The Mahabharata
  Srimad Bhagavatam

  Rig Veda
  Yajur Veda
  Sama Veda
  Atharva Veda

  Bhagavad Gita
  Sankara Bhashya
  By Edwin Arnold

  Brahma Sutra
  Sankara Bhashya I
  Sankara Bhashya II
  Ramanuja SriBhashya


  Agni Purana
  Brahma Purana
  Garuda Purana
  Markandeya Purana
  Varaha Purana
  Matsya Purana
  Vishnu Purana
  Linga Purana
  Narada Purana
  Padma Purana
  Shiva Purana
  Skanda Purana
  Vamana Purana

  Manu Smriti

  Bhagavad Gita
  Brahma Sutras

See for the online version with illustrations, music and links to the previous translation: http://bhagavata.org/ 


"The story of the fortunate one" 


General History


Chapter 1 The Curse Upon the Yadu Dynasty

Chapter 2 Mahârâja Nimi Meets the Nine Yogendras

Chapter 3 Liberation from Mâyâ and Karma Knowing and Worshiping the Lord

Chapter 4 The Activities of Nara-Nârâyana and the other Avatâras described

Chapter 5 Nârada Concludes His Teachings to Vasudeva

Chapter 6 Retirement on the Advise of Brahmâ and Uddhava Addressed in Private

Chapter 7 Krishna Speaks about the Avadhûta's Masters and the Pigeon so Attached

Chapter 8 What One Learns from Nature and the Story of Pingalâ

Chapter 9 Detachment from All that Is Material

Chapter 10 The Soul Free, The Soul Bound

Chapter 11 Bondage and Liberation Explained and the Saintly Person His Devotional Service

Chapter 12 The Confidential Secret Beyond Renunciation and Knowledge

Chapter 13 The Hamsa-avatâra Answers the Questions of the Sons of Brahmâ

Chapter 14 The Devotional Coherence of the Methods and the Meditation on Vishnu

Chapter 15 Mystical Perfection: the Siddhis

Chapter 16 The Lord's Opulence

Chapter 17 The Varnâs'rama System and the Boat of Bhakti: the Students and the Householders

Chapter 18 The Varnâs'rama System: the Withdrawn and the Renounced

Chapter 19 The Perfection of Spiritual Knowledge

Chapter 20 Trikânda Yoga: Bhakti Surpasses Knowledge and Detachment

Chapter 21 On Distinguishing between Good and Bad

Chapter 22 Prakriti and Purusha: Nature and the Enjoyer

Chapter 23 Forbearance: the Song of the Avantî Brâhmana

Chapter 24 Analytic Knowledge, Sânkhya, Summarized

Chapter 25 The Three Modes of Nature and Beyond

Chapter 26 The Song of Purûravâ

Chapter 27 On Respecting the Form of God

Chapter 28 Jñâna Yoga or the Denomination and the Real

Chapter 29 Bhakti Yoga: the Most Auspicious way to Conquer Death

Chapter 30 The Disappearance of the Yadu-dynasty

Chapter 31 The Ascension of Lord Krishna


 Chapter 1

 The Curse Upon the Yadu Dynasty

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'After Lord Krishna surrounded by the Yadus together with Râma realized the elimination of the daityas and reduced the burden of the earth, rose very soon a conflict [among the Yadus]. (2) The Supreme Lord, relieving the earth of its burden by killing all the kings that assembled to confront on opposite sides, made the ones who time and again were driven mad by the duplicitous gambling, the insults, the grabbing by the hair [of Draupadî] and the other transgressions of their enemies, the immediate cause [of the dynastic struggle, see also Yayâti and 10.49 & 10.68]. (3) The Unfathomable Lord weighed the elimination of the earth her burden of royal armies by the Yadus, who were protected by His arms: 'One indeed may say the earth's burden is gone, but I think it's not gone; because of the Yadu-dynasty the intolerable alas remains [see also 4.16: 13]. (4) Of these ones never frustrated in their control who by all means took shelter of Me, there most certainly will never be defeat from another cause; inspiring a quarrel within the Yadu-dynasty like fire in a bamboo-grove, shall I achieve [My purpose:] My abode of peace [see also 3.3: 14 and 8.8: 37].'

(5) Thus making up His mind, o King, withdrew the Controller, the Almighty One whose every desire comes to pass, His family by manifesting a curse from the learned. (6-7) By His own form, the beauty of all the worlds, delivering the eyes of men, by His words delivering the minds of all who remembered them and by His feet delivering the actions of those who saw them, was the Lord, who thus having been of attraction attained His own position, certain that the people indeed being ignorant, with on earth the spreading of His glories in the best of verses, with ease would reach through [the hearing and chanting of] them [see also 7.5.23-24].'

(8) The King said: 'How did this curse come about of the learned ones against the Vrishnis, who totally absorbed in Krishna, always charitable and respectful with the brahmins were serving the elders? (9) What caused the rise of that serious curse, what was its nature, o purest of the twice-born; please tell me how there, with those who shared the same soul [of Krishna], could be this discord?'

(10) The son of Vyâsa said: 'Carrying a body that was the amalgamation of all things beautiful, on earth performing the most auspicious activities and all-satisfied enjoying His life residing in His abode [of Dvârakâ], wanted He, so greatly sung, to destroy His dynasty; the only thing left to do. (11-12) Having performed fruitive rituals bestowing piety stayed the sages Vis'vâmitra, Asita, Kanva, Durvâsâ, Bhrigu, Angirâ, Kas'yapa, Vâmadeva, Atri, Vasishthha, along with Nârada and others, [once] in the house of the lord of the Yadus [Vasudeva]. Bid farewell by Him, the Soul of Time of whom chanting about most auspiciously for the whole world the impurities of Kali-yuga are taken away, they went to Pindâraka [a site of pilgrimage]. (13-15) The young boys of the Yadu dynasty playing [there] approached them with Sâmba the son of Jâmbavati [see also 10.68] dressed up in woman's clothes. Taking hold of their feet they, feigning humility, impudently asked: 'This black-eyed pregnant woman wishing for a son, o learned ones, too embarrassed to ask it herself, is asking you whether you, with your vision never clouded, can tell if she'll give birth to a son or not?'

(16) The sages thus tricked said angered to the boys, o King: 'For you, o fools, she'll give birth to a mace which will destroy the dynasty!'.

(17) They, greatly terrified to hear that, hastily uncovered the belly of Sâmba wherein they indeed found a club made of iron. (18) 'What have we done, what will the family say of us so very unfortunate?' and thus overwhelmed speaking took they the club en went they home. (19) Bringing it consequently into the assembly with the beauty of their faces faded, informed they the king [Ugrasena] in the presence of all Yadus. (20) Amazed to see the club hearing about the infallible curse of the learned, o King, became the inhabitants of Dvârakâ distraught with fear. (21) Having that club ground to bits threw Âhuka [Ugrasena], the Yadu king, them together with the iron left over from the club into the water of the ocean. (22) Some fish swallowed the lump while the bits being carried by the waves from that place washed on shore to grow there into sharp canes [called eraka]. (23) The fish in the ocean was together with others caught in a net by a fisherman. The piece of iron contained in the fish's stomach was fixed by a hunter [called Jarâ] on an arrow [as an arrowhead]. (24) The Supreme Lord quite capable knowing the meaning of everything, didn't want to make things different though and was, exhibiting His form of Time, glad to sanction the curse of the learned.



Chapter 2  

Mahârâja Nimi Meets the Nine Yogendras

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Greatly eager to be of worship for Krishna, o best of the Kurus, dwelled Nârada frequently in Dvârakâ the capital protected by the arms of Govinda [see also 6.5: 43 & 10.69]. (2) Who indeed possessing senses being faced with death on all sides, o King, wouldn't be of worship for the lotusfeet of Mukunda worshipable to the best of the immortals? (3) One day said Vasudeva the following to the deva-rishi, who had arrived at his house and was respectfully greeted, worshiped with paraphernalia and comfortably seated. (4) S'rî Vasudeva said: 'O great lord, the coming of your good self is, as of all those on the path of Uttamas'loka present for the most wretched, as the coming of a good father being there to the benefit of all embodied souls. (5) What the gods do, results in as well the misery as the happiness of the living beings, but what saints like you do who accepted the Infallible One as their very soul, results in happiness only [see also 1.2: 25-26, 3.25: 21]. (6) The way one worships the demigods will the gods the same way be of respect in return; like with a shadow are they the attendants of karma, whereas the saints are the ones taking care of the fallen [see also B.G. 3: 12, 4: 12, 7.20-23]. (7) O brahmin, nevertheless I inquire with you about the dharma of relating to the Supreme Lord, hearing of which with faith the one destined to die is freed from all fear [compare 10.2: 30-33]. (8) I indeed a long time ago on earth being bewildered by the Lord His mâyâ, in want of a child and not going for liberation, worshiped Ananta, the Lord Awarding Liberation [see also 10.3: 32-45 and 4.1: 20]. (9) O you true to the vow, please instruct us, so that because of you we for sure and with ease even, may find liberation from this world full of dangers frightening everywhere.'

(10) S'rî S'uka said: 'O king, thus questioned by the intelligent Vasudeva spoke the deva-rishi, who by the qualities was reminded of the Lord, pleased to him. (11) S'rî Nârada said: 'This asking of you about the bhâgavata-dharma is the correct approach, o best of the Sâtvatas, since it purifies the entire universe. (12) Heard about, chanted in response, meditated upon, accepted with faith or praised when performed by others, purifies the pure devotional service immediately even those averse to the gods and the universe. (13) Today you brought to my mind the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead Nârâyana [see also 10.87: 5] about whom chanting and hearing one becomes supremely blissful and pious. (14) Concerning this matter is as an example given this ancient history of a conversation of the sons of Rishabha with the king of Videha who was a broad-minded soul. (15) The son of Svâyambhuva Manu named Priyavrata had one named Âgnîdhra; from him there was Nâbhi and his son is remembered as Rishabhadeva [see also 5.1-5]. (16) He appearing in this world with the desire to teach the process of attaining liberation, is considered a plenary expansion of Vâsudeva; of Him there were one hundred sons who perfectly observed the Vedas. (17) Of them was indeed [see 5.7] the eldest one Bharata completely devoted to Nârâyana; it is by his name that this wonderful part of the earth is famed as Bhârata-varsha [or India]. (18) He at the end of all pleasures rejecting this earthly existence left home and achieved in worship of Lord Hari His destination practicing austerities in three births. (19) Nine of His [Rishabha's] sons were the masters of complete sovereignty over the nine separate areas [nava-dvîpa] of this subcontinent while eighty-one others were twice born brahmins to initiate the path of [karma-kânda] fruitive vedic sacrifices [see 5.2: 19-21]. (20-21) The nine remaining sons, Kavi, Havir, Antarîksha, Prabuddha, Pippalâyana, Âvirhotra, Drumila, Camasa and Karabhâjana, were sages indeed engaged in explaining the Absolute Truth; learned in the spiritual science thus of great effort wandered they dressed by the wind [naked]. (22) They [called the nava-yogendras] wandering the earth saw the entire universe, consisting of the gross and the subtle, as a form of the Supreme Lord non-different from the Self [see also 1.5: 20 and B.G. 13: 14 & 15: 7]. (23) Unimpeded moving at will to the worlds of the godly, the perfected, the ones ruled, the heavenly singers, the treasure keepers, the [common] humans, the ones of superpower and the serpentine, travel they freely whatever realm of the sages, the angels, the ghostly followers of S'iva, the scientists, the twice born ones or the cows they desire. (24) Once in Ajanâbha [name of India before Bharata] approached they the soma-sacrifice of the great soul of Nimi [see also 9.13] which was carried out to the wishes of the seers. (25) Seeing those pure devotees in their brilliance rivaling the sun, o King, stood the performer of the sacrifice, the brahmins, everyone, nay even the fires, in respect. (26) The ruler of Videha [Nimi], recognizing them as devotees of Nârâyana satisfied seated them and performed full worship as they deserved. (27) With humility bowing down to the nine of them who just like the sons of Brahmâ [see 4.22: 6] glowed by their own effulgence, proceeded the king, all in transcendental rapture, to question them. (28) S'rî Videha [Nimi] said: 'I consider you to be direct associates of the Supreme Lord, the enemy of Madhu, indeed to be servants of Vishnu that move about for the purification of all the worlds. (29) I think that to achieve the association of those dear to the Lord of Vaikunthha is even more difficult as it is for embodied beings to achieve the human body that any moment can be lost [see also B.G. 8: 16 & 16: 19-20]. (30) Therefore I'm asking you, o sinless ones, what the supreme good is in this material ocean where to have but a second the association of the truthful is the greatest treasure for human beings. (31) Please speak about the science of devotional service as far as we'd be capable to follow; by it being satisfied will He, the Unborn Lord, give even Himself to the one who took shelter.'

(32) S'rî Nârada said: 'They, the greatest of the great, thus by Nimi questioned, o Vasudeva, in return with reverence spoke affectionately to the king in the company of the priests and the members of the sacrificial assembly. (33) S'rî Kavi said: 'I consider that with one's intelligence being constantly disturbed in this world in thinking the temporal [body] to be the true self, the state of truly not having to fear from any side is found with the worship of the lotusfeet of the Infallible One, as therein all fear ceases [see 3.9: 6 and e.g. B.G. 2: 56, 2: 71, 4: 10, 12: 13-14]. (34) The proper means are discussed by the Supreme Lord and known as the bhâgavata dharma by which people wrestling with their intelligence easily may realize the Supreme Soul. (35) A man accepting that, o King, is never bewildered and will, not even closing his eyes while running, come to trip or fall in this [see also the catuh-s'loki of B.G. 10: 8-11 and verse 5: 17]. (36) Whatever one does following one's own nature with the body, speech, mind, senses, with the intelligence or the purified consciousness, should one all offer to the Supreme thinking: 'This is for Nârâyana' ['nârâyanâya iti', compare B.G. 3: 9 and 9: 27]. (37) For the one who led by the illusory energy, forgetful of God, turned away in misidentification will fear rise because of being absorbed in things second to the Lord; for that reason should an intelligent person, regarding his guru as his Lord and Soul [see B.G. also 4: 34], worship Him, the Lord fully with unalloyed devotion [see also 1.5: 12 and B.G. 7: 14, 15: 7]. (38) By the intelligence of the dual experience indeed as in a dream seeing things manifest or perceiving desires that are not present in the reality, should an intelligent person therefore bring the mind under control that of the material activities is committed with positive and negative desires, and thus be fearless [see also B.G. 6: 35]. (39) Hearing of the all-auspicious appearances and activities of Him with the Wheel in His Hand [see 1.9: 37] of which the relating names are chanted in this world, should one, without the material association [of a wife, home and children] singing, freely, unashamed move in all directions. (40) Thus vowed develops one by chanting His own, so very dear, holy name, the attachment of a mind dissolved with laughing and crying loudly and getting agitated like a madman in singing and dancing without concerns about outsiders [*]. (41) Ether, air, fire, water, earth and the luminaries, all living beings, the directions, the trees and other immovable beings, the rivers and oceans and whatever that might exist in the Supreme Lord's body of creation, one should bow to considering nothing to be separate [**]. (42) Devotion, direct perception of the Supreme Lord and detachment from everything else, are the three at the same time occurring for the one in the process of taking shelter, the same way as for the one engaged in eating, satisfaction occurs with the nourishment and the reduction of hunger. (43) For the devotee who thus is worshiping the feet of Acyuta will devotion, detachment and knowledge of the Supreme Lord manifest, o king Nimi, whereupon he then directly will attain the transcendental peace [see also B.G. 2: 71 ].'

(44) The king said: 'Please tell me next about the devotee of the Fortunate One; what are his duties, what is his nature, how does he behave among men, what does he say and by which symptoms is he dear to the Lord?'

(45) S'rî Havir said: 'He is the most advanced one of devotion to the Lord [an uttama adhikâri] who sees this Soul, this basic principle of all existence, in all objects [of matter and spirit] ànd is able to be of devotional service to the Supreme Spirit Soul seeing all beings [as existing with-]in the [gigantic universal body of the] Supreme Lord [see also B.G. 6: 29 & 30]. (46) He second to that, on the middle platform [the madhyama], is of love to the Supreme Lord, of friendship to the persons of advancement, of mercy to the neophytes and of disregard to the envious ones [see also 4.24: 57, 7.9: 43, B.G. 4: 8 & 15: 7 and ***]. (47) He who certain of worship to the Lord faithfully engages with the deity [the mûrti] but is not so towards the devotees nor towards the people in general, is a materialistic devotee [a prâkrita or a beginner, a kanishthha, see also B.G. 7: 20 and 3.29: 24-25 7.14: 40 ]. (48) Even though he with his senses accepts the sense-objects is he who, hating nor rejoicing, sees this universe as the deluding material energy of Vishnu, indeed a first-class devotee [see also B.G. 5: 3]. (49) He who by the birth, decay, hunger, fear and thirst of the body, the life air, the mind and the intelligence is not bewildered; he who is not bewildered by the inescapable features of a material life by keeping the Lord in mind [see also 6.2: 14], is the foremost devotee [see also B.G. 2: 56-57]. (50) In the mind of the one who dwells in Vâsudeva only is there no chance that the lust [see B.G. 3: 37-43] or the karmic craving for results [see also B.G. 6: 4] will develop; such a one verily is a first class devotee. (51) He is dear to the Lord who is not attached in the egotistical sentiment of a bodily concept of being of a good birth, of meritorious acts, a certain varnâs'râma statusorientation or a certain faction or race [see B.G. 2: 71 & 12: 13]. (52) With whom there is not the dual thinking of 'mine' and 'thine' about one's property or one's body; such a one, being equal and peaceful with all living beings, is for true the best of devotees [see B.G. 13: 28-31 & 14: 22-25]. (53) He who not for the sake of the opulences of the three worlds, not even for a moment, half a second or a split of a second, moves away from the lotusfeet of the Supreme Lord, which are sought by the godly and others of whom - undisturbed in their remembrance - the Unconquerable One is their very soul, is the topmost vaishnava [see also 18: 66]. (54) How can of the toes of the feet of the Supreme Lord that are so great in their heroism, of the moonshine of the jewel-like nails that takes away the pain in the hearts, again with those who are of worship that pain be of any effect; just as the burning heat of the sun can be of no effect when the moon has risen [see also 10.14: 58]. (55) He never leaves the heart of those - to be called the foremost devotee - who but accidentally directly [by His names] called for the Lord who, bound by the ropes of love, destroys the sins however much they heaped up [see also B.G. 4: 36].'



*: S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu also emphasized this by quoting: 'harer nâma harer nâma harer nâmaiva kevalam kalau nâsty eva nâsty eva nâsty eva gatir anyathâ [Adi 17.21]': 'In this age of Kali there is no alternative, there is no alternative, there is no alternative for spiritual progress but the holy name, the holy name, the holy name of the Lord.' Also S'rîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Thhâkura recommends to this that one studies the following verse: 'parivadatu jano yathâ tathâ vâ nanu mukharo na vayam vicârayâmah hari-rasa-madirâ-madâti-mattâ bhuvi viluthhâmo nathâmo nirvis'âmah': 'Let the garrulous populace say whatever they like; we shall pay them no regard. Thoroughly maddened by the ecstasy of the intoxicating beverage of love for Krishna, we shall enjoy life running about, rolling on the ground and dancing in ecstasy.' (Padyâvalî 73) This is what defines Krishna-consiousness.

**: S'rîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Thhâkura has warned us that if we do not see everything as a manifestation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, we shall become victims of phalgu-vairâgya, or immature renunciation.

***: The Paramparâ adds here: 'S'rîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Thhâkura has given a nice explanation of the difference between arcana and bhajana. Arcana refers to the platform of sâdhana-bhakti, in which one serves the Lord to carry out the rules and regulations of the process. One who has achieved the shelter of the Lord's holy name and is totally engaged in the attempt to serve the Lord should be considered to be on the platform of bhajana, even though his external activities may sometimes be less strict than those of the neophyte engaged in arcana. This apparent lack of strictness, however, refers to laxity not in the basic principles of sane behavior and renunciation of sense gratification, but rather in the details of Vaishnava ceremonies.'

 *4: Nimi, the King of Videha, asked, so helps us the paramparâ, the following nine questions of the nine Yogendras, the saintly sons of Rishabha. (1) What is the highest good? (Chapter Two, verse 30); (2) What are the religious principles (dharma), natural proclivities (svabhâva), behavior (âcâra), speech (vâkya) and outward symptoms (lakshana) of a bhâgavata, a Vaishnava devotee of the Lord? (2.44); (3) What is the external energy of Vishnu, the Supreme Lord? (3.1); (4) How can one become dissociated from this mâyâ? (3.17); (5) What is the true identity of Brahman? (3.34); (6) What are the three types of karma, namely karma based on the enjoyment of the fruits of work, karma offered to the Supreme Lord, and naishkarmya? (3.41); (7) What are the various pastimes of the various incarnations of God? (4.1); (8) What is the aim or destination of one who is against the Supreme Lord and devoid of bhakti (in other words, a nondevotee)? (5.1); and (9) What are the respective colors, forms and names of the four yugâvatâras, the four incarnations of the Supreme Lord who appear in the four ages, and what is the process of worshiping each of Them? (5.19).

