your father Abhimanyu born, he was a great hero who defeated all Atiratha's ['those who can oppose a thousand charioteers']. And your good self took by him birth from Uttarâ. (34) With the annihilation of the Kuru-dynasty tried As'vatthâmâ also to put you to death with the heat of the brahmâstra-weapon, but by the mercy of Lord Krishna were you saved from ending that way [see 1.8]. (35) All your sons, my best, with Janamejaya first, S'rutasena, Bhîmasena and Ugrasena - are all of great power. (36) Your eldest son, knowing that you died of Takshaka, will in great anger in a fire sacrifice indeed offer all snakes. (37) Accepting Tura, the son of Kalasha, for his priest will he, having conquered each and every part of the world, be of sacrifice in as'vamedha-offerings and be known as Turuga-medhashâth ['performer of many horse-sacrifices']. (38) S'atânîka, his son, will with Yâjñavalkya thoroughly study the three Veda's and the way to perform to the spiritual knowledge, realize the military art [from Kripâcârya] and will with S'aunaka achieve the transcendental. (39) Sahasrânîka his son will have as'vamedhaja for his son and from him will there be Asîmakrishna who will have a son named Nemicakra. (40) With Hastinâpura flooded by the river, will he [Nemicakra] duly live at Kaus'âmbî, whereafter from his son called Citraratha there will be the son S'uciratha. (41) From him will there also be a son: Vrishthimân from whom following there will be Sushena. an emperor. His son Sunîtha will have one called Nricakshu and from him there will be Sukhînala. (42) Pariplava will be his son and from Sunaya after him will there be Medhâvî; from him there will be Nripañjaya, he will have Dûrva and by him will Timi take birth. (43) Of Timi, we'll have Brihadratha of whom Sudâsa will have the son S'atânîka. S'atânîka will have a son named Durdamana and his son will be Mahînara. (44-45) Dandapâni, from him, will have Nimi from whom Kshemaka will take birth. With Kshemaka closing the row as the monarch will there be an end to this dynasty, this source of brahmins and kshatriyas respected by the seers and the godly in Kali-yuga. Next will there in the future be the kings of Mâgadha; let me tell you about them.

(46-48) The son of Sahadeva [born of Jarâsandha] will have Mârjâri for his son. S'rutasravâ will there be of him, Yutâyu will be his son and Niramitra after him will have Sunakshatra. Sunakshatra will beget Brihatsena and Karmajit from him will have Sutañjaya whose son Vipra will have one born called S'uci. Kshema thereafter born from him will have the son Suvrata from whom Dharmasûtra will appear. Sama his son will have Dyumatsena after whom next from Sumati, his son, Subala will take birth. (49) From Sunîtha [Subala's son] there will be Satyajit from whose son Vis'vajit there will be Ripuñjaya; and so will all the other kings in the line of Brihadratha for a thousands years in a row take birth.'

* The fight between Paras'urâma and Bhîshmadeva concerns three daughters of Kasirâja--Ambikâ, Ambâlikâ and Ambâ--who were forcibly abducted by Bhîshmadeva, acting on behalf of his brother Vicitravîrya. Ambâ thought that Bhîshmadeva would marry her and became attached to him, but Bhîshmadeva refused to marry her, for he had taken the vow of brahmâcârya. Ambâ therefore approached Bhîshmadeva's military spiritual master, Paras'urâma, who instructed Bhîshma to marry her. Bhîshmadeva refused, and therefore Paras'urâma fought with him to force him to accept the marriage. But Paras'urâma was defeated, and he was pleased with Bhîshma.

** Satyavatî was actually the daughter of Uparicara Vasu by the womb of a fisherwoman known as Matsyagarbhia. Later, Satyavatî was raised by a fisherman.