The transcendental answers to these inquiries were given by the great devotees Kavi, Havir, Antarîksha, Prabuddha, Pippalâyana, Âvirhotra, Drumila, Camasa and Karabhâjana. These nine paramahamsas answered the nine questions, each in turn, in the following verses - (1) 2.33-43; (2)2.45-55; (3) 3.3-16; (4) 3.18-33; (5) 3.35-40; (6) 3.43-55; (7) 4.2-23; (8) 5.2-18; and (9) 5.20-42.



Chapter 3  

Liberation from Mâyâ and Karma Knowing and Worshiping the Lord

(1) The honorable king [Nimi] said: 'My lords, please tell us, we wish to understand of the Supreme Lord Vishnu the illusory potency [or mâyâ, see also 11.2: 48], which is bewildering even the great mystics. (2) Cherishing the nectar of your words on the topics of Hari, am I, a mortal tormented by the misery of samsâra, not yet satiated with it being the antidote for that pain.'

(3) S'rî Antarîksha said: 'By the elements of the greater creation evolved [conditioned] the Soul of All Creation, the creatures high and low [see B.G. 13: 22 & 14: 18], o mighty armed one, so that for the Original One His own [parts and parcels] there was the [choice of] accomplishing by sense-gratification and by self-realization [see also 10.87: 2]. (4) Having entered the living beings thus created by the five gross elements and dividing Himself as the one [witness, the spirit, the mind] to the ten [senses of perception and action], engages He them with the modes. (5) The living being, enlivened by the Supreme Soul, as the master [see also B.G. 15: 8], by the modes enjoying with the modes thus getting entangled in this, thinks the created body to be his essence [compare 11.2: 37]. (6) By the organs of action to his desires performing fruitive activities, does the proprietor of the body reap the various fruits of labor, wandering through the world in happiness and other emotions [see B.G. 2.62]. (7) This way by his karma getting to destinations involving a lot of things that are not so good, experiences the living being helplessly birth and death until the great deluge. (8) When the dissolution of the material elements is at hand withdraws the [Lord in the form of] Time Without a Beginning or an End, the manifest universe consisting of the gross objects and subtle modes [back] into the unmanifest [see also 3.29: 40-45, 3.26: 51]. (9) Most assuredly will there be a terrible drought on the earth lasting for a hundred years during which the accumulated heat of the sun will seriously scorch the three worlds. (10) Beginning from the lower regions [Pâtâla], will the fire from the mouth of Sankarshana with its flames shooting upwards, driven by the winds, burn all directions. (11) Great masses of clouds will rain for a hundred years with torrents massive as elephant trunks because of which the universe will submerge. (12) The Original Personality of the Universal Form then relinquishing the universe [as His body], o King, enters the subtle unmanifest, just like a fire that ran out of fuel [see also B.G. 8: 19, 3.32: 12-15]. (13) The earth by the wind deprived of its aroma changes back into water and the water by the same process deprived of its taste becomes fire [again, see *]. (14) Fire, by darkness deprived of its form, inevitably turns into air and the air, by the ether losing its touch, dissolves into the sky, while the sky by the Supreme Soul of Time no longer being tangible merges into the ego [of not-knowing]. (15) The senses, the mind and the intelligence along with the gods [representing the emotions], o King, enter into the ego-element and the I-awareness along with all its guna-qualities merges into the Supreme Self [see also 3.6 and 3.26: 21-48]. (16) With us thus having described this illusory energy consisting of three qualities, this agent of creation, maintenance and dissolution of the Supreme Lord, what more would you like to hear?'

(17) The honorable king said: 'O great sage, please tell how persons dull of intelligence with ease may overcome this material energy of the Lord, so unsurpassable to those who are not self-controlled.'

(18) S'rî Prabuddha said: 'Of people living as husband and wife one should see that the endeavoring in fruitive activities, in order to lessen the distress and to gain in happiness, leads to opposite results. (19) What happiness is gained with the unsteadiness of one's home, children, relatives and domestic animals and with the hard to acquire wealth, that constantly being in pain for, brings the death of the soul? (20) One should understand that the next world [heaven or 'a higher planet'] this way settled from fruitive action is impermanent and is characterized by ruination from [the rivalry of] equals and superiors [B.G. 8: 16], just as it is with moving in higher circles [in this world]. (21) Therefore should one, being inquisitive about the highest good, take shelter of a spiritual master who resides in the supreme tranquility of the Absolute Truth and is well versed in the brahminical word [see e.g. 5.5: 10-13, 7.11: 13, 7.12: 1-16, 7.15: 25-26, 10.86: 57 & B.G. 4: 34]. (22) There, with the guru as one's soul and deity, should one learn the bhâgavata dharma [see 11.2: 34] by which, without deceit being faithfully of service, the Supreme Soul, the Lord bestowing His own Self, can be satisfied [**]. (23) To begin with should the mind in every way be of detachment and should one thus, as is suitable, with mercy, friendship and reverence for all living beings be of association with the saintly [compare 11.2: 46]. (24) One should be of [inner and outer] cleanliness, penance, tolerance and silence; scriptural study, simplicity, celibacy, nonviolence and of equanimity when confronted with the duality [see also yama & niyama and B.G. 12: 13-20]. (25) In solitude without a fixed residence, wearing rags left over, and satisfied with anything, should one with the Controller constantly envisioned, meditate for the True Self Omnipresent [see also 2.2: 5, 7.13: 1-10]. (26) With faith in the scripture related to the Supreme Lord and not blaspheming other scriptures, should one with respect for the truth, being of strict control with the mind, one's speech and one's activities, be of inner peace and sense control as well [see also B.G. 15: 15]. (27-28) Hearing, chanting and meditating the pastimes and transcendental qualities of the Lord, of whose incarnations the activities are all wonderful, must one do everything for His sake. With whatever worship one performs, of whatever charity, penance, japa, piety, one is, must one that, including whatever one holds dear, one's wife, one's sons, home and very life air, do as an offering unto the Supreme [see also B.G. 9: 27]. (29) With the service rendered ànd to both [the moving and nonmoving] and to the humans, ànd to the ones fixed in the saintly and to the greatest, should one thus be of friendship and service to the people who accept Krishna as the Lord of their soul. (30) In mutual discussion, in mutual attraction and in mutual satisfaction, is there, through the glories of the Lord, in the mutual cessation of material activities, the purification of [the relating to] the soul [see also 3: 38]. (31) Remembering and reminding one another is one by the bhakti unto the Lord who puts an end to the chain of sins, awakened and has one of the devotion a body agitated with ecstasy [see also 11.2: 40]. (32) Sometimes one cries by the thought of Acyuta, sometimes one laughs, takes great pleasure and speaks, acts wondrously, dances and sings and sometimes is one, imitating the Unborn One getting silent, freed from distress and attains one the Supreme [see also 10.35]. (33) Thus learning the bhâgavata dharma and by the resulting bhakti completely being devoted to Nârâyana, crosses one easily over the mâyâ so difficult to overcome [see also 1.1: 2].'

(34) The honorable king [Nimi] said: 'Please, all of you expert knowers of the spiritual, be so kind as to describe to us the transcendental situation of the Supersoul of the Absolute Truth associated with the name of Nârâyana [see also 1.2: 11].'

(35) S'rî Pippalâyana said: 'Please o King, know the Supreme [Personality of Godhead] to be that: the Causeless Cause of the creation, maintenance and destruction of this universe, which in wakefulness, in the dream state and in deep sleep, as well as external to them exists and by which the bodies, the senses, the life airs and the minds being enlivened act. (36) This can by mind, speech, sight, intelligence, life air nor the senses be covered, just as a fire cannot by its own sparks; not even the vedic word may express it as it denies that of the Supreme Self - without which the scriptural restrictions would have no ultimate purpose - could be but by evidence of indirect expression [compare 10.87]. (37) In the beginning being One became the goodness, passion and ignorance known as the threefold, that with the power to act, the power of consciousness and the ego awareness thus is called the individual living being [the jîva] assuming the forms of spiritual knowledge [the gods], the actions [the senses] and the fruits [of good and bad results]; thus is it, possessing great varieties of energy, the Supreme Brahman alone that is manifest beyond both the gross and the subtle [forms it assumes, see also Mahât-tattva, pradhâna, 4.29: 79, B.G. 10: 42, 13: 13 & 7: 14]. (38) This Soul, never born, never dying, grows nor decays; it is the knower of the times of living of the beings subject to change, and that Soul, indeed constantly everywhere never disappearing, is pure consciousness indeed just like the [one] life air [prâna] within is, by the force of the senses getting imagined as being divided [see also B.G. 2: 23-30 and ***]. (39) [With beings] from eggs, from embryos, from plants and from the indistinct of moisture follows the vital air the individual soul [see also linga] indeed from one [life form] to another; just as there, apart from the mode of thinking when the senses and the ego are all merged in deep sleep, is the unchanging [of the eternal self] with the subsequent remembrance [upon awakening see B.G. 2: 22]. (40) When one desires the feet of the One With the Lotus-navel is the dirt of the heart, sprouting from the fruitive action to the modes of nature, cleansed away by the power of bhakti and is, fully purified, directly the truth of the soul realized, just as one with one's naked eye can see the sunshine [B.G: 2: 55 & 6: 20-23 and nyâyika].'

(41) The honorable king said: 'Please explain to us the karma yoga by which being refined a person in this life quickly gets rid of his fruitive actions and, freed from karmic reactions, enjoys the transcendental [see also B.G. 1-6 or 3.5]. (42) In front of my father [Ikshvâku see also 9.6: 4] I asked the sages [the kumâras] a similar question in the past, but the sons of Brahmâ didn't answer, please, for that reason, speak about it.'

(43) S'rî Âvirhotra replied: 'Karma, akarma and vikarma are, because they originating from the Controller not being worldly, are subject matter understood though the Vedas, something about which even the great scholars are confused [see also B.G. 4.16-17 and 4.29: 26-27]. (44) In covert terms do the Vedas, guiding the childlike to be freed from the karma, indeed prescribe material activities just as one prescribes a medicine [see also B.G. 3: 26, see 5.5: 17 , 10.24: 17-18]. (45) The one, who not having subdued his senses, ignorantly not performs what the Vedas prescribe, achieves, by his irreligion going against the duty, death upon death [see also B.G. 3.8, 16: 23-24, 17: 5-6, 18: 7]. (46) Certainly will one, to what the Vedas prescribe without attachment performing and offering to the Supreme Controller, achieve the perfection that for stimulating the interest is formulated in terms of fruitive results [karma-kânda & B.G. 4.17-23]. (47) One who swiftly wants to cut through the knot [of attachment] in the heart should worship Lord Kes'ava and as well study the divinity as described in the supplementary vedic literatures [the tantras, see also B.G. 12: 6-7]. (48) Having obtained the mercy [the initiation] of the teacher of example who shows him what is handed down by tradition, should the devotee be of worship for the Supreme Personality in the particular form of his preference [see also B.G. 3: 35, 7: 20]. (49) Clean in front of it seated controlling the breath and so on [see ashthânga-yoga] should he, purifying the body invoking the protection in renunciation, worship the Lord [assigning parts of his body to Him by marking with mantras, see also B.G. 5: 27-28 and 6.8: 4-6]. (50-51) With whatever ingredients available preparing oneself in the mind and heart, the deity and all thereto, the items to be offered, the ground and sprinkling the place to sit, should one, getting ready the water for the sacrifice, with concentration put the deity in its proper place having drawn sacred marks on its heart and other parts and with the appropriate mantra be of worship [4*]. (52-53) Worshiping each particular deity and its limbs, special features [like His cakra], and associates [like the pañca-tattva] with its own mantras [like e.g. the S'is'umâra-mantra or the Ambaris'a prayers for the cakra mentioned in 5.23: 8 and 9.5], with water for its feet, scented water to welcome, fine clothing, ornaments, fragrances, necklaces, unbroken barleycorns [for applying tilaka] and with garlands, incense, lamps and such offerings in all respects completing the worship as enjoined, should one honoring by prayer bow down to the Lord. (54) Absorbing oneself in that [as a servant and not falsely identifying himself] should one thus meditating fully be of worship for the mûrti of the Lord and, taking the remnants on one's head, put Him respectfully in His proper place. (55) He who thus worships the Controller, the Supreme Soul, present in the fire, the sun, the water and so on, as also in the guest and in one's own heart [see also 2.2: 8], becomes without delay liberated indeed.



*: When a quality is removed, an element becomes nondifferent from the element originated earlier in the evolution of the universe and thus merges, changes, dissolves into it: thus the annihilation of the universe takes place.

** S'rîla Rûpa Gosvâmî formulated four preliminary requisites for advancement in this: '[1] Accepting the shelter of the lotus feet of a bona fide spiritual master, [2] becoming initiated by the spiritual master and learning how to discharge devotional service from him, [3] obeying the orders of the spiritual master with faith and devotion, and [4] following in the footsteps of great âcâryas [teachers] under the direction of the spiritual master.' (Bhakti-rasâmrita-sindhu 1.2.74)

*** S'rîla Madhvâcârya quotes to this, from the Moksha-dharma section of Vyâsadeva's Mahâbhârata, the Lord saying:

aham hi jîva-samjño vai
mayi jîvah sanâtanah
maivam tvayânumantavyam
dristho jîvo mayeti ha
aham s'reyo vidhâsyâmi
yathâdhikâram îs'varah

'The living entity, known as jîva, is not different from Me, for he is My expansion. Thus the living entity is eternal, as I am, and always exists within Me. But you should not artificially think, 'Now I have seen the soul.' Rather, I, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, will bestow this benediction upon you when you are actually qualified.'

*4 Just as each prâkrita, impersonalist, materialistic devotee is worshiping the Lord in His form of Time with pragmatically perverted or unleaped clocks and weekdivisions [see the Order of Time and kâla for correcting on this] as the deity of preference with mantras like 'be on time' and 'time is money', so does classical bhakti with the kanishthha or beginning personalist devotee more truthfully to the vedic authority arrange for also the personal form of the Lord in the form of a deity worshiping with 'om namo bhagavate vâsudevâya' [4.8: 54] , the gâyatrî, the mahâmantra and other mantras. In all these cases should be remembered what Vyâsa in 11.2: 47 says on mûrti-worship in general.


Chapter 4

The Activities of Nara-Nârâyana and the other Avatâras described

(1) The honorable king [Nimi] said: 'Please tell us of the activities of each of these appearances of His own assumed, by which the Lord performed, is performing and will perform in this world [see also 2.7].'

(2) S'rî Drumila said: 'Indeed, he who tries to enumerate the unlimited transcendental qualities of the Unlimited One is certainly a person with the intelligence of a child; somehow may one in time count the particles of dust of the earth, but not so the qualities of the Reservoir of all Potencies [see also 10.14: 7, 10.51: 38]. (3) When the Original Personality of Godhead Nârâyana entered into His plenary expansion, the from Himself generated body of the universe created out of the five material elements, became He thus known as the purusha [see also 1.3:1]. (4) Within this elaborate three-world body of His is He to the embodied beings, of His senses being both the senses of action and perception, by His nature being the spiritual knowledge and from His tradition being the strength and ability, the prime mover [the original doer ànd non-doer] who by the goodness and the other qualities is of creation, destruction and maintenance [see B.G. 3: 27, 13: 30 and S.B. 6.17: 19, 3.26: 7, 3.27: 2, 3.32: 12-15, 10.46: 41, 10.83: 3]. (5) In the beginning became He in the passion of creating this universe the One commanding the hundreds [of sages: Lord Brahmâ]; in the maintenance as the protector of dharma of the twice-born He became Vishnu, the Lord of Sacrifice and for the annihilation in the mode of ignorance He became Rudra [Lord S'iva]; thus is He the Original Person always of creation, maintenance and destruction among the created beings [see also 2.10: 41-46, 4.29: 79, 4.30: 23].

(6) As Nara-Nârâyana, the best of sages perfectly peaceful, was He born from Mûrti the daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma [*]; characterized by the cessation of all material work did, even living today, He, whose feet are being served by the greatest of sages, speak about and perform the work [actually] to be done [see B.G. 9: 27 and also 2.7: 6, 4.1: 49-57, 5.19: 9]. (7) Lord Indra afraid thinking 'He wants to usurp my kingdom', engaged Cupid who going to Badarikâs'rama with his associates the Apsaras, with his arrows, the glances of the women and the gentle breeze of spring, not knowing His greatness, attempted to pierce Him. (8) The Original Godhead understanding the offense committed by Indra, spoke free from pride laughingly to those who were trembling: 'Please fear not, o mighty Madana [Lord of Love], o god of the wind and wives of the demigods, please accept these gifts from Us, do not leave this âs'rama empty'.

(9) O god of men [Nimi], when the Giver of Fearlessness had spoken this way, bowed the gods ashamed to Him, begging with their heads down for compassion saying: 'O Almighty, this is not surprising for You, the Supreme One Unchanging to whose feet in great numbers bow down the ones sober and self-satisfied [see also 1.7: 10]. (10) To those serving You, who going beyond their own abode try to reach Yours, there are many disturbances created by the godly, but the other devotee, who in sacrifices bringing offers gives them their shares, there is no such thing as he with You, the Protector, places his foot over the head of the disturbance [see also 9.4: 9 and 10.2: 33]. (11) Some persons having crossed the limitless oceans of ourselves of the lust of the tongue and the genitals, the winds, the hunger and the thirst to the three qualities of time [summer winter and spring-autumn], do, fallen under the sway of an anger leading nowhere having drown in the hoofprint of a cow, caste aside their difficult to execute penances as being without any good purpose [see B.G. 17: 5-6: also 6.1: 16 and compare 5.8: 23 and 10.12: 12].'

(12) With them thus offering praise manifested He before their eyes [a host of] women most wonderful in appearance, who all nicely decorated performed reverential service to the Almighty One [see also 2.7: 6]. (13) They, the followers of the godly, seeing these women were, bewildered by the magnificence of the women that were as beautiful as the goddess of fortune, defeated in their opulence. (14) To them who had bowed down said the Lord of All Lords with a faint smile: 'Please choose any of these ladies suitable as an ornament of heaven.'

(15) Vibrating 'om' to that, offered those servants of the demigods to Him their obeisances and returned they, placing Urvas'î, the best of the Apsaras, in front of them, to heaven. (16) Bowing down to Lord Indra in his assembly told they him, as the residents of the three heavens were listening, about the strength of Nârâyana, at which he fell in perplexity. (17) Acyuta in the form of the [transcendental] swan speaking about selfrealization, Dattâtreya, the Kumâras and Rishabha, is the father, the Supreme Lord Vishnu who for the welfare of all the world by His expansions descends into this world [B.G. 14: 4]; by Him, the killer of Madhu, were in his horse-incarnation [Hayagrîva] the original texts of the Veda's brought back. (18) In His fish-incarnation [Matsya] were Vaivasvata Manu [Satyavrata], the planet earth, and the herbs protected; in His boar-incarnation [Varâha] delivering the earth from the waters, was de demoniac son [Hiranyâksha] of Diti killed; as a tortoise [Kurma] He held the mountain when the nectar was being churned upon His back and [as Vishnu] He freed the king of the elephants [Gajendra] who surrendered in distress of the crocodile. (19) He delivered from [a laughing] Indra the ascetic sages [the Vâlakhilyas] who offering prayers had fallen [into the water of a cow's hoofprint]; He delivered Indra from the darkness of having killed Vritrâsura; He delivered the wives of the demigods imprisoned in the asura palace [by Bhaumâsura]; as Nrisimhadeva He killed Hiranyakas'ipu, the asura-king, in order to bring the saintly devotees fearlessness. (20) For the sake of the godfearing He killed the daitya leaders in the battle between the gods and the demons [see 8.10], by His various appearances [the ams'a-avatâras] during the reign of each Manu He protects all the worlds and as Lord Vâmana took He with the excuse of charity the earth away from Bali giving her to the sons of Aditi. (21) As Lord Paras'urâma ridding the earth of the members of the warrior class, destroyed the fire of Him descending from Bhrigu, twenty-seven times the dynasty of Haihaya; as the husband of Sîtâ [Râmacandra] subduing the ocean killed He Ten-head [Râvana] along with the soldiers of Lankâ - with recounting the glories of Him always victorious, is the contamination of the entire world destroyed. (22) The Unborn Lord [as Krishna] taking His birth in the Yadu-dynasty, will, in order to diminish the burden of the earth, perform deeds even difficult for the godly; as [the Buddha] will He by speculative arguments bewilder the ones unfit to perform the vedic sacrifices and at the end of Kali-yuga will He [as Lord Kalki] put an end to all the low-class rulers. (23) Of the so very glorious Lord of the Living Being [Jagadîs'vara] described, o mighty-armed one, there are innumerable appearances and activities just like these.



*: According to the Matsya Purâna (3.10), Dharma, the father of Nara-Nârâyana Rishi, was born from the right breast of Brahmâ and later married thirteen of the daughters of Prajâpati Daksha.


Chapter 5  

Nârada Concludes His Teachings to Vasudeva

(1) The honorable king [Nimi] said: 'O you perfect in the knowledge of the soul, what is the destination of those who, as good as never worshiping the Supreme Personality of Hari [see also 11.3: *4], with their lusts not at peace are out of control with themselves?'

(2) S'rî Camasa said: 'From the face, arms, thighs and feet of the Original Person were by the modes of nature [in different combinations *] the four spiritual orders [or âs'ramas] and vocations [or varnas] headed by the brahmins generated [see also B.G. 4: 13]. (3) Any member of them who, not of worship, has a low opinion of the Original Person who is directly the excel of their soul and Supreme Controller, will, having strayed from his position, fall down [see B.G. 16: 23]. (4) There are many people far removed from the talks about the Destroyer [of the sin; the Lord] and never think of the glories of the Infallible One; they, for that matter just women [compare 5.17: 15] and s'ûdras and such, are the ones deserving the mercy of personalities like you. (5) Then again do even the intellectuals, the nobles or the traders, [by initiation] being allowed to approach the Lord His lotus feet, get bewildered in being committed to [all kinds of] philosophies [see also 5.6: 11, B.G. 2: 42-43]. (6) Ignorant about the karma and arrogant do blockheads, thinking themselves very learned, enchanted with sweet words speak in flattering entreaties by which they get bewildered [see also B.G. 9: 3]. (7) Full of passion and perverted in their desires are they angry like snakes, deceitful and conceited and do they sinful make fun of those dear to Acyuta. (8) As worshipers of women they speak amongst each other in their homes encouraging and worshiping sex as the very best thing; without any regard for the distribution of food and gifts in gratitude [to the spiritual leaders and their following], they think of their own livelihood only and kill they, ignorant of the consequences, the animals [see also B.G. 16]. (9) With their intelligence blinded by the pride based on their opulence, special abilities, lineage, education, renunciation, beauty, strength and performance of rituals, do they hardhearted deride the saintly dear to the Lord along with the Controller Himself [see also e.g.: 1.8: 26, 4.2: 24, 4.31: 21, 5.1: 12, 7.15: 19, 8.22: 26 also B.G. 2.42-43]. (10) The Soul of the most worshipable Controller just like the sky eternally situated in all embodied beings, is the Ultimate Controller glorified by the Vedas, but the unintelligent don't take heed; they rather go on discussing the topics of their whimsical pleasures. (11) The indulgence in sex and the taking of meat and alcohol indeed always found in the conditioned living being are verily by no command of scripture endorsed; what in regard of these is prescribed for [respectively] the marriage, the sacrifice and the ritual use of wine, is there to the end of their cessation [see also 1.17: 38-39]. (12) Of all wealth [to be acquired] is religiosity the only fruit from which indeed there is the knowledge along with the wisdom and the subsequent liberation; they so successful in their homes do not realize the insurmountable power of death over their bodies [see also 3.30: 7, 7.6: 8, 4.29: 52-55 but also: 4.22: 10]. (13) It is enjoined that wine should be taken by smelling it and that likewise an animal should be killed as prescribed and not in wanton violence [with wide-scale animal slaughter]; the same way is sex there for begetting children and not for the sensual pleasure [on itself] [B.G. 7-11]; this most pure, their own proper duty, do they [the unintelligent] not understand [see also 7.15]. (14) Those who have no knowledge of these facts very impious presumptuously considering themselves saintly, do harm to innocently trusting animals; upon leaving their bodies will those animals eat them [compare 5.26: 11-13 and 4.25: 7-8]. (15) Envying their own True Self, their Lord and Controller living in the bodies of others, do they, fixed in their affection on their own mortal frame and all its relations, fall down. (16) Those who [thus] have not achieved the emancipation [of moksha] but, dedicated to the three goals of pious living [the ritual, an income and regulated desires], did transcend the gross foolishness, are, not reflecting for a moment, [nevertheless] factually killing themselves [see also the purushârthas 10.2: 32]. (17) These selfmurderers missing the peace, in their ignorance think to know but do, failing to perform their duty, suffer the destruction of all their hopes and dreams by time. (18) Those who turned their face away from Vâsudeva enter, as arranged by the illusory energy of the Supreme Soul, without them wanting it, the darkness, letting alone their homes, children, friends and wives.'

(19) The honorable king said; 'In what time did the Supreme Lord have what color and what form and by what names and what processes is He worshiped; please speak about it in our presence.'

(20) S'rî Karabhâjana replied: 'In these [yugas] named Krita [or Satya], Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali is the Lord, having different complexions [see also 10.26: 16], names and forms, similarly by various processes worshiped. (21) In Satyâ-yuga is He white having four arms, matted locks, a tree bark garment, a black deerskin, a sacred thread, aksha-seed prayer beads and carries He a rod and a waterpot. (22) The human beings then are peaceful, free from envy, kind to all, equipoised and by austerity as well as by mind and sense control of worship for the Lord. (23) Thus is He variously celebrated as Hamsa ['the Swan'], Suparna ['Beautiful Wings'], Vaikunthha ['the Lord of the Kingdom of Heaven'], Dharma ['the Maintainer of the Religion'], Yoges'vara ['the Controller of the Yoga', Amala ['the Immaculate One'], Îs'vara ['the Supreme Controller'], Purusha ['the Original Person'], Avyakta ['the One Unmanifest'] and Paramâtmâ ['the Supersoul']. (24) In Tretâ-yuga has He a red complexion, four arms, wears He three belts [to the initiations for the first three varnas], has He golden locks and has He, as the personification of the three Vedas, the sacrificial laddles [**] and such as His symbols. (25) Then do those human beings who as seekers of the Absolute Truth are fixed in religiosity worship Him, Hari, the Godhead within all the Gods, with the rituals of sacrifice of the three Vedas [see also 1.16: 20]. (26) In Tretâ-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names of Vishnu ['the All-pervading One'], Yajña ['the Lord of sacrifice'], Pris'nigarbha [the son of Pris'ni, 10.3: 32], Sarvadeva ['God of of All Gods'], Urukrama ['He of Transcendental Feats'], Vrishâkapi [the Memorable One Rewarding Who Dispels the Distress'], Jayanta ['the All-victorious'] and Urugâya ['the Most Glorified']. (27) In Dvâpara-yuga is the Supreme Lord gray blue, wears He yellow garments and carries He His implements [the disc, club, lotus and conch] together with the bodily marks of the S'rîvatsa and so on and His ornaments [like the peacock feather and the kaustubha gem]. (28) In that age, o King, do the mortals who want to gain knowledge of the Supreme worship Him, the Original Personality playing the role of a great king, according the Vedas and Tantra's [like e.g. in 1.10: 16-18 and 10: 74: 17-24 and ***] with: (29-30) 'Our obeisances for Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and You, Vâsudeva; You Nârâyana Rishi, the Original One and Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Greater Soul, the Controller of the Creation, the Very Form of the Universe and the True Self of all Living Beings [see catur-vyûha].' (31) O King, thus they praise in Dvâpara-yuga the Lord of the Universe; please hear in which manner one to the scriptural regulations also is of worship in Kali-yuga [see also 7.9: 38]. (32) The intelligent [then] do worship [Him who] with a bright [not-dark or golden] luster along with [His] associates, servitors, weapons and attendants, by the sacrifice of mainly congregational chanting [is] praising [speaks, spreads or is colored by] Krishna with: (33) 'O Supreme Personality Your feet, always to meditate upon, destroying the humiliation following the material influence, amply rewarding the true desire of the soul, the abode and the place of pilgrimage to which S'iva and Brahmâ bow down, the most worthy shelter relieving the distress of Your servants, the boat for the ocean of birth and death, I do offer my homage. (34) To the words of a brahmin [like Akrûra, S'rî Advaita or John the Babtist], as the Most Religious One abandoning the so hard to forsake opulence of S'rî anxiously desired by the godly, went He [as Râma, Krishna, the Buddha, as Jesus, as Caitanya etc.], of mercy for the ones caught in the animal nature, to the distant land [India, the wilderness, the forest, the desert, into sannyas] running after His desired object [His mission, His dharma, His presence as the Lord of the devotees]; to the lotus feet of You o Supreme Personality, I offer my homage. [4*]' (35) Thus is the Supreme Lord Hari, the Controller of All Felicity, to His names and forms as befitting each yuga worshiped by the people of that age, o King. (36) The faithful ones [of spiritual progress] knowing of the value, praise the age of Kali pointing out it's essence that by [mere] congregational chanting as good as all one's goals are attained. (37) Indeed, for the embodied wandering around in this universe, there is no greater gain than this [sankîrtana] from which one obtains the Supreme Peace and of which the cycle of birth and death is broken [see also 2.1: 11, 3.33: 7, 8.23: 16 and 8.23 *]. (38-40) The inhabitants of Satyâ- and the other yugas, o King, want to take birth in Kali-yuga as in that time for sure, o great monarch, the devotees dedicated to Nârâyana are found left and right; especially in great numbers in the provinces of South India where those human beings who drink of the water of the rivers the Tâmraparnî, the Kritamâlâ, the Payasvinî, the extremely pious Kâverî, the Mahânadî and the Pratîcî, o lord of men, for the most part are pure-hearted devotees of the Supreme Lord Vâsudeva. (41) O King, a person who, giving up the material duties, with his whole being approached the shelter of Mukunda, the One Affording Shelter, is not the servant nor the debtor of the gods, the sages, the ordinary living beings, of friends and relatives or of the forefathers [see also B.G. 3: 9]. (42) Rooted at His feet engaged in worship and so being dear to Lord Hari, the Supreme Controller who with the forsaking of the inclination towards others has entered the heart, are whatever irregular acts that somehow occurred all removed [see 8.23: 16 and B.G. 9: 22, 9: 30, 18: 56].'

(43) S'rî Nârada said: 'In this manner having heard about the science of devotional service felt the master of Mithilâ satisfied indeed and offered he next together with the priests the sagacious sons of Jayantî [the yogendras 5.4; 8] worship. (44) Then, as all present were watching, disappeared the ones of perfection. The king, faithfully following this dharma, achieved the supreme destination. (45) You [Vasudeva], o most fortunate soul, will also, endowed with faith in these principles of devotional service that you heard of, being free from all material association go to the Supreme. (46) The earth became filled indeed by the glories of the two of you being husband and wife, because the Supreme Lord, the Controller Hari assumed the position of your son. (47) For Krishna manifesting the love of seeing, embracing and conversing, taking rest, sitting and eating with a son, have the hearts of the two of you become purified. (48) Kings like S'is'upâla, Paundraka and S'âlva who with envy sporting upon His movements, glances and so on, thus meditating fixed their minds upon Him lying down, sitting etc., have achieved a position at the same level, so what to speak of those who were favorably minded [see mukti and also Jaya & Vijaya]? (49) Do not impose on Krishna, the Supreme Soul and Controller of All, the idea of being your son; by His power of illusion He appeared as a normal human being concealing His opulence as the Supreme One Infallible [see also B.G. 4: 6]. (50) Of Him who descended in order to kill the asura members of the noble class burdening the earth and to award liberation, has the fame spread wide in the world [see also B.G. 4: 7].'

(51) S'rî S'uka said: 'Having heard this were the greatly fortunate Vasudeva and Devakî most amazed and gave they up the folly they had with themselves. (52) He who one-pointed of attention meditates upon this pious historical account, will in this very life clean off the contamination and achieve the spiritual perfection.



*: With the Rik-samhitâ (8.4: 19), the S'ukla-yajur Veda (34: 11) and the Atharva Veda (19: 66) all saying 'The brâhmana appeared as His face, the king as His arms, the vais'ya as His thighs, and the s'ûdra was born from His feet' are, according to S'rîdhara Svâmî, the brâhmins considered to be born of the mode of goodness, the kshatriyas of a combination of goodness and passion, the vais'yas of a combination of passion and ignorance and the s'ûdras of the mode of ignorance.

**: Mentioned here are the vikankata wooden sruk and the khadira wooden sruvâ that serves the sruk for pouring ghee into the fire.

***: The paramparâ, as to remind us of the degradation of devotion through the yugas [see also 1.16: 20] elucidates: 'The inhabitants of Satya-yuga were described as s'ântâh, nirvairâh, suhridah and samâh, or peaceful, free from envy, the well-wishers of every living entity, and fixed on the spiritual platform beyond the modes of material nature. Similarly the inhabitants of Tretâ-yuga were described as dharmishthhâh and brahma-vâdinah, or thoroughly religious, and expert followers of the Vedic injunctions. In the present verse, the inhabitants of Dvâpara-yuga are said to be simply jijñâsavah, desiring to know the Absolute Truth. Otherwise they are described as martyâh, or subject to the weakness of mortal beings.' One after the other age is one thus worshiping by meditation, sacrifices, temple worship and congregational chanting.

4*: The paramparâ adds to this: 'Corroborating the explanation of this verse, the followers of Caitanya Mahâprabhu also worship Him in His six-armed form of shad-bhuja. Two arms carry the waterpot and danda of the sannyâsî Caitanya Mahâprabhu, two arms carry the flute of Lord Krishna, and two arms carry the bow and arrow of S'rî Râmacandra. This shad-bhuja form is the actual purport of this verse of the S'rîmad-Bhâgavatam'.


Chapter 6

Retirement on the Advise of Brahmâ and Uddhava Addressed in Private

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Then [after Nârada had left] did lord Brahmâ surrounded by his sons, the gods and the lords of man, arrive [in Dvârakâ] together with lord Bhava [S'iva], for all living beings the controller favorable, who was accompanied by a host of ghostly beings. (2-4) Indra the powerful controller and his gods [the maruts], the sons of Aditi, the good of clarity [the vasus], the protectors of the health [the as'vins], the artists [the ribhus], the descendants of Angirâ, the expansions of S'iva [the rudras], the gods of the intellect [the vis'vedevas], and the gods of commerce [the sâdhyas], and other demigods; the singers and dancing girls of heaven [ghandharvas and apsaras], the ones of excel [the nâgas], the perfected [siddhas] and the venerable [câranas], the treasure keepers [guhyakas], the seers [the rishis], the forefathers [pitas] as also the scientists [vidyâdharas] and the ones of special talents [the kinnaras] all together arrived in Dvârakâ eager to see Krishna, the Supreme Lord eradicating the impurities of all places who by His transcendental form enchanting the entire human society spread His fame through all the worlds. (5) In that resplendent city rich in a great abundance saw they with their hungry eyes Lord Krishna so wonderful to behold.

(6) With covering Him, the best of the Yadus, with flower garlands brought from the gardens of heaven praised they Him, the Lord of the Living Being, expressing themselves in ideas and words of charm. (7) The gods said: 'We with our intelligence, senses, vital air, mind and words do bow down to Your lotusfeet, o Lord, which are meditated upon within the heart by those united in the love of striving for liberation from the great bondage of karmic reactions. (8) You, by the material energy made up of the three modes, protect and destroy with the inconceivable of Yourself the manifestation, but situated within the modes of that material nature are You by these modes not entangled in karmic activities at all, o You Unconquerable One, since You, the Unimpeded and Unimpeachable One, are always absorbed in Your happiness [see also B.G. 3.22]. (9) O Worshipable One, the purification of those persons who have a contaminated consciousness is by incantations, obeying the injunctions, studying the s'âstras, charity, penances and rituals not as effected as by the faithful listening to the greatest of those situated in goodness who are fully matured in the transcendental glories of You [see also 4.29: 36-38]. (10) May there for us be the lotus feet, the fire annihilating our inauspicious mentality which by the sages desiring the real benefit is carried in hearts appeased, which by the truthful of self-control is carried for gaining a likewise opulence; it is of worshiping three times a day the inciting of You [the catur-vyûha] that one reaches beyond the heavens [see also 11.5: 34]. (11) They are meditated upon by the ones who, having folded their hands, take the ghee into the fire of sacrifice by the [nirukta] process of understanding the three Veda's; they are meditated upon by the yogapracticioners who, inquisitive about Your [yoga-]mâyâ, are united in realizing the True Self and [even more] perfectly are they worshiped by the most elevated of the devotees [see uttama and 11.2: 45-47 ]. (12) S'rî, Your Lordship's consort, does with the withered flower garland of You, o Almighty One, in this feel as competitive as a jealous co-wife because You accept our offering as being properly brought [see also B.G. 9: 26]; may there always be the lotusfeet, the fire of the destruction of our impure desires! (13) Your feet with three mighty steps falling [with the water of the Ganges] in each of the three worlds [see 8.20] and as a flag adorning a pole creating fear and fearlessness among the asuras and the godly their respective armies, are there to the saintly for the attainment of heaven and for the envious there for just the opposite, o Most Powerful One; may these feet, o Supreme Lord, purify us, who are worshiping You, from our sins. (14) As oxen bound through the nose do Brahmâ and all the other embodied beings exist, struggling among each other under the control of the Time; may the lotus feet of You, the Supreme Personality in the beyond of both the material nature ànd the individual person, for us spread the transcendental fortune [compare 1.13: 42, 6.3: 12]. (15) You are the cause of this creation, maintenance and annihilation, the cause of the unseen, the individual soul and the greater of the manifest reality; You, this same personality, are said to be the controlling factor of time appearing as a wheel in three, who, as the Time uninterrupted in its flow effecting the diminution of everything, is the Supreme Personality [*]. (16) The masculine [of Mahâvishnu] from You [as the Time] acquiring the potential seed of this creation, impregnates the greater of matter of which He, whose semen is never wasted, joined with that same nature generated from the Self, like an ordinary fetus is produced brought forth the golden primeval egg of the universe endowed with its [seven, see kosha] outer layers. (17) You are therefore of everything mobile and stationary the original Controller, for even though You o Master of Each His Senses engaging with the sense objects Yourself are never touched by them, are others, on their own account being of control, in fear because of these objects who, raised from the transformation of the modes of that material nature, did accumulate [see also B.G. 16: 23-24]. (18) The sixteen thousand [of Your wives] so enchanting in the moments of their displays of feeling as they with their eyebrows, smiles and glances launched the arrows of Cupid, were with their messages and advances of conjugal love, by all their devices not able to perplex Your senses [see also 1.11: 36]. (19) The full rivers of Your nectarean topics and the rivers flowing from bathing Your feet are able to destroy all contamination of the three worlds; it is of the hearing with the ears to the tradition and the being in physical contact taking to [the waters of] Your feet that those who strive for purification approach to associate with these two aims of pilgrimage of You.'

(20) The honorable son of Vyâsa [S'uka] said: 'Along with S'iva and the demigods thus praising Govinda, the Lord, offered he commanding the hundreds [Brahmâ], from his position in the sky, his obeisances. (21) S'rî Brahmâ said: 'You o Lord, o Unlimited Soul, by us for the sake of diminishing the burden of the earth being requested previously, have fulfilled that request as it was expressed. (22) Having established the principles of dharma among the pious and among the seekers of truth are it indeed the glories of You, thus by You disseminated in all directions, which remove the contamination of all worlds. (23) Descending in the Yadu-dynasty have You, for the benefit of the universe assuming a form, with magnanimous deeds performed incomparable activities. (24) O Lord, those saintly humans who in the age of Kali hear and chant about Your activities, will easily cross over the darkness [see also 10.14]. (25) O Supreme Personality, having descended in the Yadu-vams'a have one hundred and twenty-five autumns passed, o Master. (26-27) O You Foundation of Everything, for You there is no longer a duty to the godly, and the remaining part of the dynasty has virtually been annihilated by this curse of the brahmins [see 11.1]. Therefore we ask You, if You mind, to enter Your Supreme Abode, and please to continue with us, the protectors of all worlds and their inhabitants, to protect the servants of Vaikunthha [Lord Vishnu].'

(28) The Supreme Lord said: 'That what you've said is understood by Me, o controller of the demigods; to your favor has all the work been done to remove the burden of the earth. (29) This very Yadu-family has, threatening to devour the whole world in having expanded in its power, courage and opulence, been checked by Me just as an ocean is with a shore. (30) If I were to leave without withdrawing the vast dynasty of overly proud Yadus, would for that reason the whole world be destroyed by this flood. (31) Right now has because of the brahmins' curse the annihilation of the family begun; after that will I, o sinless Brahmâ, pay a visit to your abode.'