Chapter 23

The Dynasties of the Sons of Yayâti: the Appearance of Lord Krishna

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Of Anu [the fourth son of Yayâti, see 9. 17, 18 &19] were there the three sons Sabhânara, Cakshu and Pareshnu. From Sabhânara thereafter came Kâlanara and a son of him called Sriñjaya. (2) Of Janamejaya [after him] there was a son Mahâs'âla who had Mahâmanâ. Us'înara and Titikshu were the two sons of Mahâmanâ. (3-4) S'ibi, Vara, Krimi and Daksha were the four born from Us'înara. Vrishâdarbha, Sudhîra, Madra and the self-realized Kekaya were four sons born from S'ibi. Of Titikshu there was one called Rushadratha from whom there was Homa who begot Sutapâ. Bali was Sutapâ's son. (5) Headed by Anga, Vanga and Kalinga were Suhma, Pundra and Odra known as being born from Dîrghatamâ's semen in the wife of the great conqueror Bali. (6) It were their names that were given to the six states they created in the east [of India]. From Anga came Khalapâna into existence and from him appeared thereafter Diviratha. (7-10) From Dharmaratha, his son, was Citraratha born, celebrated as Romapâda. Romapâda had no children and thus delivered his friend Das'aratha, S'ântâ, his own daughter [to be adopted], who then married whith Rishyas'ringa [a hermit who lived in the forest, see also 8.13: 15-16 ] But because the god [Indra] did not shower any rains was the doe's son brought in with courtesans who dancing and singing with music bewildered him with embraces and worship. On behalf of the childless king established he [Rishyas'ringa] a marutvân [son-giving] sacrifice so that Das'aratha [as the father-in-law] was delivered a child [as well as the rain, see B.G. 3.14 as]. And so did he [Romapâda], sonless, indeed achieve offspring; he got Caturanga who then had Prithulâksa for his son. (11) Brihadratha, Brihatkarmâ and Brihadbhânu were his sons. From the eldest [Brihadratha] was there Brihanmanâ and from him was there the one celebrated as Jayadratha. (12) Vijaya with him born from Sambhûti had thereafter Dhriti and from him took Dhritavrata his birth of whom came Satkarmâ who had Adhiratha. (13) He playing at the bank of the Ganges found in a basket the baby that was abandoned by Kuntî because it was born before she was married. Being sonless he adopted it as his son [Karna]. (14) O master of the universe, Vrishasena was Karna's son. Of Druhyu [Yayâti's third son] there was a son Babhru who next begot Setu. (15) Ârabdha born from him had Gândhâra and of him there was Dharma. He had Dhrita, and of Dhrita there was Durmada of whom the son Pracetâ had a hundred sons. (16) They as kings accepted the jurisdiction over the northern direction, the uncivilized area's of Mlecchades'a. Turvasu [Yayâti's second son] had the son Vahni and Vahni had next Bharga who begot Bhânuman. (17) Tribhânu, his son, had also one: the magnanimous Karandhama. His son was Maruta; he, sonless, adopted a Paurava [Dushmanta, see also 9.20: 7] as his son. (18-19) Dushmanta desirous for the throne, turned back to his clan [the Pûrus]. Of Yayânti's first son Yadu there was a dynasty, o best of the humans, that I'll now describe.

To hear about the Yadu dynasty is a thing highly pious that vanquishes all sinful reactions in human society. Anyone simply hearing it is freed from the aftermath to sin. (20-21) In this dynasty descended the Supreme Lord [Krishna], the Supersoul, looking just like a human being [see also S.B. 1.2: 11]. Of Yadu there were the four sons celebrated as Sahasrajit, Kroshthâ, Nala and Ripu, and from them had S'atajit, born from the first of them, as his sons then Mahâhaya, Renuhaya and Haihaya. (22) Dharma then became Haihaya's son and his son Netra was the father of Kunti [not Kuntî]. Sohañji became the son of Kunti and he begot Mahishmân who had Bhadrasenaka. (23) Durmada was born of Bhadrasena together with Dhanaka. Dhanaka fathered the sons Kritavîrya, Kritâgni, Kritavarmâ and Kritaujâ. (24) Of Kritavîrya there was Arjuna [Kârtavîryârjuna] who became emperor over the seven continents and obtained all the great qualities [the eight siddhis] of yoga from Lord Dattâtreya, an [ams'a-] incarnation of the Supreme Personality [see also 9.15 & 26]. (25) There was indeed none to find on this earth who could equal Kâritavîrya in his qualities of sacrifice, charity, austerity, yogîc achievement, education, strength and mercy. (26) For eighty-five thousand years was his strength without deterioration indeed to be factually inexhaustible and were the six forms of pleasure [to the senses and mind] to be enjoyed in full remembrance and all opulence. (27) Of his thousand sons only five remained alive in the fight [with Paras'urâma]: Jayadhvaja, S'ûrasena, Vrishabha, Madhu and Ûrjita. (28) Jayadhvaja had Tâlajangha of whom then a hundred sons were born. They made up a kshatriya clan known as the Tâlajanghas that was destroyed thanks to the power [that Sagara] received from sage Aurva [see 9.8: 3-7]. (29) Of Tâlajangha's eldest son Vîtihotra, there was Madhu, who had a hundred sons of whom, the celebrated Vrishni was the eldest. From him there was the dynasty.

(30-31) O King, the Yâdava, Mâdhava and Vrishni dynasties [of Lord Krishna's ancestors] received their names from their leading personalities. Yadu's son Kroshthâ had a son with the name Vrijinavân. His son was Svâhita who next had Vishadgu of whom there was Citraratha from whom S'as'abindu took his birth, a great yogî who became a highly fortunate personality who, undefeated as an emperor, had all the fourteen kinds of great riches [*]. (32) S'as'abindu had ten thousand wives, and in them he so greatly famous begot ten thousand lakhs [**] of sons [and grandsons]. (33) From them we but know six as the foremost. Prithusravâ [one of them] had a son with the name Dharma. Us'anâ, his son performed a hundred as'vamedha sacrifices. (34) Of his son Rucaka there were five sons named Pûrujit, Rukma, Rukmeshu, Prithu and Jyâmagha. Please hear about them. (35-36) Jyâmagha, although he had no sons, was afraid to accept another wife than his wife Saibhya. He then brought a sensual girl from the camp of an enemy clan upon which S'aibyâ seeing the girl sitting on her seat in the chariot very angry said to her husband: 'Who is this you have allowed to sit on my place on the chariot, you cheater?'

'She's your daughter-in-law' he then informed her upon which she smilingly said to her husband:

(37) 'I am sterile, I have no co-wife, how then can she be my daughter-in-law? What son could you put on this earth?'

'My Queen', [he replied,] 'This girl will be very suitable for him!'

(38) With the demigods and ancestors [as propitiated by Jyâmagha] accepting that statement got S'aibyâ pregnant and gave she in due course of time birth to a son. That son was the auspicious, wellknown Vidharba who later married the chaste girl that was accepted as the daughter-in-law.

 * In the Mârkandeya Purâna the fourteen kinds of great jewels of an emperor are described as follows: (1) an elephant, (2) a horse, (3) a chariot, (4) a wife, (5) arrows, (6) a reservoir of wealth, (7) a garland, (8) valuable costumes, (9) trees, (10) a spear, (11) a noose, (12) jewels, (13) an umbrella, and (14) regulative principles.