(32) S'rî S'uka said: 'Thus being addressed by the Lord of the World, fell the selfborn one down at His feet to offer Him his obeisances along with the different gods and returned the godhead to his abode. (33) Thereafter, when the Supreme Lord observed the development of serious disturbances in the city of Dvârakâ, spoke He to the assembled Yadu-elders. (34) The Supreme Lord said: 'These indeed very great disturbances rising here on all sides follow the curse that there of the brahmins was against our family; it is impossible to counteract. (35) We should not desire to live residing here, o venerable ones; let's not delay and this very day go to Prabhâsa, that so very holy place of piety [**]. (36) The king of the stars [the moon god] seized by consumption because of a curse of Daksha, once took a bath there and was immediately freed from the reaction to his sin and resumed the waxing with his phases. (37-38) We also bathing at that place to the satisfaction of the forefathers, feeding the godly and the worshipable ones of learning by offerings of foodstuffs of different tastes and as well distributing gifts with faith in them as suitable candidates of charity, will by our charity, as with boats over an ocean, get across the danger.'

(39) S'rî S'uka said: 'O child of the Kurus, the Yâdavas, thus by the Fortunate One instructed, having made up their minds yoked their horses to their chariots to head for the holy site. (40-41) O King, Uddhava [see also 3.2 and 10.46 & 47], as an ever faithful follower of Krishna hearing that what by the Lord had been said, approached, observing the fearful evil omens [see also 1.14: 2-5], in private the one Controller of the Controllers of All the Living Universe and, at His feet bowing down his head, addressed Him with folded hands. (42) S'rî Uddhava said: 'O Lord and God of Gods, o Master of Yoga, o Piety by Hearing and Singing, withdrawing this family from this world, do You say that, although as the all-pervading benevolent Controller being capable of revoking the curse of the learned ones, You're unable to do so! (43) I'm not even capable to tolerate for half a moment to give up on Your lotusfeet, o Kes'ava; please take me to Your abode as well o Master [see also 3.29: 13]. (44) Your pastimes supremely auspicious, o Krishna, are nectar for the ears of men; once they have the taste will people relinquish their desires for other things. (45) How can we, the devotees of You, the dearmost Self, in our lying down, sitting, walking, standing, bathing, recreating and eating and such, ever abandon You? (46) Eating the food remnants and adorned with the garlands, fragrances, garments and ornaments already enjoyed by You, will we, Your servants, for sure conquer the illusory energy. (47) The but in air clad sinless members of the renounced order who as sages of strict observance keep their seed going upwards, go to the abode known as brahman [see ûrdhva retah and also 10.2: 32]. (48-49) We on the other hand, o Greatest of Yogîs, wandering in this world on the paths of fruitive labor will, along with Your devotees, cross over the hard to conquer darkness by discussing the topics with which we remember and glorify Your deeds, words, movements, broad smiles, glances and amorous sports in imitation of the human world.'

(50) S'rî S'uka said: 'This way being requested, o King, spoke the Supreme Lord, the son of Devakî, in private at length to the dear servant Uddhava.'  



*: Time in three can be regarded as the three types of seasons, summer winter and spring/autumn or as the three to the order, the cakra, of the sun, moon and the stars or the past, the present and the future and as the time of nature, culture and the psychological experience [see also tri-kâlika, 5.22: 2, time-quotes and B.G. 10.30 & 33, 11: 32].

**: Prabhâsa is a famous holy place located near the Veraval railway station, within the region of Junagarah. At the base of the same pippala tree under which Lord Krishna was reported to have reposed there is now a temple. One mile away from the tree, on the seashore, is the Vîra-prabhañjana Mathha, and it is said that from this point the hunter Jarâ fired the arrow which marked the end of His earthly presence [as described in the last two chapters of this Canto].


Chapter 7

Krishna Speaks about the Avadhûta's Masters and the Pigeon so Attached

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'That which you said to Me, o greatly fortunate one, for sure reflects My plan; as Brahmâ, Bhava and the leaders of the worlds, desire Me in My abode. (2) Certainly has by Me in full been accomplished here the purpose of the godly, for which I incarnated with my portion [Balarâma] as was prayed for by Lord Brahmâ. (3) This family finished by the curse will be destroyed in a mutual quarrel and on the seventh day for sure will the ocean inundate this city. (4) When, o virtuous one, this world, not to doubt by Me has been abandoned, will it itself overcome by Kali, very soon be bereft of piety [see also 1.16 & 17]. (5) You should not remain, be certain, in this world by Me abandoned, as in Kali's time the earth its people, will be stuck in sin My dearest. (6) You should factually forsaking all affection for your dearmost, with your mind fixed in Me fully, go to wander equalminded [see B.G. 6: 9, 6: 29, 14: 22-25]. (7) That which by the ear, the eye, the speech and all the rest, is accepted as this world, you should know as being timebound, illusory energy all imagined [see also 10.40: 25]. (8) A person not connected is confused in many meanings with that is right and this is wrong; that works, that not and that's defiant and has thus a dual mind of good and bad [B.G. 4: 16]. (9) Therefore with all sense controlled and mind connected see this world spread out within the Self and that Self in Me, the Lord Above. (10) With knowledge, wisdom fully endowed, is one with a self contented in apprehension with the Soul that for all embodied is the object of affection, and never hindered by setbacks. (11) Risen above the two of thinking bad what is forbidden and good what's not held back, doesn't one do as is expected just like being a young child [which is not improper]. (12) To all creatures a well-wisher that is peaceful, steady, and wise knowing the universe by Me pervaded, will one never indeed thus be the one destroyed again.'

(13) S'rî S'uka said: 'O King, by the Supreme Lord thus instructed bowed Uddhava, the exalted one of fortune eager to know the principle supreme, down to the Infallible One to offer his respects. (14) S'rî Uddhava said: 'O Lord of Yoga bestowing the union, o Soul that Yokes, o Source of the Mystical, for the benefit of me You spoke of renunciation as known by sannyâs. (15) This renunciation is difficult to perform my Lord, by those dedicated to material pleasure and sense gratification, especially if one's not devoted to You I think [compare B.G. 6.33-34]. (16) I, with my consciousness, am merged with the body and its relations as arranged by Your mâyâ and thus foolishly of 'I' and of 'mine'; therefore teach Me, so that Your dear servant may easily execute to the process You instructed. (17) Who else is there but You who of the Truth reveals Yourself for me personally; what other speaker than my Lord, the Supreme Soul, does qualify; not even among the ones that awakened do I see one; in their consciousness are they that are headed by Brahmâ, as souls embodied holding the external for substantial, all bewildered by Your mâyâ. (18) Therefore do I, with my mind, oh, on renouncement tormented in distress, for shelter approach You Nârâyana, Friend of Man; You the perfect, unlimited, omniscient Controller ever fresh in His abode of Vaikunthha.'

(19) The Supreme Lord said: 'In general do humans very well acquainted with the state of affairs in this world indeed deliver themselves by their own intelligence from the inauspicious disposition [of a wanton mind]. (20) In a way, is a person's soul indeed one's own guru as one by the direct perception and logic [of the soul] is capable of gaining the real benefit. (21) Thus can the ones wise of experience in reasoning with [bhakti-]yoga in their human existence clearly see Me directly manifest as fully endowed with all My energies [see also Kapila]. (22) There are many types of bodies created with one, two, three, four or more legs legs or with none at all; of them is the human form the one most dear to Me [see also 3.29: 30, 6.4: 9]. (23) Therein situated does one by his faculties of perception, through apparent and indirectly ascertained symptoms, with logical deduction directly search for Me, the Supreme Controller beyond the grasp of sense perception [see also 2.2: 35, 2.9: 36]. (24) Concerning this is cited an ancient story of a conversation between an avadhûta and the o so mighty king Yadu.

(25) Yadu, well versed in the dharma, once observing a young brahmin mendicant wandering unafraid of anything, asked him questions [see also 7.13]. (26) S'rî Yadu said: 'From where did you acquire this extraordinary intelligence o brahmin, the way you, in full knowledge not being engaged in any work, are traveling the world just like a child? (27) For sure are people of religiosity, after an income, of sense gratification and in pursuit of knowledge, normally endeavoring for the purpose of opulence, a good name and a long life. (28) You however, capable, learned, experienced, handsome and eloquent as you are, are not a doer; you do not desire a thing, like a stupefied, maddened, ghostly creature. (29) Everyone is burning in the forest fire of lust and greed, but you, to be free from the fire standing in the Ganges like an elephant, do not burn at all. (30) Please o Brahmin do tell us inquiring what the cause is of the inner happiness of you who devoid of any material enjoyment art living all alone.'

(31) The Supreme Lord said: 'This way being asked and honored by the greatly fortunate and intelligent Yadu who of respect for the brahminical out of humility bowed his head, spoke the twice-born one. (32) The honorable brahmin said: 'By my intelligence taking shelter of many spiritual masters, o king, do I, having gained in intelligence from them, now liberated wander this world; please hear about them. (33-35) The earth, the air, the sky, the water, the fire, the moon; the sun, the pigeon, the python, the sea, the moth, the honeybee; the elephant, the honeythief, the deer, the fish, the prostitute [Pingalâ], the osprey; the child, the girl, the arrow-maker, the serpent, the spider and the wasp: these are my twenty-four spiritual masters o King; taking to the shelter of the lessons derived from their activities have I in this life learnt all about the Self. (36) Please listen o tiger among men as I explain to you, o son of Nâhusha [or Yayâti], how and what I so learned from each of them.

(37) From the earth have I learned the rule that he who is in knowledge should not deviate from the path and do keep steady, however he's being harassed by other living beings who in fact simply follow what's ordained by fate. (38) From the mountain [of earth] should one, as a disciple of the tree [see s'ikshâstaka-3] dedicated to others [see also 10.22: 31-35], be a saintly person who, devoting all his efforts for the sake of others, lives for the sole reason of that higher purpose [see also B.G. 17: 20-22].

(39) A sage should by the mere movements of his vital air be satisfied and not so much with things that please the senses, so that his spiritual knowing is not destroyed and his mind and speech are not distracted. (40) Like the wind should a yogî, as a soul of transcendence, not become entangled everywhere getting into contact with all sorts of qualities good and bad. (41) A yogî in this world having entered earthly bodies and assumed their characteristic qualities, does, well aware of himself, not entangle himself with those qualities just as the air doesn't with the different odors.

(42) In similarity with the sky present within the moving and nonmoving should a sage, unattached and to the Supersoul of the different contacts realizing that he himself is pure spirit, meditate upon the expansive as being undivided and all-pervading [see also B.G. 2: 24, 3: 15, 6: 29-30, 9: 6, 11: 17, 12: 3-4 and 13: 14]. (43) The same way as the ethereal sky is not touched by the winds that blow the clouds, is a person [in his real self] not affected by bodies consisting of fire, water and earth that to the modes of nature are set in motion by the Time.

(44) A sage, by nature a pure, softhearted, sweet and gentle place of pilgrimage to the humans, sanctifies, as water does, the one convening [the friend], by being seen, respectfully touched and being sung [see also sâkhya].

(45) Brilliant, glowing and unshakable by his austerity, eating to necessity, does the one connected in the soul, even if eating everything [thus going beyond necessity also], not get contaminated just like a fire doesn't. (46) Sometimes [like a fire thus] concealed, sometimes manifest devours he, worshipable by those desiring the highest, the offers brought from all sides, burning the previous and future misfortune [see also 10.81: 4 and B.G. 3: 13]. (47) The Almighty One as true or untrue [as god or beast] having entered this all created by His own energy, appears like fire in firewood assuming the identity of each.

(48) By the Time imperceptible in its grond of being are there, as with the moon, beginning with being born and ending with the cremation, the states of the body in its different phases; but none of these are of the soul [B.G. 2: 13, 2: 20]. (49) Time urging, speeding as a flood, with its constant birth and demise of the created that like the flames are to a fire, is, from the perspective of the soul, not to be seen though [*].

(50) A yogî accepting the material objects to his senses at the right time [to the cakra] gives them up; he doesn't get entangled in them just as the sun doesn't with its rays entering the waters [evaporating it and returning it again with the rains]. (51) The sun, that being reflected seems to have fallen apart, is in its original form not considered in terms of that diversity; likewise is also the soul, that to the dull-minded seems to have entered in reflections [of separate selves], of that position.

(52) No excessive affection or close association with anyone should ever take place, as indulging so one will undergo great distress, living by the day just like a pigeon [see also 7.2: 50-56]. (53) A certain pigeon in the forest having built its nest in a tree dwelt there for some years with a female pigeon as his companion. (54) As attached householders were they with their hearts in affection as by ropes tied together glance by glance, body by body and mind by mind. (55) Trusting together as a couple were they occupied with resting, sitting, walking, standing communicating, playing, eating and so on among the trees of the forest. (56) Whatever she would want, o King, that to her desire trying to please, did he, not in control with his senses, mercifully bring, even if it was difficult. (57) The chaste she-pigeon carrying her first pregnancy delivered, when the time had come, in the nest the eggs in the presence of her husband. (58) From them in due course were born, with tender limbs and feathers, the little ones produced by the inconceivable potencies of the Lord. (59) The couple most pleased nourished their progeny, compassionately in rapture listening to the awkward sounds of their chirping children. (60) By the fluffy wings of the little ones, their endearing chirping and their activities of jumping up to fly, became the parents joyful with them being so happy. (61) With their hearts bound together by affection nourished they completely bewildered by the illusory potency of Vishnu, their children, their offspring. (62) One day went the two heads of the family off for food for the children, wandering far away anxiously searching all around in the forest. (63) A certain hunter that happened to pass through the forest, seeing them [the young], having spread a net seized them as they moved about in the vicinity of their nest. (64) The he- and she-pigeon being gone, always eagerly engaged in the care of their children bringing food, came near their nest. (65) The female pigeon seeing the ones born from her, her children, trapped by the nest, rushed to them in utter distress crying out to them who were also also crying. (66) She, unrelenting, bound by affection became, looking after the captured children, foolminded of the mâyâ of the Unborn One forgetting herself, also trapped by the net. (67) The unfortunate male pigeon most wretchedly lamented over the capture of his children more dear to him than himself and his wife so much alike him: (68) 'Alas, just see the destruction of me unintelligent so little of merit, who [now] unfulfilled hasn't met the threefold purpose [the purushârthas] of the family life he ruined! (69) She who accepted me being suitable and faithful as her husband, has, saintly going to heaven along with her sons, left me behind with my home empty. (70) With me wretched in the empty nest with my wife and children dead, for what purpose should I want to live, miserably suffering a life in separation?' (71) With him distressed watching them indeed caught in the net in the grip of death, fell, even he stunned failing in intelligence, also into the net. (72) The ruthless hunter having achieved his purpose took the householder pigeon, the pigeon children and the pigeon wife with him and set off for his home.

(73) A family man not in peace with the soul taking pleasure in material dualities, must thus, like this bird being a miser in maintaining his family, suffer greatly with his relatives. (74) One who having achieved the human position, with the door of liberation wide open, in family affairs is attached like this bird; consider him having climbed high as fallen [see also 3.30, 3.32: 1-3, 4.28: 17 , 5.26: 35, 7.14, 7.15: 38-39,7.15: 67, 8.16: 9 and 10.69: 40].



*: This analytic method, of in this case returning to the subject of the fire after having introduced the next subject of the moon, is called simhâvalokana, or 'the lion's glance', by which one simultaneously proceeds forward and casts backward glances to see if anything has been overlooked.  



Chapter 8

 What One Learns from Nature and the Story of Pingalâ

(1) The honorable brahmin said: 'Since the embodied in heaven and hell surely too, o King, derive from the senses happiness as well as unhappiness, should the one who knows therefore not desire that [sensual experience, see also B.G. 16: 16].

(2) Like a python uncommitted should one eat what is acquired accidentally, whether it is much or little, tasteless or pure delicious food [7.13: 37-38]. (3) For many days fasting should one abide when the food in waiting for the occasion doesn't come, just like the python eating what providence provides [7.15: 15]. (4) Strong, composed in sense and mind, carrying the body without fruitive action remains one peaceful and free from sleepiness; one shouldn't be of that [karmic] repeat, even though being in full command of the senses.

(5) A sage pleasing and grave, unfathomable, unlimited and unsurpassable [in his knowing] most surely is never disturbed like the calm waters of the ocean [see also B.G. 12: 15]. (6) Destitute or flourishing with the desirable, does a wise one, with Nârâyana as the One Supreme, swell nor dry up like the ocean doesn't with the rivers [being swollen or dried up, B.G. 2.70].

(7) Seeing a woman does one who didn't conquer his senses, enticed with that seductive illusory energy of God, blind fall down into the darkness, just like a moth falls into the fire. (8) Upon seeing the clothing, golden ornaments and so on of women as arranged by mâyâ, does a person of no discrimination aroused by lusty desires with the desire for sense-gratification no doubt, the way a moth is destroyed, find his intelligence ruined [B.G. 2.62-63].

(9) Eating little bits of food enough to keep the body alive should one being wise practice [social] security [nonviolence] with the householders and thus be of the occupation of a honeybee [5.5: 3, 7.2: 11-13, 7.12: 6. 7.14: 5, 7.15: 15 and B.G. 4: 21]. (10) An intelligent man should from the smallest as well as the biggest religious scriptures take the essence, just like a honey bee does with all the flowers big and small [11.7: 23, B.G. 15: 15]. (11) Not like the bee being a collector, should one with the belly as one's container and the hand as one's plate accept food in charity and not keep it for the night or the next day. (12) Nor what's meant for the night nor what's meant for tomorrow should a mendicant accept, as like with the collecting of a honeybee that collection is destroyed.

(13) A mendicant shouldn't touch a girl not even a one of wood or with his foot, since by the bodily contact one is captured like an elephant is captured with a she-elephant. (14) A man of wisdom should - death to himself - never chase a woman, as he'll be destroyed as an elephant [in competition] is by others superior in strength.

(15) He who personally enjoys and not gives away what with great difficulty was accumulated, will to the contrary see that also others being greedy will enjoy that, just like the honey is that's stolen from the one appreciating a wealth of it [the bee, see also 5.13: 10]. (16) Like the honeythief is the ascetic before all others, sure to enjoy from those sworn to a household existence, the blessings of fervently desired domestic opulences acquired with the greatest trouble [see e.g. 1.19: 39 and 7.14: 17].

(17) A devotee moving in the forest shouldn't ever listen to the worldly songs; one should learn it from the deer that was bound bewildered by the hunters song [see the bhajans]. (18) Taking pleasure in vulgar dancing, musical entertainment and such songs, fell Rishyas'ringa, the son of Mrigî , fully controlled as a plaything under the control of women [see * , 5.8 and 5.25: 11].

(19) Like a fish that bewildered in attraction to the taste indeed by the hooks reaches its death, is of a person most easily, disturbed by the tongue, the intelligence rendered useless. (20) The learned in restraint quickly conquer the material senses except however for the tongue, to which the taste increases with the fasting [see prasâdam-prayer]. (21) As long as the tongue is not conquered can of a human being, having conquered all the other senses, still not be said that he did conquer; but having the tongue conquered, he did conquer all [see also 8: 16 and B.G. 2: 59].

(22) In the past, in the city of Videha there was a prostitute called Pingalâ, now learn from me o son of Kings, the thing I learned from her. (23) She as a prostitute once at night, to get a customer into her house, stood outside in the doorway demonstrating her form of beauty. (24) The men with money she saw coming in that street, o best of men, did she, desiring the money, consider her lovers supposed to pay the price. (25-26) As they came and went thought she, living of selling her love: 'Maybe will another one carrying plenty approach me for love and give me a lot'; thus with vain hope disturbed in her sleep hanging in the doorway, walking down the street and turning back to the house it became midnight. (27) With her face drooping being morose of her desire for money, awakened in her anxiety a supreme detachment which brought her happiness. (28) Detachment is as sure as a sword to the binding network of hopes and desires; please listen to the song there was of her whose mind had turned against. (29) My best, for sure will he who didn't develop detachment never want to give up the bondage of the material body, just as a human being bereft of wisdom won't give up his sense of ownership, o King. (30) Pingalâ said: 'See the extend of the illusion of me, with a mind out of control, who's so foolish in the pursuit for being lusty with a poor lover. (31) Giving up on the pleasure of Him, the One That is Most Near and Dear, was I, this ignoramus, so most insignificantly of a service that, never taming the desire, brings misery, fear, distress, grief and illusion. (32) Oh how uselessly subjecting my soul to torture have I, busy as a prostitute - the most reprehensible of occupations - with my body desiring money and sexual pleasure, been selling out to womanizers who, greedy after me, are lamentable themselves. (33) What other woman besides me would devote herself to this house with nine doors which, constructed with the bones of a spine, the ribs, the hands and legs and covered by a skin and hair and nails, full of stool is dripping urine [compare B.G. 5:13 and 4.25-28]? (34) Of the residents of Videha am I the one that with the intelligence is really perplexed, as I am the one who most unchaste desires sense-pleasure with another man but Him Who Gives Us Soul, Acyuta. (35) The well-wisher that's absolutely the most dear, the Lord and Soul He is of all embodied; by paying the price of giving myself to Him, will I for sure enjoy like Ramâ. (36) How much actual happiness has the sensual pleasure and those men satisfying my senses provided; to have a wife and gods [even] has all, spread by time, a beginning and an end. (37) This one so desperate must therefore with some action of detachment from sense-gratification have pleased the Supreme Lord of Vishnu bringing the happiness rising in me! (38) With a woman really unfortunate wouldn't those miseries exist, these causes of detachment of which a person shaking of the bondage obtains [real] peace. (39) Giving up the vain hope in connection with the sexual intercourse am I now, accepting upon my head the great help offered by Him, coming for shelter to Him the Original Controller. (40) Contented in full faith with that living with whatever comes my way, will I enjoy life with that One only, the Self of Love and Happiness undoubted. (41) Fallen in the dark well of the material ocean with my vision stolen in the pleasing of the senses, who else but the Original Controller is capable of delivering the living being seized by the timeserpent [see also 10.34]? (42) When the self thus can behold the universe as seized by the timeserpent, becomes he, vigilant detached from all the matter, for sure his own protector.'