**: One lakh is one hundred thousand.  


Chapter 24

The Yadu and Vrishni Dynasties, Prithâ and the Glory of Lord Krishna

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'In her [see 9.23: 35-38] begot Vidarbha [the son of the Yadu Jyâmagha] the two sons Kus'a and Kratha and a third one called Romapâda [also, see 9.23: 7-10] who was the favorite of the Vidarbha dynasty. (2) Romapâda's son was Babhru, from Babhru was Kriti born and from his son Us'ika there was Cedi [see also 9.22:6] from whom Caidya [Damaghosha, 7.1: 18] and other protectors of man were born. (3-4) Of Kratha there was a son called Kunti, of whom Vrishni was born, from whom then Nirvriti took birth of whom the one named Das'ârha was born. From him there was a son Vyoma who begot Jîmûta who had Vikriti for his son of whom Bhîmaratha was born whose son Navaratha had Das'aratha. (5) Karambhi of S'akuni [Das'aratha's son] got a son Devarâta, his son was Devakshatra and after him there was Madhu who got Kuruvas'a who begot Anu. (6-8) From Pûruhotra, known as the son of Anu, there was Âyu; Bhajamâna, Bhaji, Divya, Vrishni, Devâvridha, Andhaka and Mahâbhoja were the seven sons of Sâtvata, o worthy friend. From Bhajamâna there were with one wife the sons Nimloci, Kinkana and Dhrishthi indeed and with another one alike were there also the three sons of S'atâjit, Sahasrâjit and Ayutâjit, o master. (9) Of Devâvridha and his son Babhru there are, as we have heard from others and is still the same seen at present, two verses recited by the old generation: (10-11) 'Babhru, the best of all the humans and Devâvridha, the best among the godly - of the accord of these two have all the fourteen thousand sixty-five persons [that followed after them] achieved the eternal abode.' and: 'In the dynasty of Mahâbhoja was there from the association of the Bhoja kings of Babhru and Devâvridha only the more and more complete of the dharma'.

(12) Of Vrishni [born from Sâtvata] appeared the sons Sumitra and Yudhâjit, o subduer of the enemies. S'ini and Anamitra took birth from him [Yudhâjit] and from Anamitra appeared Nighna. (13) From Nighna came into existence the sons Satrâjita and Prasena. Another son of him was also called S'ini and his son was Satyaka. (14) Yuyudhâna there of Satyaka had Jaya and of him there was Kuni whose son was Yugandhara. Another son of Anamitra was Vrishni. (15) S'vaphalka and Citraratha were his sons. Begotten in Gândinî by S'vaphalka there was Akrûra, the eldest of twelve other most celebrated sons: (16-18) Âsanga, Sârameya and Mridura; Mriduvit, Giri, Dharmavriddha, S'ukarmâ, Kshetropeksha and Arimardana; S'atrughna, Gandhamâda and Pratibâhu. To the twelve of them there was a sister named Sucârâ. Of Akrûra there are two sons named Devavân and Upadeva. Citraratha had, beginning with Prithu and Vidûratha, many sons known as the sons of Vrishni.

(19) Among Kukura, Bhajamâna, S'uci and Kambalabarhisha [sons of Andhaka see 6-8] had Kukura a son called Vahni and from him there was Vilomâ. (20) His son Kapotaromâ had Anu and his friend was Tumburu. Of Andhaka [Anu's son] there was Dundubhi of whom there was Avidyota who had a son named Purnarvasu. (21-23) From him there were Âhuka and Âhukî, a son and a daughter, and of Âhuka there were the sons Devaka and Ugrasena. Devaka sure had four sons: Devavân, Upadeva, Sudeva and Devavardhana. There existed also seven daughters, o protector of man: S'ântidevâ, Upadevâ, S'rîdevâ, Devarakshitâ, Sahadevâ, Devakî and Dhritadevâ who was the eldest. Vasudeva [Krishna's father] married with them. (24) Kamsa, Sunâmâ, Nyagrodha, Kanka, S'anku, Suhû as also Râshthrapâla and next Dhrishthi and Tushthimân were Ugrasena's sons. (25) Ugrasena's daughters Kamsâ, Kamsavatî, Kankâ, S'ûrabhû and Râshtrapâlikâ became the wives of the younger brothers of Vasudeva.

(26) From S'ûra born from Vidûratha [the son of Citraratha of Vrishni] took a son called Bhajamâna his birth and from himself there was S'ini who fathered the famous king Bhoja whose son is the celebrated Hridika. (27) Devamîdha, S'atadhanu and Kritavarmâ then were his sons. Of Devamîdha there was [there another] S'ûra who had a wife named Mârishâ. (28-31) In her he begot ten sons: Vasudeva, Devabhâga, Devas'ravâ, Ânaka, Sriñjaya, S'yâmaka, Kanka, s'amîka, Vatsaka and Vrika. At the birth of Vasudeva was he by the godly welcomed with the sounds of kettledrums beaten. He is also called Ânakadundubhi for giving the Lord His place of birth. S'ûra's daughters Prithâ [the mother of Arjuna, Krishna's nephew and friend] and S'rutadevâ as also S'rutakîrti, S'rutasravâ and Râjâdhidevî were his five sisters. Father S'ûra delivered a childless friend called Kunti, Prithâ who thus is also known as Kuntî.