(43) The honorable brahmin said: 'Thus having decided to cut with the desperation caused by the desiring for lovers sat she down on her bed having found the inner peace. (44) The greatest unhappines for sure the desiring for, and the greatest happiness the non-expecting; that way having shun the hankering for lovers, Pingalâ slept happy.'



*: Rishyas'ringa, meaning 'deer-horn' to the deer that is musically attracted, was the young son of the sage Mrigî, intentionally brought up by his father in an atmosphere of complete innocence. Mrigî Rishi thought that if his son were never exposed to the sight of women he would always remain a perfect brahmacârî. But by chance the inhabitants of the neighboring kingdom, who were suffering from a long-term drought, received divine advice that rain would return to their kingdom only after the brâhmana named Rishyas'ringa stepped foot in it. Therefore they sent beautiful women to the hermitage of Mrigî to entice Rishyas'ringa and bring him back with them. Since Rishyas'ringa had never even heard about women, he easily fell for their trap [quoted from pp 11.8: 18].



Chapter 9

Detachment from All that Is Material

(1) The honorable brahmin said: 'Attachment to whatever of the possessions held so very dear by man [house, wife, car etc.], sure leads to misery; whoever knows that will, being free from such attachment, thereupon achieve unlimited happiness.

(2) Having meat a large hawk [the osprey] was attacked by others very strong who were without prey; at that time giving up the meat he achieved happiness.

(3) I, like a child enjoying in the soul only, do wander out here; in me no honor or dishonor is found; sporting by the self is there not the anxiety of the one with a home and children. (4) Freed from anxiety there so are two types: the one retarded who ignorant as a child is merged in great happiness and the one who has achieved the One Supreme above the Modes of Nature.

(5) Once arrived at the house of a young girl that wished herself to be a wife and of whom all the relatives were gone to another place, a couple of men that she received with great hospitality. (6) Being alone did she, for her guests to eat, beat rice so that the conchshell bracelets on her forearms made a lot of noise. (7) She being shy ashamed of that [servant-] noise, thinking intelligently broke one by one the shell bracelets from her arms, leaving but two on each wrist. (8) Still was there of those two, with her husking the rice, the noise of course, so that, as she separated one from each of the two leaving one only, not a sound was heard. (9) Me wandering the places in search of the truth of the world, o subduer of the enemies, with my own eyes witnessed this girls' lesson. (10) In a place with many people will quarrels rise, even with two people alone conversing; for sure one should therefore live like the young girls' bracelet. (11) By detachment and a regulated practice [vairâgya and abhyâsa] should the mind be steadied, with care being fixed by having conquered one's breathing in sitting postures [see also B.G. 6: 10-15 and 6: 46-47]. (12) Having obtained permanence in that position, step by step giving up the contamination of karma, achieves that very mind nirvâna by the having grown strong in sattva forsaking of the fuel of rajas and tamas [to the fire of material existence, see also B.G. 6: 26 and 14: 6-8].

(13) At that time thus being fixed in the soul does one not know anything [to be] outside or inside, just as the arrowmaker being absorbed in the arrow didn't notice the king passing right next to him [see B.G. 7: 27-28].

(14) Moving alone without a fixed residence [also: temple] and being secretive not recognized in his actions does, being without companions, a sage speak very little. (15) Building a home leads, being idle [see B.G. 4: 18], to misery; also the snake having entered a home built by others prospers happily.

(16) The one Self, the one Supreme Controller without a second, who became the Foundation and Reservoir of All indeed, is Nârâyana, the God that in the beginning by His own potency created and by the portion of time at the end of the kalpa withdraws this universe within Himself. (17-18) When by His potency of the time factor the material powers of sattva and so on are being brought to equilibrium, exists the Original Personality, the purusha of the primary nature [pradhâna], who is the worshipable Controller of the gods and normal souls, in the purest experience of revelation denoted as kaivalya [beautitude], the full of bliss devoid of material relations [see also B.G. 7: 5]. (19) By the pure potency of His Self, His own energy composed of the three modes, manifests He, agitating with it [the Time] at the onset of creation, the plan of matter [the sûtra, the thread, the rule or direction of the mahat-tattva, see also 3.26: 19]. (20) To that [thread] manifesting as the cause of the three modes that create the different categories of the manifestation, so they say, is this universe, by which the living being undergoes his existence, strung and bound [see also B.G 7: 7]. (21) Just as the spider, expanding the thread from within himself, by his mouth with that thread enjoys [his meal] and eventually swallows that thread, does the same way the Supreme Controller operate.

(22) On whatever the conditioned soul fixes his mind, that particular state will, because of the full concentration of his intelligence, with the emotional impact of his envy or fear be reached. [see B.G. 8: 6]. (23) O king, a larva [or insect caught] meditating a wasp engaging nearby in its hive will, keeping to its own body, reach the same state of existence of that wasp.

(24) This is the knowledge in taking instruction from all these gurus, please hear from me what I have to say about the knowledge acquired in learning from one's own body, o King. (25) The body as my spiritual master of detachment and discrimination does - with it always suffering to the cause of the inevitable maintaining and the future destruction of its existence - even though I contemplate the truths of the world with it, belong to others any way; thus convinced I wander about without attachment. (26) The body nourishing all the categories of the wife, the children, the animals, the servants, the home and the relatives it tries to please, has, following the nature of the tree that drops its seed, falls and dies, at the time of its death expanded in having created this [other child] body of it, having accumulated wealth [for it] with great effort. (27) At the one side does the tongue at times thirsty distract the cherished body, at the other side do the genitals that, does the sense of touch that, does the belly that, do the ears lead elsewhere, does the smell go or are the eyes otherwise fickle going elsewhere; and so do the limbs like co-wives pull the head of the household in many directions. (28) With trees, venomous insects, mammals, birds, snakes and all these sorts having created material bodies in many varieties through the mâyâ of His own potency, did the Lord unsatisfied in His heart, create the human being with an intelligence suited to envision the Absolute Truth and achieved He happiness. (29) After many births having attained this human form so difficult to attain which, although not eternal, awards great value, should a sober person as long as he, subject to death, has not fallen [in his grave], without delay in this world endeavor for the ultimate liberation always possible in all conditions of sense-gratification.

(30) Thus [from all these twenty-four plus one masters] seeing it in the Soul do I, fully having developed detachment and wisdom, wander this earth freed from attachment and egotism. (31) For sure can the knowledge from one [such] teacher not be very solid or complete [therefore: 11.3: 21]; the Absolute Truth one without a second is by the sages no doubt glorified in many ways.'

(32) The Supreme Lord said: 'The brahmin of profound intelligence [in fact Lord Dattâtreya, see 2.7: 4 and **] thus having spoken to king Yadu, being properly honored by the king offering his obeisances, bid farewell and went away just as contented as he had come. (33) Having heard the words of the avadhûta became Yadu, the forefather of our ancestors, freed with a then equal consciousness.



*: Considering verse 3.25: 34 stating that devotees do seek company to associate for Krishna, do the âcâryas after this verse say that that single mindedness for the Lord, not speculating as jnânis, is the same as being alone not to land in quarrels [see pp. 11.9: 10].

**: The paramparâ [pp. 11.9: 32] confirms: 'This verse [2.7: 4] mentions that Yadu was purified by contact with the lotus feet of Dattâtreya, and similarly the present verse states, vandito sv-arcito râjñâ - King Yadu worshiped the lotus feet of the brâhmana. Thus, according to S'rîla S'rîdhara Svâmî, the avadhûta brâhmana is the Personality of Godhead Himself, and this is confirmed by S'rîla Vis'vanâtha Cakravartî Thhâkura.'



Chapter 10

The Soul Free, The Soul Bound

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'A soul free from desire accepting the shelter of Me should, taking care in the personal duties to God I spoke of [see also in e.g. 10.60: 52 and B.G. 3: 35], practice the varnâs'rama system of society [B.G. 4: 13]. (2) A purified soul should see how of those embodied who self-centered keep the sensual for true, all endeavors are doomed to fail [see also B.G. 13: 32]. (3) What the meditator sees in the realm of sleep or in his fantasy is futile as much as it is varied in its nature; the same way is the intelligence in the separated self by the modal qualities quite useless [B.G. 2: 41 & B.G. 9.15]. (4) Dedicated to Me one should perform the work to be done for the detachment [nivritti] and give up on the activities in attachment [pravritti], as perfectly engaged in the search for the spiritual truth one shouldn't take heed of the injunctions of working for results [see 7.15: 47]. (5) The one devoted must always observe the major rules [the commandments, the vidhi] and the minor ones at times [the niyama], and be of service to the peaceful guru who, knowing My form, is not different from Me [see also: 7.14: 41-42]. (6) With humility, not considering oneself the doer, be industrious, non-possessive, fixed in friendship, do not haste, take interest being inquisitive and be free from spite and idle talk. (7) Remaining neutral to the wife, the children, the home, the land, one's folk and bank-account and such, should one see one's self-interest equally in all alike [see B.G. 5: 18].

(8) The soul is the seer self-enlightened differing from the body gross and subtle, just as the fire burning to illumine is relative to the firewood to burn [see also B.G. 2: 16-24]. (9) Within [the wood] having entered assuming its various qualities of being dormant, manifest, tiny and large, accepts the same way the entity transcendent the qualities to the body [see also 3.24: 6, 4.9: 7, 10.37: 10-11, 10.46: 36]. (10) That which with this body constructed by the modes is tied to that samsâra that for sure is of the Original Person [see B.G. 8: 4], is this entity alive cut loose by the knowledge of the Soul. (11) Therefore by cultivating knowledge of the Soul as situated in oneself [2.2 en B.G. 9: 5], should one, approaching pure in realizing the Supreme, gradually give up this concept of the material affair [as being a reality apart]. (12) The âcârya as considered the kindling wood below, with the disciple at the top and the instructions as the stick used in between, is the knowledge like the fire that brings happiness [compare 9.14: 44-46]. (13) This purest intelligence available from the experienced [the âcâryas], repels the illusion stemming from the gunas and is, completely burning up what's established by them, pacified itself as fire is without the fuel [see also 11.3: 12].

(14-16) If you thus think of the variegatedness of the performers of fruitive activities, of those enjoyers of happiness and distress; if you then think of the perpetual existence of the material world, the time, the traditional records and the soul; if you think of the original certainty of the actual situation of all material objects to which, by the difference of all the objects' their forms and changes, the knowledge was born; then, o Uddhava, [you must admit from merely that material vision * that] there are constantly the states of existence of being born [old age and disease] and so on, since any one embodied is in contact with a body [conditioned] by the different limbs [or divisions to the sun and moon, see 3.11 ] of time. (17) Of the performer who as the enjoyer therein furthermore is of fruitive activities, is clearly seen the lack of independence and the happiness and unhappiness; what value indeed can be derived not [really for the lasting happiness, see B.G. 9: 3 and 11.9: 1] being in control? (18) Sometimes is there with the embodied not even with the ones intelligent the happiness and likewise it is so with the unhappiness of the foolish; the egotism [of that] is completely vain [see also B.G. 2: 15 and 11.9: 4]. (19) Even if they know how to achieve the happiness and remove the distress, still do they not know the uniting of the consciousness [the yoga process], by which death will not exert its power [compare B.G. 10: 34]. (20) What certainty of happiness or lust provides a material object the person who, with death standing nearby giving no satisfaction, like someone condemned to be killed is led to the place of execution? (21) What we heard of [heaven] or have seen already [earth] is contaminated by rivalry, faultfinding, lapse and decay; just like with agriculture are there many obstacles shipping with the but fruitless desiring for [see also 11.3: 20]. (22) If one, in one's dharma not being affected by obstacles, is of an excellent performance, will even the status accomplished that way be gone [at last], so please hear this [see also B.G. 2: 14].

(23) Out here having worshiped the gods with sacrifices goes the performer to the heavenly worlds where he may enjoy like a god the celestial pleasures by him achieved [see B.G. 3: 11 and 4: 12]. (24) By his accumulated merit shining in the temple [the 'vimâna'], is he changing [for heaven] in the midst of goddesses wearing charming clothes, by the singers of heaven glorified with songs. (25) With the heavenly women faring to his desire with that notion of order being decorated with circles of bells, does he, having a good time, not consider his own fall-down as he relaxes comfortably in the pleasure gardens of the godly [see e.g. 7.15: 69-73]. (26) He, that long enjoying in the heavens until his pious credit is used up and his piety is exhausted, falls, moved away from time [being unsteady with -], against his will, down from heaven [compare B.G. 9: 20-22]. (27-29) If, due to materialistic association he is engaged in actions against the dharma or, not having conquered the senses, lives wantonly as a miserable greedy philanderer, is of violence with other living beings, kills animals against the rules and worships hordes of ghosts and spirits [compare 7.12: 12], will a living being, once he's gone, helplessly next land in the deepest darkness of the hellish worlds and will he because of those activities again accept a material body to perform activities that [again] bring him great unhappiness in the future; what happiness is found in swearing by activities that invariably lead to death [see also 5.26: 37 and B.G. 16: 19-21]? (30) In all the worlds and among all their leaders is there fear for Me; the individual souls living for a kalpa fear Me and even the one supreme, Brahmâ who lives for two parârdhas, fears Me [see also 1.13: 17-20, 3.8: 20, 3.11: 33, 3:25: 42, 3.26: 16, 3.29: 37, 3.29: 40-45 , 5.24: 15, 5.24: 28]. (31) The material senses set in motion by the modes of nature give rise to activities and the individual jîva, indeed fully engaged with the materially oriented senses and the gunas, experiences the various karmic results [see also 3.32 and B.G. 3.27]. (32) As long as there are the separate existences of the modes of nature will there be the different states of existence of the soul, and as long as there are the different states of existence of the soul, there for sure will be [the karmic] dependence indeed [see also B.G. 17: 2]. (33) As long as one is not free from the dependence will there be fear of the Controller [the Time]; those who devote themselves to this [dependence] will, bewildered as they are, always be absorbed in sorrow. (34) When there is the agitation of the modes of nature, do they thus call Me variously the Time, the Self, the Vedic Knowledge, the World, the Nature, as surely also the Dharma.'

(35) S'rî Uddhava said: 'Though being present in the midst of the modes of nature is the one embodied not bound by what springs from a material body [the happiness and distress], in other words, how does it happen that one [factually] never being covered by the modes, gets bound, o Almighty One? (36-37) What way is he situated, by what does he enjoy, or by what symptoms would he be known; what would he eat or how would he evacuate, lie down or sit? [compare B.G. 14: 21] Explain this what I ask to me, o Infallible One, o Best of All Who Know to Answer Questions; this at the same time being eternally bound and eternally being liberated is for certain something that confuses me.



*: This philosophy is known to be propounded by the the followers of Jaimini Kavi that defend the pravritti mârga of regulated sense-gratification before the nivritti-mârga of activities in renunciation; something to which the paramparâ offering this book, with this verse, strongly opposes pointing out that one thus eternally is stuck, nitya-baddha, in repeated birth, old age, disease etc.



Chapter 11

Bondage and Liberation Explained and the Saintly Person His Devotional Service

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'The explanation of due to My modes being bound and being liberated is that in reality they are not of the modes at all; my illusory energy is not the cause of the bondage or liberation of [relating to] Me. (2) Lamentation and illusion, happiness and distress and the accepting of a material body under the influence of mâyâ is the conditioned existence that as a figment of the intelligence, just as a dream, indeed is not the real existence. (3) Please, Uddhava, understand that knowledge and ignorance, are two of My manifested energies that, produced by My original potency, give rise to bondage and liberation [*]. (4) Of the living entity, that for sure is part and parcel of My Oneness o great intelligence, is since time immemorial the bondage there of ignorance and is similarly the opposite there of the knowledge. (5) Let Me now, my dear, dilate about the different characteristics of the opposing natures of being conditioned and being liberated, thus situated in one manifestation of character. (6) By chance these two friends, these similar birds, made a nest in one tree and one of them is eating the fruits of the tree while the other is not to the food, although he is superior in strength [see also 6.4: 24]. (7) He not eating the tree its fruits, being omniscient knows himself [Himself] as well as the other one who filled with ignorance indeed for ever is bound; he who is full of knowledge indeed is for ever liberated [see also B.G.: 4: 5]. (8) An enlightened person, as having risen from a dream, sees himself though present in the body not as the body; a foolish person though being situated in the body sees, just as in a dream, himself not as such [he is identified, see B.G. 16: 18]. (9) Even by the senses generated of the modes being of the senses to the objects generated by the modes, is the enlightened soul, who accepting them indeed is not affected by desire, not falsely identified that he should make it [see B.G. 3: 28]. (10) By providence under the influence of karma being situated in this material body produced from the modes, is someone foolish thereupon so bound to 'I am the doer' [see also B. G. 3: 27]. (11) Thus is an intelligent person, wherever engaging his senses, indifferent as he is in resting, sitting, walking, bathing, seeing, touching, smelling, eating, hearing and so on, not bound that way. (12-13) Even though situated in the material world does he, completely aloof from its ruling powers, cut all doubts to pieces by the most expert vision as sharpened through detachment, just as the sky, the sun and the wind are aloof; like having awakened from a dream has he turned away from the separateness of things. (14) The person free from desire of whom the functions of the life-breath, the senses, the mind and the intelligence are completely freed is, though being situated in a body, certainly of His qualities. (15) He who in the body is attacked by the violent or at some other time for some reason is worshiped, is, being intelligent, by that not affected [see B.G. 14: 22-25]. (16) Those who are working or speaking very nicely or badly are by a saintly person praised nor criticized; freed from good and bad qualities he sees things equally [see also B.G. 5: 18]. (17) One who is satisfied within should not act, speak or contemplate in terms of good and bad; with this way of life should a muni wander just like a dull materialistic person [see also 5.9]. (18) Of one who, fully versed in the vedic literatures, is not as clever with the Supreme [Lord], is the fruit of his great labor certainly like that of one taking care of a cow giving no milk. (19) O Uddhava, he who takes care of a cow that has given her milk, an unchaste wife, a body always dependent upon others, unworthy children, an unworthy recipient while donating, and wants to speak missing the knowledge of Me [see also 10.14: 4 and 5.6: 11], suffers one misery after the other. (20) A wise person, my best, should not sanction those expressions which are not of respect for My purifying activities or wanted appearance as the pastime incarnations [lîlâ-avatâras] of maintenance, creation and annihilation of the world, o Uddhava. (21) Thus by that desire to know giving up the mistake of the self being separate [**] should one, fixing the mind in Me the All-pervading One [see also B.G. 7: 19], put an end to one's materialistic life [B.G. 18: 55]. (22) If you're incapable to fix the mind on the spiritual platform then try, unwavering in Me, to perform activities without expectations [B.G. 12: 11, 10: 10, 18: 54]. (23-24) A person of belief hearing the narrations about My birth and activities, which purifying, singing and constantly remembered are all-auspicious to the world, will, sheltered in Me for My purpose performing the dharma, kâma and artha [the purushârtas], obtain unflinching devotion unto My permanence, o Uddhava. (25) By the devotion to Me obtained by the sat-sanga [the association with devotees] he becomes My worshiper; that person undoubtedly easily achieves My abode as revealed by My devotees.'

(26-27) S'rî Uddhava said: 'What type of person would in Your opinion, o Uttamas'loka, be a saintly person, and what sort of worship unto You should, as approved by Your pure devotees, be executed; please speak about this to me, Your surrendered devotee who loves You as his only shelter, o Master of the Universe, Supervisor of the World and Commander of the Person. (28) You the Supreme God and Spirit alike the sky, the Original Person transcendental to material nature, are incarnate, having accepted different bodies, the Supreme Lord to the desire of the ones belonging to You.

(29-32) The Supreme Lord said: 'Merciful, not causing harm, tolerant towards all embodied, firm in the truth and a soul irreproachable; equalminded, always acting for the better, of an intelligence undisturbed by material desires, of restraint, soft-natured, pure-hearted, non-possessive, not worldly, eating little and peaceful; steady, with Me as the shelter, thoughtful, vigilant, a profound soul, keeping respect, having conquered the shath-guna, modest, offering respect and invigorating; friendly, compassionate and learned thus knowing the qualities and deficiencies and as taught by Me, even giving up his own religious preferences [see also B.G. 18: 66], is he, in worship of all of Me, someone who indeed is the best of the truthful [see also 5.18: 12, B.G. 12: 13-20 ]. (33) Those who for sure thus knowing or not knowing, as to who I am and how I am, with exclusive devotion worship Me, are by Me considered the best devotees. (34-41) Seeing, touching and worshiping My appearance in this world do My devotees rendering personal service offer prayers of glorification and obeisances, regularly singing about My qualities and activities. In hearing the topics about Me with faith always meditating on Me, o Uddhava, do they as servants in defense of the Soul offer all that they acquire. Discussing My birth and activities taking great delight with musical instruments and songs, dance they to the moon [at sundays or lunar phases] having meetings and festivals in My [god-]houses. To all celebrations and annual festivities as mentioned in the vedic literatures and their tantras making offerings, observe they vows, being of initiation in relation to Me. With the installation of My deity faithfully attached, do they for themselves and for others as well endeavor in working for flower gardens, orchards, playgrounds, cities and temples. Straightforward as servants are they for My sake in service of the house [the temple] thoroughly cleaning and dusting, washing with water [and cow-dung, see also 10.6: 20*], sprinkling scented water and making mandalas. Modestly without pride, not advertising one's devotional service and not reserving for oneself the light of the lamps presented to Me, should one unto Me offer the thing most dear to oneself or anything most desired in the material world, for that offer qualifies one for immortality.

(42) The sun, the fire, the brahmins, the cows, the vaishnavas, the sky, the wind, the water, the earth, the soul and all living beings, my dearest, are all home to My worship. (43-45) In the sun indeed [one can find Me] by selected verses [like the gâyatrî], with worship and with obeisances [like with the sûrya-namskar]; in the fire with offerings of ghee; to the best of the learned one should be of worship for Me with being hospitable; in the cows, My dear, is that done with offerings of grass and such things. In the vaishnava one finds Me by honoring with loving friendship, in the heart by being fixed in meditation within the inner space, in the air by considering [Me as being in the prâna, by prânâyâma see B.G. 4: 29] the most important and in the water by keeping first the essence of water [and such as a flower, a leaf, see B.G. 9: 26]. In the earth [one finds Me] offering pleasurable things [like food], applying sacred mantra's from the heart [see e.g. prasâda sevâya and bhoga ârati] and within the embodied self as the knower of the field [see paramâtma and B.G. 13: 3] by worshiping Me with equilibrium [see niyama]. (46) Thus devout meditating these ways should one fully absorbed be of worship for My transcendental form equipped with the conchshell, the disc, the club and the lotus flower [see picture]. (47) With the desired and good works thus fully fixed in Me being of worship obtains one by the fine quality of the service durable bhakti and the remembrance of Me [see also B.G. 5.29].'

(48) O Uddhava, generally speaking are there, without the bhakti-yoga attained through the association with the devotees, not any means that actually work, because I am the true path of life for the ones of virtue [see also 4.31: 12]. (49) Thus o child of the Yadus, will I speak to you, as you are listening, even of this [following] most confidential highest secret [of intimate association], since you are My servant, well-wisher and friend [compare B. G. 18: 63 & 68].



*: The paramparâ adds: 'The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not different from His potencies, yet He is always above them as the supreme controller.... Liberation means that the living entity should transfer himself to the spiritual potency of the Lord, which can be divided into three categories - hlâdinî, the potency of bliss; sandhinî, the potency of eternal existence; and samvit, the potency of omniscience.' This is another formulation of the divine in terms of sat-cit-ânanda; Krishna as being eternity, consciousness and bliss.

**: Quoting from the Viveka, S'rîla Madhvâcârya states that nânâtva-bhramam, the mistake to the material diversity, indicates the following illusions: considering the living entity to be the Supreme; considering all living entities to be ultimately one entity without separate individuality; considering that there are many Gods [independent of one another, see: 5.18: 12]; thinking that Krishna is not God [is not personal as well as impersonal the complete whole, vâsudeva sarvam iti, 7: 19]; and considering that the material universe [the impersonal] is the ultimate reality [see also 1.2: 11]. All these illusions are together fought by chanting the mahâmantra or attending to the other bhajans for two hours a day.




Chapter 12

The Confidential Secret Beyond Renunciation and Knowledge

(1-2) The Supreme Lord said: 'Mysticism nor analysis, common piety, and also not the study of the scriptures, penances, renunciation, desirable and pious works, and charity neither; the following of vows, ceremonies, vedic hymns, pilgrimage, general discipline nor the basic rules do contain Me the way the sat-sanga [see 11.11: 25] captures Me that removes all material association. (3-6) By just satsang did many living entities as the sons of Diti, the malicious ones, the animals, the birds, the singers and dancers of heaven, the excellent and perfected, the venerable and the treasurekeepers, the scientific among the humans and the merchants, the laborers and the women, the uncivilized and the ones of passion and slowness in each and every age achieve My abode as also did Vritrâsura, the son of Kayâdhû [Prahlâda, see 6.18: 12-13] and others, Vrishaparvâ [see 9.18: 26], Bali, Bâna, Maya as also Vibhîshana [brother of Râvana], Sugrîva [leader of the vânaras] and Hanumân, Jâmbavân, Gajendra, Jatâyu, Tulâdhâra, Dharma-vyâdha, Kubjâ and the gopîs in Vraja as also the wives of the brahmins [see 10.23] and others. (7) They, not having studied the sacred scriptures, nor having worshiped the great saints, attained, without vows not having undergone austerities, Me by My association. (8-9) Indeed purely by love achieved the gopîs, the cows, the immobile creatures, the animals, the snakes [like Kâliya] and others who were stunted in their intelligence, the perfection quite easily as they came to Me, whom cannot even be reached greatly endeavoring with yoga, analysis, charity, vows, penances, ritualistic sacrifices, exegesis, personal study or taking to the renounced order. (10) When Akrûra took Me together with Balarâma to Mathurâ were those constantly attached whose consciousness was most profound of their love, seeing no one else but Me to make them happy, of great anxiety upon the separation [see 10: 39]. (11) All the nights they in Vrindâvana had spent with Me, their most dearly Beloved, o Uddhava seemed to them just like half a moment, but again bereft of Me they became as long as a kalpa. (12) They with their consciousness bound up in intimacy with Me were not aware of their own bodies, just as sages in full absorption consider something very near as names and forms as far removed as rivers are, once they have entered the ocean [B.G. 2: 70]. (13) The women with Me, a charming lover to their desire, a lover of another man's wives, had no idea of the actual position of Me, the Absolute Truth Supreme, whom they by the hundreds of thousands in association achieved. (14-15) Therefore o Uddhava give up the injunctions, the regulations about them and the ritual culture for its own sake, that what you learnt and will be learning; go for Me alone, the actual shelter of the soul within all the embodied; with that exclusive devotion should you by My mercy have nothing to fear from any side [compare B.G. 18: 66].

(16) S'rî Uddhava said: hearing Your words. o Lord of the Lords of Yoga, has not dispelled the doubt that nestled in my heart and of which my mind is bewildered.'

(17) The Supreme Lord said: 'He, the living being Himself, is, along with the prâna, manifest within having entered the heart with His place in the subtle sound vibration that fills the mind in the grosser form of the different intonations of short and long vowels and consonants. (18) Just as fire confined within wood, with the help of air, kindled by friction very tiny is born and increases with ghee, is it similar to this indeed with My manifestation for sure so in words. (19) Thus are speech, the function of the hands and legs, the genitals and the anus [the karmendriyas]; the smell, taste, sight, touch and hearing [the jñânendriyas] and the functions of the determination, the wisdom and and the selfconcern [or 'mind, intelligence and false ego'] as well as the primary of matter [pradhâna or the thread, see 11.9: 19] and the rajas, tama and sattva [the gunas] there as the transformation [of Me]. (20) Indeed this living entity, one and unmanifest, that is concerned with the threefold, is the source of the lotus of creation; He, being eternal, in the course of time dividing His potencies in many divisions, appears just like seeds do fallen in a fertile field. (21) Just as cloth expands on the warp and woof of its threads, is the whole of this Universe, expanding long and wide, situated in Him [on His thread, see also 6.3: 12 and B.G. 7: 7] as this material existence, of which this tree [this organic body] existing since time immemorial is naturally inclined to fruitive action [or karma] as it blossoming produces the fruits. (22-23) Of this tree extending in the sun there are two seeds [sin and piety], hundreds of roots [the living entities], three lower trunks [the modes], five upper trunks [the elements], five saps produced [sound, form, touch, taste and aroma], eleven branches [the mind and the ten indriyas]; two birds having a nest [jîva and âtmâ], three types of bark [air, bile and mucus] and two fruits [happiness and distress]. The lusty one living in a household enjoys one fruit of the tree whereas the other swanlike ones living in the forest with the help of the worshipable [the devotees, the gurus] know the One who by dint of His mâyâ appears in many forms. (24) Thus of unalloyed devotional service developed by worship of the guru, should the sober one by means of the sharp axe of knowledge cut down the individual soul its subtle body of attachment and with the greatest care living spiritually achieve the Supreme Soul, after which he should relinquish the means by which he attained.' 



Chapter 13  

The Hamsa-avatâra Answers the Questions of the Sons of Brahmâ

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'The goodness, passion and ignorance known of the gunas relate to the intelligence and not to the soul; by goodness may the other two be averted while the virtue of goodness [as a form of attachment] on its turn may be overruled by character [*]. (2) Of character are the religious principles strenghtened standing out by devotional service to Me; cultivating seriously the inner strength rises from the mode of goodness the [bhâgavata-]dharma. (3) The dharma by the increase of goodness destroys the passion and ignorance; the greater part of the godlessness, their root, is for sure quickly vanquished when those two are destroyed. (4) The scriptures, the water, one's folk, the place and the time, the occupation and the birth as also the meditation, the mantras and the purification rituals are the ten causing [or contributing to the dominance of] a certain natural mode. (5) Among those ten do the sages of the past recommend the things in the mode of goodness, scorn they those in ignorance and are they indifferent to the things of passion. (6) Until there is the [guna-]denying self-remembrance, should by a person indeed the things in the mode of goodness be cultivated so that the character is developed from which there is the religiousness that gives the spiritual knowing. (7) The same way as the fire, that in the forest of bamboos was generated by their own friction, is pacified after having burned [see also 1.10: 2, 3.1: 21] is thus the fire of the material body, that was generated by the interaction of the gunas, pacified.'

(8) S'rî Uddhava said: 'Mortals generally known with the situation of sense-gratification as a source of trouble nevertheless revel in it, o Krishna; how come are they so like dogs, asses and goats?'

(9-10) The Supreme Lord said: 'From the me-ness thus other-minded accordingly being forgetful, arises within the mind of the foolish person, the passion so terrible; the mind wayward then in the mode of passion imagining is, being involved in purposeful planning, from that wantonness fully absorbed in the natural modes and for certain bound to be unbearable. (11) With one's senses uncontrolled engages one, bewildered by the force of passion, under the sway of desires in fruitive activities, being well aware of the resulting unhappiness. (12) The intelligence of a learned person [though], even though by passion and ignorance being bewildered, does not become attached as he, clearly seeing the contamination, again engages the mind with care. (13) Having conquered the breathing process and having mastered the sitting postures, should one attentively, step by step, without slackening gather one's mind, concentrating on Me at appointed times [to the position of the sun, see B.G. 7: 8 and 5: 26-28]. (14) The actual yogasystem as instructed by My pupils headed by Sanaka [the kumâra's] is that the mind withdrawn from everywhere, accordingly directly is absorbed in Me [see also 8.3: 22-24].'

(15) S'rî Uddhava said: 'When, and in what form, dear Kes'ava, did You instruct Sanaka and the others in that yoga; I'd like to know that form.'

(16) The Supreme Lord said: 'The sons headed by Sanaka born from the mind of the one of inner gold [Hiranyagarbha or Brahmâ], inquired with their father about the so very subtle supreme destination of the science of yoga. (17) Sanaka and the others said: 'Upon the mind going after the objects of the senses are the sense objects likewise imprinted; o Master what is of someone desiring liberation, of one who desires to get over the sense-gratification, the process of breaking away from that relation [see also B.G. 2: 62-63]?'

(18) The Supreme Lord said: 'The great god self-born, the creator of all beings, thus questioned, seriously pondered over what was asked but did, in his mind bewildered of creating, not reach the essential truth [see also 2.6: 34, 2.9: 32- 37 and 10: 13]. (19) He with the desire to find closure remembered the original God [see 3.8], and at that time I became visible in my Hamsa-form [the Swan]. (20) Thus seeing Me offered they in approach, keeping Brahmâ in front, their obeisances at the lotusfeet and asked they 'Who are You?' (21) I thus was questioned by the sages eager to know the principal reality; please o Uddhava learn from Me that what I told them at the time: (22) If of the one substance of the self there would be the unbent [the non-individuality not humbled], then how can such a question on your part be possible, o learned ones, or what would of the speaker that I am be the authority [or shelter]? (23) Being the same existing as the five elements as well as being the same in our essence is your question of 'Who are You' for certain an effort of speech without any purpose. (24) What by the mind, speech, sight as also by the other senses is adhered to am I indeed with nothing outside of Me; that is what you have to understand clearly. (25) The mind hangs to the sense-objects and the sense-objects enter the mind, dear men, but to the living entity with Me as the Soul, are the mind and the sense-objects both outer forms. (26) With the mind in sense gratification again and again reaching out to the sense-objects and the sense-objects all the time prominently existing within the mind, must the one who is of My [Hamsa-]form give up on the both of them [see also vritti and neti neti]. (27) Wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep are the functions of the intelligence following the modes of nature; with characteristics different from them is the individual soul ascertained as being the witness [see also 7.7: 25 and B.G. 7: 5]. (28) Since there is the bondage of the material intelligence that gives the functioning of this soul within the modes, must one, being situated in the fourth element, in Me, give that bondage up, at the time of which there is the renunciation of the sense-objects and the mind [see 11.3: 35]. (29) The bondage of the soul produced by identifying oneself with the body is the opposite of what is meant; the one detached in samsâra who knows should, being situated in the fourth element, give up the anxiety [of ego-matters]. (30) As long as a person is convinced of many different purposes and does not subside by the appropriate methods [as mentioned] will he, although awake, be sleeping unaware as in a dream [see also B.G. 2: 41]. (31) The states of existence apart from the Supreme Soul will, inessential as they are, by the separation created by them, to the seer full of motives and goals be just as the false of a dream. (32) While awake he enjoys the momentary qualities of the external affair, in his dreams he experiences within the mind with all the senses in a similar way, in deep sleep he merges in ignorance; one of memory in witnessing the functions is he by the succession of the three stages the senses their lord [see also 4.29: 60-79 and B.G. 15: 7-8]. (33) Thus by the modes of nature in Me considering the three states of consciousness of the mind imposed by My illusory potency, be resolute to the purpose of being of worship for Me situated in the heart by cutting off, with the sword of knowledge sharpened by logic and truthful instructions, the [ahankâra] cause of all doubts. (34) Behold this delusional state of the mind that, having appearances popping up today that are gone tomorrow, wavers as much as the glowing end of a moving firebrand; it is the One spiritual soul deceptively appearing in many divisions that manifests as an illusion of a threefold variegated way of dreaming created by the transformation of the modes of nature [see also B.G. 9.15, 15: 16, linga and siddhânta]. (35) Pulling the sight away from that [deceptive material reality] should one, silent with the material hankering ceased, come to realize one's own happiness that is observed without being of material activities; and if one at times is of the earth, should one, mindful of it being insubstantial, give it up in remembrance not roaming about till the end of one's days. (36) Just as someone blinded by liquor is unaware of the clothes he wears is the one of perfection, you see, not watching the perishable material body sitting or standing, to God's will departing or by fate determined achieving [a new body], because he has achieved his original position [his svarûpa]. (37) As long as the body as arranged by destiny is of karma, will it self-propelled continue with its life-air and senses and its variety of manifestations; highly situated though in the full absorption of yoga will the one awakend to the essence not again be cultivating that dreaming. (38) O learned ones, by Me has this confidential analysis and the yoga been explained to you, please understand that I came as Yajña [Vishnu, the Lord of sacrifice] to point out your actual duties. (39) O best of the twice-born I am the Supreme Way of the yoga, the analysis, the truth and the sacred law as also the beauty, fame and the self-control. (40) All qualities such as being free from the modes and expectations, being the Wellwisher, the Dearest, the True Self, the One Equal, the detachment and so on, do, not of affinity for the modes, find their service in Me.'

(41) Thuse were by Me the doubts destroyed of all the sages headed by Sanaka who fully worshiping in transcendental loving devotional service with beautiful hymns chanted My glories. (42) I perfectly worshiped and glorified by the greatest of sages then, as Brahmâ looked on, returned to My abode.



* In Sanskrit is the term sattva, apart from meaning goodness, inner strength and true nature, another word for character. Character is also described as s'ila or svarûpa; 'form, piety, morality, habit or custom' or 'one's own form, one's true nature' or one's constitutional position of relating to Krishna as Swami Prabhupâda preferred to speak of.  



Chapter 14  

The Devotional Coherence of the Methods and the Meditation on Vishnu

(1) S'rî Uddhava said: 'Krishna, are the many processes for spiritual advancement that the defenders of the Absolute Truth speak of, supreme in their combination or is else one of them the most important? (2) By You has clearly been stated o Master, how the bhakti-yoga, by which the mind gets fixed upon You, without desires in all respects removes the suffering of the [fear-arousing, temporary] material state.'

(3) The Supreme Lord said: 'This message consisting of the Vedas that is lost at the time of annihilation was at the time of creation spoken by Me to Brahmâ; it contains the dharma of acting to My will [see also 3.9: 29-43]. (4) Brahmâ spoke this to his eldest son Manu from whom it was accepted by the seven great sages of spiritual knowing headed by Bhrigu [see 8.1,5 & 13 and B.G. 4.1-3]. (5-7) From the forefathers that they were, were there the descendants: the godly and the demoniac, the S'iva followers, the human beings, the perfected and the singers of heaven, the scientific and the venerable. From rajas, tamas and sattva [the gunas] generated the many different natures of the different humanoids [kimdevas], the half-humans [kinnaras], the snake-like [nâgas] the wild men [the râkshasas], and the ape-like [kimpurushas]. From all the living entities by their propensities divided in so many forms and even so many leaders there [like rivers from a mountain] flowed the variety of rituals and mantras. (8) Thus are due to the great variety of natures the philosophies of life among the human beings divided, to which some make traditions of disciplic succession while others are heretical [pâshanda]. (9) People whose intelligence is bewildered by My illusory power, o best of persons, speak in innumerable ways about what according their own karma and taste would be better. (10) Some speak in favor of pious activities and others of fame, sense-gratification, truthfulness, self-control and peacefulness; others propound self-interest, political influence, renunciation or consumption and some people defend sacrifice, penance, charity, vows and arrangements of do's and don'ts [yama-niyama]. (11) With an inevitable beginning and an end to the meager destinations achieved by one's karma is there the prospect of the resulting misery; situated in ignorance is one wretched filled with lamentation [of silent despair]. (12) How can of one whose consciousness is fixed upon Me, o learned one, of one who in all respects is free from material desires, such happiness with the spiritual body of Me be there with those attached to sense-gratification [see 4.31: 12]? (13) The one who does not desire, who's of peace controlling his senses, whose consciousness is equal wherever and who has a mind that with Me is completely satisfied, is filled with happiness wherever he goes. (14) Not the position of Brahmâ, nor the position of Indra, neither an empire on earth or the sovereignty in the lower words, nor the perfections [the siddhis] of yoga or the being born again, does he desire who has fixed his consciousness in Me, Me and nothing else [see e.g. 5.1: 6]. (15) Nor the one born from My body [Brahmâ], nor S'ankara [S'iva], nor Sankarshana [Balarâma], nor the goddess of fortune [S'rî], nor for sure even My own Self is dear to Me as much as you are [see also B.G 12: 20]. (16) The sage without personal desire peaceful, not inimical to anyone and of an equal vision I always follow as thus to purify by the dust of the lotusfeet [see also 7.14: 17]. (17) Not after sense-gratification being of a mind that is constantly attached to Me, experience they, the great ones peaceful within who being of care for all individual souls in their consciousness are not influenced by lusts, My happiness that can not be known but by complete detachment. (18) Even though harassed by the sense-objects is the devotee of Mine that did not conquer the senses - that as a rule are effective and strong - by dint of his devotion not defeated by that sphere of influence [see also 1.5: 17, 8.7: 44, 11.13: 12 and B.G. 9: 30, 2: 62-64 ]. (19) Just as firewood from the blazing flames of a fire turns into ashes, does similarly with Me as the object the devotion burn the sins completely, o Uddhava. (20) Nor the yoga-system nor analytical philosophy, Uddhava, nor pious activities nor vedic study, austerity nor renunciation bring Me under control as does the strongly developed devotional service unto Me. (21) I am obtained by single-minded devotion with faith in the Soul as the object of love; with Me [that Supreme Soul] as the only One will the bhakti of the truthful even purify dog-eaters from the things of their birth. (22) Surely does nor dharma endowed with truthfulness and mercy, nor knowledge endowed with austerity purify the consciousness completely, when [one is] bereft of devotional service unto Me. (23) How can without bhakti one's hairs stand on end, without the loving service the heart melt, without devotion the tears flow, the bliss be and the consciousness be purified? (24) Of the one of whom the speech chokes up, the heart melts, there times and again are wet tears and sometimes is laughter, of whom there's unashamed singing out loud and dancing as well connected in My bhakti, is the universe purified [see also s'ikshashthaka and 11.2: 40]. (25) Like gold smelted in fire giving up impurities returns to its proper form is also from the spirit soul the contamination of karma removed in My loving service worshiping Me. (26) As much as the eye sees once treated with ointment, does the spirit soul, cleansed by hearing and chanting the pious narrations about Me, precisely like that see the One Subtle Essence. (27) Of the one meditating the sense objects is the consciousness entangled in the sense-experience [see B.G. 2.62-63]; so is in faithful remembrance of Me the mind in Me systematically dissolved. (28) Therefore are the material preoccupations as figments a dream to be forsaken in Me, as completely absorbed in My love the mind is purified. (29) Giving up being intimate with women [to have sex with them, with others or otherwise] and keeping far from the company of womanizers should one, mastering the self, sit at ease in seclusion and with great care concentrate on Me [ see also 11.8: 13-14 *]. (30) No other attachment gives a man as much suffering and bondage like the attachment to women and the association of those attached to women [see also 1.4: 25, 5.5: 2, 5.13: 16, 6.9: 9, 7.12: 9, 9.14: 36, 9.19:17, 10.10: 8, 10.51: 51, 10.60: 44,45,48 ].'