(32) She received from Durvâsâ, whom she had pleased, the knowledge to call for any demigod. Just to examine that potency called she, the pious one, for the sungod. (33) When she saw the very instant the godhead appearing before her, was she very surprised and said she: 'Please forgive me o godhead, please return, I only made use to check out what it would do!'

(34) [The sungod answered:] 'Not to be fruitless in your meeting with a godhead shall I give you to that a son in your womb and I'll arrange it so for you, o my beauty, that you will not be defiled.'

(35) Thus promising her made the sungod her pregnant and returned he to his heavenly abode. Directly thereafter was a child born that was like a second sungod. (36) Afraid of what the people might think did she greatly sorry forsake that child [Karna: 'into the ear'] in the water of the river [in a basket, see also 9.23: 13]; it was indeed your pious and chivalrous great-grandfather Pându who married her.

(37) From the marriage of S'rutadevâ [Kuntî's sister] with Vriddhas'armâ, the king of Karûsha, was then Dantavakra born. Dantavakra was the one who, cursed by the seven sages [originally by the Kumâras, see Jaya and Vijaya], became a son of Diti. (38) Dhrishthaketu, the king of Kekaya, married S'rutakîrti with whom he had the five Kekaya sons headed by Santardana. (39) Râjâdhidevî gave with Jayasena birth to sons [named Vinda and Anuvinda]. Damagosha, the king of Cedi, then married S'rutasravâ. (40) S'is'upâla, whose birth I already described [7.1: 46; 7.10: 38], was her son. From Devabhâga [one of Vasudeva's brothers] were there with the wife Kamsâ, Citraketu and Brihadbala. (41) From Devas'ravâ gave Kamsavatî birth to Suvîra and Isumân; and by Kanka were Baka, Satyajit and Pûrujit begotten in Kankâ. (42) Sriñjaya with Râshtrapâlikâ begot sons headed by Vrisha en Durmarshana and S'yâmaka in S'ûrabhûmi begot Harikes'a and Hiranyâksa. (43) In Mis'rakes'î, a girl of heaven, were by Vatsaka begotten Vrika and other sons. Vrika gave his wife Durvâksî sons with Taksha, Pushkara and S'âla as the first among them. (44) Sumitra and Arjunapâla as the eldest were then by s'amîka begotten in Sudâmanî. Ânaka with Karnikâ for real had Ritadhâmâ and Jaya as well.

(45) Pauravî, Rohinî, Bhadrâ, Madirâ, Rocanâ and Ilâ headed by Devakî were the wives [see also 21-23] there for Ânakadundubhi [Vasudeva]. (46) With Krita first were Bala, Gada, Sârana and Durmada, Vipula and Dhruva the sons that Vasudeva then begot in Rohinî. (47-48) Subhadra, Bhadrabâhu, Durmada and Bhadra were among the twelve sons headed by Bhûta that took birth from Pauravî. Nanda, Upananda, Kritaka, S'ûra and others were the sons of Madirâ, while Kaus'alyâ [Bhadrâ] gave birth to only one son named Kes'î. (49) From the one named Rocanâ were thereafter Hasta, Hemângada and others born. In Ilâ he begot the sons headed by Uruvalka that were the leading personalities of the Yadu-dynasty. (50) Ânakadundubhi begot in Dhritadevâ one son: Viprstha, while Pras'ama, Prasita and others were the sons of S'ântidevâ, o King. (51) Râjanya, Kalpa and Varsha and others were the ten sons with Upadevâ and Vasu, Hamsa and Suvams'a and others were the six sons with S'rîdevâ. (52) In Devarakshitâ he also achieved nine of them to be there with Gadâ as the first. With Sahadevâ begot Vasudeva eight sons. (53-55) They, with S'ruta and Pravara [or Pauvara] leading, were directly the dharma personified of the vasus. Vasudeva begot in Devakî then eight highly qualified sons: Kîrtimân, Sushena, Bhadrasena, Riju, Sammardana, Bhadra and Sankarshana, the serpent controller. The eighth one that appeared from the two of them was the Lord in person [Krishna]; and what of [His sister] Subhadrâ, your so greatly fortunate grandmother, o King?

(56) Whenever and wherever there is a decline in the dharma and an increase of sinful activities, then, at that time, descends the Supreme Lord, the Controller Hari personally [see B.G. 4: 7]. (57) Apart from the Controller His compassion with the fallen souls is there no reason at all for His taking birth or acting either, o great leader; He's the One in the Beyond, the Witness that is the Supreme Self [see also B.G. 8: 4]. (58) Whatever He enacts through the material energy He does out of compassion in order to stop the [materialistic] reality of the birth, the duration and annihilation of the living entities and lead them back home, back to Godhead [ 'to meet with the true self', see B.G. 15: 7 and 13: 20-24]. (59) By the military power that at great expense by the actually for the leadership unfit unenlightened rulers is set up in order to attack one another, He paves the way for diminishing their numbers [see also 1.11: 35, 3.3 and 7.9: 43]. (60) Even to the minds of the controllers of enlightenment [Brahmâ and S'iva] are the activities that the Supreme Lord, the killer of Mâdhu, performed with Sankarshana [Balarâma], beyond measure. (61) To dispell the darkness of the misery and lamentation of the ones to be born in this age of Kali, just to show mercy to the devotees, displayed He His pious activities. (62) To this pleasing [the soul] with keeping one's ears to the truth and keeping oneself to the holy places is, with one's touching in hearing about the transcendental, the strong desire for fruitive activities destroyed for ever. (63-64) Always endeavoring assisted by the praiseworthy Kurus, Sriñjayas and Pândavas, the ones of Bhoja, Vrishni, Andhaka, Madhu, S'ûrasena and Das'ârha, with His affectionate smiles and with His instructions and heroic pastimes being regarded as magnanimous, pleased He the human society with His personal form so agreeable in every limb. (65) All men and women [of Vrindâvana] who to their satisfaction drink in the sight of His face and forehead, brilliantly decorated with shark-shaped earrings to His beautiful ears; all who drink in His smiles of enjoyment that are a festival to the eye never enough, are all angry to the blinking of their own eyes! [see also B.G. 7: 3]. (66) Taking birth He went away from His fathers home to exalt the position of Vraja [and Vrindâvana] killing there many demons; He begot hundreds of sons accepting thousands of fine women as His wives and as the Supreme Person worshiped by many sacrifices expanded He Himself with the [householder] people in accord with the vedic rituals [see also B.G. 4: 8]. (67) He in the battle [of Kurukshetra] indeed put an end to the great burden on this earth of Kuru-personalities by arranging for a quarrel among them; by His glance all the profit-minded rulers were cleared out in the triumph to which He declared the victory [to Arjuna, see Gîtâ] and, after giving transcendental instructions unto Uddhava [see 3.2, 3.4: 29, eleventh canto], returned to His abode.    


Thus ends the ninth Canto of the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam named: 'Liberation'. 

 Translation: Anand Aadhar Prabhu, http://bhagavata.org/c/8/AnandAadhar.html

Production: the Filognostic Association of The Order of Time, with special thanks to Sakhya Devi Dasi for proofreading and correcting the manuscript. http://theorderoftime.com/info/guests-friends.html

The sourcetexts, illustrations and music to this translation one can find following the links from: http://bhagavata.org/ 

For this original translation next to the Sanskrit dictionary a one-volume printed copy has been used with an extensive commentary by A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda. ISBN: o-91277-27-7 . See the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam treasury: http://bhagavata.org/treasury/links.html for links to other sites concerning the subject.

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