(31) S'rî Uddhava said: 'O Lotus-eyed One, how, of what nature and of what form should the meditation be of one who desires liberation; You ought to speak on this meditation to Me.'

(32-33) The Supreme Lord said: 'Sitting straight and erect comfortably on a level seat, should one placing the hands in one's lap focus one's eyes at the tip of one's nose. The purifying of the pathways of breathing of inhaling, retaining, exhaling and the reverse, should one step by step practice with control over the senses [see prânâyâma, and B.G. 4.29]. (34) Uninterrupted should in the heart the sound of AUM sounding like a bell be pushed upwards by the prâna, like with the fibers running up a lotus stalk, and should one thus therein again join together the tones of recitation [called anusvâra **]. (35) The prâna thus joined with the pranava [see also 9.14: 46] should indeed be practiced with care ten times over, at sunrise, noon and sunset, so that one after one month will have conquered the life air [***]. (36-42) With the eyes half closed concentrated on the lotus present straight up in the heart, should one face-up and alert within the whorl of its eight petals one after the other depict the sun, the moon and the fire. Within the fire should one consider My harmonious form, so auspicious for meditation, gentle and cheerful endowed with four beautiful arms. Charming of beauty are the neck and the forehead, the pure smile even so and the ears with glowing shark shaped earrings. Golden the dress, a rain cloud complexion, the curl on the chest, the abode of the goddess, with a conch and a disc, a club and a lotus, and the decoration of a forest flower garland. The feet with bells shining, rich glowing the kaustubha, a shining crown and bracelets, a girdle and armlets; all parts of the body beautiful and charming, the smiling with mercy and the glance most delicate, one should meditate by putting the mind and senses to all limbs. By the mind pulling back from the objects of the senses, by the intelligence, the charioteer, sober and grave, should one with love be guided to the complete of Me. (43) Pulling back the consciousness spread therewith to all parts, should one, concentrating at one place and not at the rest, again meditate the wonderful smile in loving the face. (44) In that being established withdrawing the mind in the sky, should one concentrating as such give up on that as well and having ascended to Me, not think of anything else. (45) Thus fully absorbed in the consciousness sees the individual soul indeed Me within the self and all selves within in Me, like the sun's rays that are united within the sun [see also B.G. 9.29]. (46) Of the yogî most concentrated practicing the meditation as mentioned will of the mind altogether quickly dissolve the illusory state of being the possessor, the knower and the doer [compare: 2.2: 8-14].'



* Not to have this verse misinterpreted to the Sanskrit word sangam that one would have to shun the association with women in stead of the being intimate with them, was by Swami Prabhupâda stressed, contrary to the tradition in India, that women and men can very well associate both living within one temple or household within the culture of Krishna-consciousness. This was one of His great feats of reform to a traditional temple tradition that was negative about living together with women.

** As a culture not reciting the Sanskrit anymore as a regular practice and thus not having any anusvâra, no aftersound in the nose to integrate, is it the advise for this Age of Quarrel to practice the mahâmantra to appease the wayward mind with modern time: hare Krishna, hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, hare hare, hare Râma, hare Râma, Râma Râma, hare hare and then say AUM and gâyatrî when sitting in meditation. A practice entertained by all initiated devotees.

*** Considering the greatly variable length of day world-wide is it customary to do this at the fixed times of the regular hours of a [meditation-]clock preferably set to the sun at twelve when the sun goes through the south [see also cakra].



Chapter 15  

Mystical Perfection: the Siddhis

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'The yogî who in Me fixing his consciousness, having connected, has conquered his senses and breathing, approaches the mystic perfections. 

(2) Uddhava said: 'Please, You Giver of Perfection to All Yogîs, tell by what type of concentration or in what manner one is possibly of mystic perfection and, Acyuta, how many perfections are there? 

(3) The Supreme Lord said: 'The masters of yoga speak of eighteen mystic perfections [siddhis] and meditations [leading to them], with eight of them abiding primary in Me and ten as [secondary] manifesting from the quality [of goodness]. (4-5) To get, to the form, into the smallest [animâ], the biggest [mahimâ] or the lightest [laghimâ relative to garimâ, the heaviest], to acquire whatever material object [prâpti], the ability to enjoy sensually whatever thing to see or hear [prâkâmya], the supremacy setting in motion the forces [is'tâ or is'itvâ], to subdue, unobstructed by the modes, by means of magic [vas'itvâ] and to answer to any desire that seeks [His] favor [kâmâvasâyitâ] are the eight mystical perfections, o gentle one, to be understood as the ones original to Me. (6-7) In this body not to be plagued by hunger and thirst and such, to hear and see things far away, to be transported with the speed of mind, to assume any form at will, to enter into the bodies of others, to die at will, to witness the sporting [of the heavenly girls] with the gods, to be of perfect accomplishment to one's determination, and to have one's commands fulfilled unimpeded [are the ten secondary siddhis]. (8-9) To know the past, the present and the future, to be free from the dualities, to know the minds of others, to check the potency of fire, the sun, water, poison and so on and not to be conquered by others are the perfections also said to be illustrative for the concentrating in yoga; please learn now from Me by which means of meditation what perfections occur. 

(10) The worshiper of Me animating all subtle forms of existence, obtains the perfection of animâ [to enter the smallest] by concentrating the mind on that reality of the elements. (11) One achieves the perfection of mahimâ [to enter the greatness] by fixing the mind on the total material energy animated by Me as also, depending the particular situation, on each of the material elements individually [to be the great of the sky, the fire, the water, the air and the earth]. (12) The yogî may obtain laghimâ [lightness] by conciliating his consciousness in Me as being the subtle substance of the [natural division of] time to the material elements that are there in the form of atoms [see also cakra]. (13) He who with his mind fixed in Me concentrates the mind completely within the emotional of the I-principle, obtains the siddhi of prâpti [mystic acquisition] in proprietorship of the senses of all living beings. (14) To obtain from Me whose appearance lies beyond perception, the superexcellent siddhi of prâkâmya [to enjoy whatever or whenever] should one fix one's mental activities in Me as the Supersoul that is the thread in the greater of matter [see also sûtra]. (15) If one concentrates the consciousness within Vishnu, the Original Controller of the Three [gunas, see also B.G. 7: 13] in the form of Time, will one obtain the siddhi of îs'itvâ [the supremacy] to incite the conditioned body [the field] and its knower [*]. (16) The yogî placing the mind in Me, Nârâyana as denoted by the word Fortunate [bhagavat] and known as the fourth [beyond the three planes **], may, being endowed with My nature, obtain the mystic potency of vas'itvâ [to subdue by magic]. (17) With the mind pure in Me concentrating in the impersonal [brahman] free from material qualities, obtains one the supreme of happiness wherein desire finds complete fulfillment [kâmâvasâyitâ]. 

(18) Concentrating the consciousness in Me, the Lord of S'vetadvîpa, the personification of goodness, the sum total of dharma, obtains a person freedom from the six waves [anûrmi-mattvam, see also shath-ûrmi]. (19) In Me, the personification of the sky, with one's mind concentrating on the transcendental sound in the prâna [see 11.14: 35], is there perceived the Swan [Lord Hamsa or the saintly person 11.13: 19] and hears one the words spoken by all living beings [dûra-s'ravana, see also divyam s'rotam]. (20) Merging one's eyes with the sun and the sun with one's eyes [thus doing so transcendentally and not staring physically] sees one, with one's mind in meditation, any distant thing [dûra-dars'ana, see also 2.1: 30]. (21) Completely absorbing the mind in Me will one by the wind [the breath, the subtle air], that follows the mind to have the body focussed on Me, as a consequence find the self to be going wherever the mind goes [mano-javah]. (22) When the mind embraces whatever form one desires to assume, may, with the power of My yoga [to assume any form] as the shelter, that very form appear that one had in mind [kâmarûpa]. (23) As a siddha desiring to enter another's body must one, giving up one's own gross body, imagine [project] oneself in that body just like the wind entering by the vital breath alike a bee switching flowers [para-kâya-praves'anam]. (24) With one's heel blocking the anus and carrying the vital air from the heart up to the chest and from the throat to the head, should one positioned at the top of the skull [the brahma randhrena], giving up the material body [to die], lead oneself to the spiritual world [svacchandu-mrityu, see also 2.2: 19-21]. (25) Desiring to enjoy the places of pleasure of the godly should one situated in Me meditate the mode of goodness and then see the by the goodness existing women of the demigods arrive by vimâna [devânâm saha-krîdânudars'anam]. (26) When a man has full faith in Me or by means of his mind is of resolve in Me who am there to be true, will he obtain that way that what he set his mind to [yathâ-sankalpa-samsiddhi]. (27) The person who achieved from the nature of Me, the Supremacy and the Dominion, is someone who no way can be frustrated as his order and command is as good as Mine [âjñâpratihatâ gatih, see also B.G. 9.31].

(28) Of a yogî pure of character, who by devotion to Me knows [others] by concentration [dhârana], is there the intelligence to the three phases of time, including knowledge of [dualities like] birth and death [see tri-kâlika]. (29) Of a sage versed in yoga whose consciousness is pacified can of My yoga the body not be injured by the fire and such, just as the aquatics cannot being of the water [see also 7.5: 33-50]. (30) He becomes unconquerable meditating upon the expansions of Me, decorated with the s'rîvatsa and weapons, flags, ceremonial umbrellas and different fans [see also B.G. 11: 32]. 

(31) The man of wisdom who worships Me thus by the process of concentrating in yoga will reach the mystic perfections as described, in every respect [according the nature of his practice]. (32) What perfection would be difficult to achieve for a sage who in Me bent on meditation got a grip in conquering his senses, his breathing and his mind? (33) One says that these [siddhis] to the one tying down in the supreme of yoga to be complete with Me, are, as obstacles, the cause for wasting one's time. (34) The many perfections one in this world has by birth, by herbs, austerities and by mantras are all obtained by yoga; by no other method will one achieve the actual perfection of yoga [***]. (35) Of all the perfections am I indeed the cause and the protector; I am the master of the yoga [the final union], the analysis, the dharma, and the community of vedic teachers. (36) The same way as the material elements exist internally and externally of the living beings do I Myself, the Soul, exist uncovered, within and without all the embodied beings [see also B.G. 2: 29-30].



*: Verse 15 refers to attainment of spiritual perfection in meditating the personal, transcendental, aspect of time of Vishnu as its essential cohering substance, as opposed to meditating time as mentioned in verse 12, relating more to the impersonal aspect of the natural order to the elements, of the cakra, which is Vishnu's weapon.

**: Apart from the three gunas to Lord Nârâyana, there is also mention of the three planes of existence of the physical gross of the greater universe consisting of the five elements; the astral, subtle, plane of the ten senses of action and perception and their objects, the mind and intelligence, and the causal plane of the consciousness and the knower; in short: the world, the sensual body and the individual knower to which there is the Original Person of God as the fourth [see also B.G. 13: 19].

***: The actual perfection of yoga is, following verse 35 coming next, named Krishna consciousness by the vaishnavas who defend the Bhâgavatam in the West.


Chapter 16  

The Lord's Opulence

(1) S'rî Uddhava said: 'You are the greatest, the Supreme Himself, unrestraineded without a beginning and an end; the true protector and the maintenance, destruction and creation of all in existence. (2) O, Supreme Lord, for the impious being hard to understand, do the brahmins worship You in Your reality of abiding in the superior as well as the inferior entities of creation. (3) Please speak to me about the variety and the forms [see catur vyûha], with which the great sages, with devotion worshiping You, achieve that perfection. (4) O Maintainer of All Beings, hidden are You engaged as the Very Soul of the Living Beings who, bewildered by You seeing them, do not see You. (5) And, please, explain to me o greatest Might, what are all the potencies manifested by You in all directions on the earth, in heaven and in hell; my obeisances at Your lotusfeet, the abode of all holy places.'

(6) The Supreme Lord said: 'This question, o best of those who know to inquire, did Arjuna ask Me as he desired to fight his rivals at the destruction [at Kurukshetra, see B.G. 2.54, 13: 1-2, 14: 21, 18: 1]. (7) Aware of the fact that the killing of his relatives was a irreligious, abominable, thing to do with the sovereignty as a motive, refrained he saying worldly-minded, 'Then I am the slayer and they the ones slain' [B.G.: 1: 37-45, compare 2: 19]. (8) He, the tiger among men, just like you, in front of the battle asking Me questions, was at the time by Me with logical arguments enlightened on the matter.

(9) I am of these living entities, the Soul, o Uddhava, their Well-wisher and Controller, I am the maintenance, creation and annihilation of all of the living beings. (10) I am the goal of the ones seeking progress, the Time of those who exert control, the modes of nature I am as well, and also am I the equilibrium and the natural virtue in the pious. (11) Of everything of quality am I the primary thread, of all things great am I the totality, of the subtle am I the spirit soul indeed and among the things difficult to conquer am I the mind. (12) I am Hiranyagarbha [Brahmâ the original teacher] of the Veda's, of the mantras I am three-lettered omkâra, of the letters I am the first [the 'a'], and of the sacred metres I am the three-feet [the gâyatrî-mantra]. (13) Among all the gods I am Indra, among the Vasus I am Agni, among the sons of Aditi I am Vishnu [Vâmana] and among the Rudras I am the One Red-Blue [S'iva, see also 3.12: 7]. (14) Bhrigu I am among the brahmin sages, among the brahmin kings I am Manu, among the brahmin demigods am I Nârada and among the cows am I Kâmadhenu [the cow of plenty]. (15) Of the perfected in control am I Kapila, Garuda I am among the birds, Daksha among the founding fathers, and Aryamâ among the forefathers. (16) O Uddhava know Me among the sons of Diti as Prahlâda, the controller of the unenlightened, know Me as the moon to the stars and the herbs, and as Kuvera, the lord of wealth among the yakshas and râkshasas. (17) Airâvata I am among the lordly elephants, Varuna, the master among the aquatics, of the things that heat and illumine am I the sun, and among the human beings am I the master of the realm. (18) Uccaihs'ravâ I am among the horses, the gold among the metals, Yamarâja among the regulators and also am I Vâsuki among the serpents. (19) Anantadeva I am among the hooded snakes, the lion among all beasts with teeth and horns, among the spiritual orders [the status-groups, the âs'ramas] I am the fourth [the sannyâsîs] and among the vocations [varnas] I am the first [the brahmins] o sinless one. (20) Among the holy places and what flows I am the Ganges, the ocean I am among the expanses of water, the bow among the weapons and the destroyer of Tripura [S'iva] among the wielders of the bow. (21) Meru I am among the mountains, among the places impervious I am the Himalayas, among the trees the as'vattha, and among the plants I am the ones bearing grains [barley]. (22) Among the priests I am Vasishthha, among those vowed to the Veda I am Brihaspati, Kârttikeya [Skanda] I am among the military leaders and among those of spiritual progress I am the highest lord unborn [Brahmâ, the Creator]. (23) Of the sacrifices I am the study of the Veda, of the vows I am the vow of nonviolence, and of all purifiers am I the pure fire, wind, sun, water and speech in person. (24) Of the yogaprocess am I the final stage of samâdhi, prudent counsel I am among those desiring victory, of all discrimination I am the metaphysical logic [or the spiritual science of distinguishing spirit from matter], and among the speculative philosophers am I the choice. (25) Among the ladies I am S'atarûpâ [wife of Manu, see 3.12: 54] and among the men am I Svâyambhuva Manu, sage Nârâyana [see 10.87: 4] I am among the sages as also Sanat Kumâra among the celibates. (26) Of the principles of religion I am renunciation, of all things basic am I the inner awareness, of the secrets I am the friendliness and the silence, and of the sexual couple am I the Unborn one [the original prajâpati that is Brahmâ] indeed. (27) Of what's ever wakeful I am the solar year, of the seasons I am the spring, among the months I am Mârgas'îrsha [November-December], and of the lunar mansions [the 27 nakshatras] I am Abhijit. (28) Of the yugas I am Satya-yuga, among the sober ones I am Devala and Asita, of the vedic editors I am Dvaipâyana [Vyâsadeva] and among the scholars learned in spirituality I am S'ukrâcârya. (29) Of those entitled to the name Bhagavân [the Supreme Lord] am I Vâsudeva, among My devotees am I indeed you [Uddhava], among the ape-like am I Hanumân, and among the scientists I am Sudars'ana. (30) Of the jewels am I the ruby, of all things beautiful am I the lotus cup, of all types of grass am I the kus'a grass and of the oblations am I the ghee of the cow. (31) Of the enterprising am I the fortune, of the cheaters I am the gambling, the forgiveness I am among the tolerant and the character I am among those in the mode of goodness. (32) The mental and physical strength I am of the strong; please know that among the devotees I am the [devotional] work done and that among My nine forms [nava mûrti], by which these sâtvatas are worshiping Me, I am the Supreme Original Form [Vâsudeva]. (33) Among the singers of heaven I am Vis'vâvasu, and among the heavenly dancing girls I am Pûrvacitti; I am the steadiness of the mountains and the aroma perceived of the earth. (34) I am the fine taste of water and among the things most brilliant am I the sun; the effulgence I am of the moon, the stars and the sun, and I am the transcendental soundvibration in the sky [see also 11.15: 19]. (35) Of the ones of brahminical culture am I Bali, of the heroes I am Arjuna and indeed am I the rising, the remaining, and the final mergence of all living beings. (36) Of the sensual power of the senses am I the walking, the speech, the evacuation, the handling and the sexual joy [the karmendriyas]; and the touch, the sight, the taste, the hearing and the smell [the jñânendriyas].

(37) This all I enumerated - the subtle form of the earth [smell], of the air [touch], of the sky [sound], of the water [taste], of the fire [light]; the totality of matter, the sixteen elements [those five basic elements, the indriyas and the mind], the person, the unmanifest and the modes of rajas, tamas and sattva - am I, the Supreme, the spiritual knowledge and the steady conviction [therewith]. (38) I am the Supreme Controller of the living entity, the gunas and the greater reality; I, the Soul of all, am indeed everything, the one apart of whom nothing whatsoever exists. (39) Counting the atoms might be achieved by Me after some time but not so the opulences of Me, I who create the universes by the millions [compare 10.14: 7]. (40) Whatever power, beauty, fame, dominion [see siddhis], humility, renunciation, enjoyment, fortune, strength, tolerance or wisdom there might be, is an integral part of Me. (41) All these spiritual potencies I briefly enumerated to you [see also B.G. 7, 9 and 10] are, with each of them [as expansions of the Lord and as] put in corresponding words [in the scriptures, in the teachings], likewise there as transformations of the mind. (42) Control the mind, control the speech, control the breathing and the senses; control your self by your soul so that you never again will stumble on the path of material existence. (43) For sure is someone who is not completely by his intelligence controlling the speech and the mind, a transcendentalist whose vows, penance and charity run out like water from an unbaked pot. (44) Therefore should the one devoted to Me aligned in My bhakti control his words, life air and mind and thus, by that intelligence, fulfill his life's purpose.



 Chapter 17  

The Varnâs'rama System and the Boat of Bhakti: the Students and the Householders

(1-2) S'rî Uddhava said: 'O Lotus-eyed One, You previously described the religious principles modeled by the bhakti of all varnâs'rama followers and even the [ignorant] two-legged beings; You should explain to me that process of man executing his occupational duties, by which there, given by You, may be the loving service. (3-4) The religious principles by which there is the supreme happiness and of which You, as said [11.13], previously, dear Mâdhava, o Mighty-armed One, in the form of Lord Hamsa spoke to Brahmâ, will these days, after having been taught by You before and having ruled for such a very long time, o Subduer of the enemies, not be common anymore in the human society [see also 5.6: 10 and 11.5: 36 and kali-yuga]. (5-6) Dear Acyuta, there is no other speaker, creator and protector of the dharma but You; not on earth, nor even in the assembly of Brahmâ where You're present in the form of a part of You [viz. the Vedas, see also 10: 87]. When the earth is abandoned by Your lordship, o Madhusûdana, o Creator, Protector and Speaker, then who, o God, will speak of what is lost then? (7) Therefore, with You still among us, please describe to me o Master, o Knower of All Dharma, the way how and by whom the original duties with the mark of Your bhakti may be executed.'

(8) S'rî S'uka said: 'He, the Supreme Lord Hari, thus pleased being questioned by the best of His devotees, for the highest welfare of all conditioned souls spoke on the eternal duties of the dharma. (9) The Supreme Lord said: 'This dharmic question of yours is for normal human beings the cause of the highest welfare; please, Uddhava, learn from Me about them [the duties] as followed by those in observance of the varnâs'rama system. (10) In the beginning there is the age of krita wherein the class of human beings is called hamsa; the citizens then are by birth well known with the performance of the duties - hence do the learned know it as krita-yuga, the age of the fulfillment of duty. (11) At first is the Veda indeed expressed with the pranava, with Me as the duty in the form of the bull of religion [see 1.16: 18 and 1. 17: 24], by which they, fixed in austerity freed from sins, worship Me, Lord Hamsa. (12) At the beginning of tretâ-yuga, o greatly fortunate one, appeared from the prânâ from My heart the threefold of the knowing [the three Vedas] and from that appeared I in the three forms of sacrifice [hence the name tretâ, see ritvik]. (13) Generated from the Original Personality were the learned, the warriors, the merchants and the workers [the varnas] born and by their personal activities recognized as [respectively] being from the mouth, the arms, the thighs and legs of the universal form [compare 2.1: 37]. (14) The householders are situated in My loins, the celibate students in My heart, in My chest there are the ones dwelling in the forest and the renounced order is situated in My head [see âs'ramas]. (15) The higher or lower natures of the human beings of the varnas and âs'ramas appeared according the superior or inferior positions of birth [in My body] (16) Equanimity, sense-control, austerity, cleanliness, contentment, forgiveness, sincerity, devotion to Me, compassion and truthfulness; these then are the natural qualities of the brahmins [compare 7.11: 21 and B.G. 18: 42]. (17) Ardor, physical strength, determination, heroism, tolerance, generosity, endeavor, steadiness, being mindful of the brahminical and leadership; these then are the natural qualities of the kshatriyas [compare 7.11: 22 and B.G. 18: 43]. (18) Belief in God and dedication to charity, straightforwardness, love for the brahminical and restlessness about the accumulation of money; these then are the natural qualities of the vais'yas [compare 7.11: 23 and B.G. 18: 44]. (19) To be of service with the brahmins, the cows and the godly and to be unduplicitous in that and have peace with what was acquired; these then are the natural qualities of the s'ûdras [compare 7.11: 24 and B.G. 18: 44]. (20) Unclean, deceitful, thievish, faithless, of useless quarrel, lusty, of anger and also hankering; this is the nature of those residing in the lowest position [the outcaste]. (21) Nonviolence, truthfulness, honesty, being free from lust, anger and greed and desiring the welfare and happiness of all living entities; this is the duty for all the members of society.

(22) In due order [with samskâras] achieving second birth with the acquittance [usually with initiation into the gâyatrî, receiving the sacred thread], should a twice born one residing in the community of the guru, self-controlled, as summoned, study the scriptures [see also B.G. 16: 24]. (23) With a belt, a deerskin [or these days: simple clothes], a staff [or other means of transport], prayer beads, a brahmin thread, a waterpot, matted hair [devotees these days are shaven], with teeth well maintained and clothes properly covering [*] is he [the brahmacârî], carrying kus'a [being of the prayer mat], not after the highest seat. (24) Bathing and eating, attending sacrifices and doing the rosary, passing stool and urine, he does in silence [vaishnavas do murmur with japa]; he should not [completely, these days] cut his nails or hair, including the hair under his arms and in the pubic area [see also s'îkhâ]. (25) One who is of the vow of celibacy should never spill his semen and, when it flowed out its own, take a bath, control his breath and chant the gâyatrî [see also ûrdhva-retah]. (26) Purified with the consciousness fixed in respect for the fire-god, the sun [see cakra], the cows, the learned, the spiritual master, the elderly and the godfearing, should he, observing silence, do japa at the two junctions of time [morning and evening, compare: 11.14: 35]. (27) The teacher of example [the âcârya] one should know as Me; he should never at any time enviously be disrespected with the idea of him being a mortal being, for the guru is the representative of all the gods [see also heuristic and compare e.g. 7.14: 17, 10 81: 39 , 10.45: 32 and 11.15: 27]. (28) In the evening and morning bringing him the food that was collected, delivering that together with other articles, should one in self-control be pleased to accept what is allotted [by him]. (29) Always engaged in serving the âcârya should one humbly at not too great a distance with folded hands honor his path, his resting, his sitting and his standing. (30) Thus engaged should he [the upakurvâna brahmacârî], free from [unregulated] sense gratification, carry on unbroken in the vow [of celibacy], living in the school of the guru until the education is completed [see also kumâras]. (31) If he [naishthhika, for life] desires to climb up to the world of the verses [Maharloka] to be engaged in the Absolute Truth should he for the purpose of the study of the true self offer his body to the guru in respect of the great vow [see yama]. (32) Vedically enlightened and sinless should one worship Me in the fire, in the spiritual master, in oneself and in all living beings as the Supreme Non-dual Conception [see also B.G. 5: 18, siddhânta and advaita]. (33) With [sexually receptive] women, or sex-minded living beings, glancing, touching, conversing and joking and such is the first thing that someone not keeping a household [the sannyâsî, the vânaprastha and the brahmacârî] should forsake [see 11.14: 29 and 6.1: 56-68]. (34-35) Cleanliness, washing the hands, bathing, in the morning and evening being of religious service, worshiping Me, visiting holy places, doing the rosary, avoiding things untouchable, things not fit for consumption and things not to discuss; this is the voluntary penance that, with Me existing in all beings, for restraining the mind, the words and the body is enjoined for all spiritual departments, o Uddhava. (36) A brahmin thus observing the great vow becomes bright like fire My devotee, spotless with the karma burned by the intensity of the penance. (37) Thus properly having studied the vedic literatures should he [as a brahmacârî], caring for what's next [see next paragraph], offer the guru remuneration, and tidy himself [and leave **] with the permission of the guru.

(38) He should enter either family life or the forest [becoming a recluse] or, as the best of the twice born, become a monk; not being surrendered to Me, should one proceed from one spiritual department to the other âs'rama and not act otherwise. (39) Desiring a household should one marry a wife with similar characteristics that is beyond reproach but younger of age, and with the first one of the same vocation may follow another one [of a lower caste]. (40) Sacrifice, vedic study and charity are there for all the twice born; but only of the brahmin is there the acceptance of charity, the teaching of the vedic knowledge and the officiating in sacrifices [compare 7.11: 14]. (41) Considering the acceptance of charity detrimental to the tapas, the spiritual influence and the glory, he should live by the other two [of teaching and sacrifice] or, seeing these two discrepant, live on gathering ears of corn left in the field ['of the stones', live on the dole, see also 6.7: 36, 7.15: 30 and B.G. 9: 22]. (42) For certain is the body of a brahmin meant for the hardship of [voluntary] penances in this world and for unlimited happiness in the hereafter and not for futile sense gratification [and the consequent involuntary penances of war, disease and incarceration, see also 11.6: 9 and B.G. 17: 14-19]. (43) Fully satisfied occupied with gleaning grains and magnanimously, dispassionate cultivating the dharma, can even staying at home he who set his mind upon Me, being not so attached achieve liberation [compare B.G. 3: 22 and 10.69]. (44) Those who uplift the learned and the ones suffering [poverty and disease] surrendered to Me, them will I, like a boat in the ocean, very soon deliver from all miseries. (45) Like a bull elephant who fearlessly protects other elephants and himself, does the king, like a father redeem himself by redeeming all the citizens from difficulties [see also 4.20: 14]. (46) Thus enjoys the human ruler that way with Indra, with a heavenly vehicle as brilliant as the sun on earth removing all the sins. (47) If a learned one is in debt must the calamity be overcome by doing business behaving like a merchant or, still afflicted with misfortune, must he take to the sword [go in politics]; in no case can he behave like a dog [follow a lower master]. (48) A king may maintain himself acting like a merchant, or suffering want do so by hunting or in the form of a man of learning; in no circumstance can he follow the dog's course. (49) A vais'ya may adopt the business of a s'ûdra and a s'ûdra may adopt the way of an artisan, making baskets and mats to be freed from an awkward situation, but with the work done should one not desire an inferior livelihood [see also 7.11: 17]. (50) According one's prosperity should one daily be of respect for the manifestations of My potency - the gods, the sages, the forefathers and all living entities - by studying the vedic knowledge and by offerings of food and such with [the mantras] svadhâ ['blessed be'] and svâhâ ['hail to', this rule thus applies to normal householders, see also 11.5: 41]. (51) Unembarrassed with one's dependents whether one is of money acquired without endeavor or of money acquired by honest work, should one so be of proper respect with vedic rituals. (52) To the family members should one not be attached, nor should one craze [in being the controller]; nay, a wise person should see that even what's not settled is as temporary as what is settled. (53) The association of children, a wife, relatives and friends is like the being together with travelers; like a dream occurring in one's sleep are they all separated with each change of body [see also 7.2: 21, 9.19: 27-28]. (54) A liberated soul of that consideration, not identifying with the body living selfless at home like being a guest, should not get entangled by the domestic situation. (55) Worshiping Me by the activities of a family life may one, being a devotee, so remain at home or enter the forest, or, having responsible offspring, take to the renounced order. (56) However, the one fixed on women, whose consciousness is disturbed by the wish for a home, children and money, is in bondage unintelligently with a miserly mentality thinking 'This is mine, and that am I'. (57) 'Alas, my old mom and dad, my wife with a baby in her arms, my young unprotected children; how in the world can they live, wretched suffering greatly without me?' [see e.g. also 11.7: 52-57]. (58) Thus will, with his home as his retreat, such a one, with his heart overwhelmed unsated ruminating about them, with a wrong point of view blinded land in darkness when he dies.'



* The term adhauta used here means, according the Monier Williams Dictionary, the negative of dhauta, which means white, washed, and purified as well as removed and destroyed. Concerning teeth and clothes this could mean as well unpolished teeth and unwashed clothes as teeth not broken or rotting and clothes properly covering the body. So it is to the context of the other values of renunciation to decide which meaning would apply. Since adhauta in the first sense would be in conflict with the value of cleanliness, s'aucam [see e.g. verse 20 of this chapter and 1.17: 24], is here, contrary to previous interpretations chosen for the second sense of teeth well-maintained and clothes properly covering the body, which is more in line with the normal code of conduct of vaishnava devotees in acceptance of a spiritual master [see also pp. 11.17: 23].

** This process of 'tidying' is called the samâvartana-samskâra that marks the completion of the studies and the returning home from living with the guru.



Chapter 18  

The Varnâs'rama System: the Withdrawn and the Renounced

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'In the third part of one's life desiring to enter the forest should one, by entrusting the wife to the sons or else being together with her in the forest, thus proceed in peace. (2) One should arrange for the pure [*] sustenance of the bulbs, roots and fruits of the forest, putting on tree bark, grass, leaves or animal skins as clothes. (3) With the hair on the head and body, the facial hair and the nails to carry the dirt, and the teeth not to be cleansed [at other times], should one three times a day get into the water and [at night] sleep on the ground. (4) Ascetically tolerating the five fires during the summer, the torrents of rain during the rainy season and in the cold of winter up to one's neck being submerged in the water, should one thus engaged progress with the penance [see also 4.23: 6]. (5) At the right time to eat one should eat what's either prepared on a fire or what's grinded with a mortar, pulverized with a stone or grinded with one's teeth. (6) He himself should, practically minded to the place and time and his strength, gather whatever is needed for his sustenance, and not store anything for another time [see also 7.12: 19]. (7) A vânaprastha may worship Me with oblations [of rice, barley and dâl], may offer rice cakes or offer fruits to the season, but never, even though it's scriptural, be of worship with sacrificing animals. (8) As before [when he was a grihastha] he performs the fire sacrifice, the new moon and the full-moon sacrifice as also the for the wise by the vedic experts enjoined vows of the four months' sacrifice [of câturmâsya]. (9) Thus practicing will the sage, of the penance as emaciated that one sees his veins, worshiping Me, the Goal of All Penance, reach Me in the world of the seers [see also maharloka]. (10) One then who for long is of this difficult but glorious penance which awards liberation, but practices it for trivial sense gratification - what greater fool would there be but him? [see also vântâs'î] (11) When he in his regulated activities due to old age with his body trembling is no longer able to carry on [before he reaches sannyâsa], should he, fixed on Me, place the fires within his heart and enter the fire [see also 7.12: 23]. (12) When all that is obtained from the karma, including a higher world, is nothing but hell to him and full detachment has developed, may he at that point give up the fire of sacrifice and take to the renounced order [see also B.G. 18: 2 and **].

(13) Having worshiped to the injunctions and having given all he has to the leader of the ceremony, should he, placing the sacrificial fire within his life breath, free from expectations take up sannyâsa [see also 9.6*]. (14) To the learned one truly taking up sannyâsa do the demigods appear in the form of his original wife [and other allurements] forming stumbling blocks; surpassing them should the sannyâsî go for the beyond [see also B.G. 6.25, 1.19: 2-3, 5.6: 4, 11.4: 7]. (15) If the sage would wear any clothes he'd cover his loin cloth [or kaupîna]; with nothing really needed besides his staff and water pot, has everything else to be given up. (16) He should place his foot where his eyes tell purity [viz. the absence of living beings], he should drink water filtered by his cloth, he should speak words true of purity; he should do what his mind says is pure. (17) Taciturnity, disinclination and the arrest of breath are the strict disciplines of the voice, of the body and of the mind; he indeed of whom these do not exist, my dearest, is with his bamboo rods never a real sannyâsî [see also tridanda]. (18) Begging with the four varnas one should reject the impure [sinful households] while at random approaching seven different houses and be satisfied with the amount that is obtained [see also cakra, compare 1.4: 8]. (19) Somewhere outside going to a reservoir of water should one, cleansed by it, in silence duly distribute what was collected and next eat the purified remnants in full. (20) Moving about alone on this earth free from attachment, with the senses fully under control and satisfied within in the realization of the True Self, is he, steady on the spiritual platform, of an equal vision [B.G. 5: 18, see bhajan]. (21) Dwelling in a solitary and safe place and purified in his love for Me, should the sage in his consciousness concentrate on the soul alone as being non-different from Me. (22) Meditating on the soul being bound and being liberated [see 11.10] is, when one steady in the knowledge has tied down the senses distracted in sense-gratification, there the full control over them and the liberation. (23) Therefore should the sage, completely in control with the six divisions [the senses and the mind], detached from the futile matters of lust having experienced the great happiness in the soul, live by the consciousness of Me. (24) He should travel to the places of refuge the earth has and that are pure with rivers, mountains and forests and [only] enter the cities, towns and pasturing grounds to beg for alms with those working for the body. (25) The order of life living in the forest should always take the position of begging as by food obtained from gleaning [or living on the dole] one quickly finds perfection, freedom from illusion and a purified existence. (26) Never should one consider the perishable that one sees in direct experience as the ultimate reality; with a consciousness free from attachment should one retire from activities to advance materially in this world and in the next. (27) Fixed in oneself by the power of reason giving up this universe, which in the Self is knitted together with the mind, the speech and the life air [see ahankâra], should one not keep that deluding material energy in mind. (28) Either as someone dedicated to spiritual knowledge being detached from external manifestations, or as My devotee not even desiring liberation, should one [as a paramahamsa], giving up on the specific outer routines relating to one's stage of life, live beyond the range of rules and regulations [see also 10.78: 31-32, 3.29: 25 and 5.1*]. (29) Though intelligent should he enjoy life like a child, though most skilled should he act like a stunted person, though being most learned should he speak as if he was absent-minded and though very well knowing the injunctions, should he live unrestricted ['wander as a cow']. (30) He should never be strictly attentive to what the Veda's speak of [viz. the fruitive sacrifices], nor should he act against them; he shouldn't be a skeptic nor take sides simply speaking for the sake of the argument. (31) The saintly person should never be disturbed because of other people, nor should he disturb others or ever like an animal with anyone create a negative sphere to the interest of the body [to be hostile on territory, food and such]; instead he should tolerate harsh words and never belittle anyone [see also B.G. 12: 15]. (32) The One Supreme for certain is the Soul situated within all living beings and within one's own body; just as the moon is in different reservoirs of water are also all material bodies individual sparks of the One [see also B.G. 6.29 & 13: 34]. (33) Fixed in one's determination should one, at times not obtaining food, not be depressed nor with whatever one does obtain rejoice; both are under the control of God. (34) One should endeavor in order to eat and to sustain properly one's personal life force, as by that strength the spiritual truth is contemplated which, being understood, gives liberation [see B.G. 6: 16]. (35) Whatever first class or low class food by chance the sage acquires he should eat, and similarly he should accept whatever clothing and bedding he acquires without effort [see also 7.13]. (36) General cleanliness, washing the hands, taking a bath and other regular duties should the one of spiritual realization perform without compulsion, just as I, the Controller, do act to My own will. (37) Sure is for him the perception of separateness that what is destroyed by the realization of Me; sometimes such a vision lingers till the body dies, but then everything will turn out well with Me. (38) Unhappy about the consequences of a lusty life must the one who has not yet seriously considered Me, with the aversion risen desiring the spiritual perfection, be of the duty to approach a wise [bona-fide] person [of proper reference], a guru [see also B.G. 16: 23-24, 4.34 & 17: 14]. (39) The devotee should with great faith and respect free from envy that long serve the spiritual master, who indeed is Me, until he clearly realizes the spiritual [see also 11. 17: 27]. (40-41) He then who did not control the group of six [also: the anarthas], he who as the charioteer is impetuous with the senses, he who is bereft of knowledge and detachment, he who utilizes the three-stick staff for making a living and who denies Me, himself and the godly situated within himself, is, not having dissolved the contamination thus spoiling the dharma, unfit for this world as well as for the next.

(42) The nature of a mendicant is to be equable and nonviolent; penance and discrimination are of the one living in the forest; the householder offers shelter and performs sacrifices and a celibate novice serves the âcârya. (43) The celibacy, austerity, cleanliness, contentment and being friendly towards all living entities of all those who worship Me, are [the duty] even of the householder who at the right time is [supposed to be] approaching his wife [for procreation, see also previous chapter and B.G. 7: 11]. (44) The one who thus according his nature worships Me with no other object of devotion, will come to realize Me in all living entities and achieves unflinching devotional service unto Me. (45) By unrelenting devotional service, Uddhava, comes he to Me, the Supreme Controller of all the Worlds, the Absolute Truth and Ultimate Cause who gives rise to and puts an end to everything. (46) Thus to his own sense of duty having purified his existence, fully understanding My supreme position and endowed with spiritual knowledge and wisdom, will he quite soon meet with Me. (47) Characterized by an established rule of conduct does this religious principle of the followers of the varnâs'rama-system, who so are enjoined with this devotion unto Me, award the supreme perfection of life. (48) O saintly soul, with this have I described to you, as you asked, the means by which one as a devotee may be perfectly engaged according one's own nature and may come to Me, the One Supreme.



*: S'rîla Bhaktisiddhânta Sarasvatî Thhâkur quoting from the Manu-samhitâ points out that the word medhyaih or 'pure' in this context means that while residing in the forest a sage may not accept honey-based liquors, animal flesh, fungus, mushrooms, horseradish or any hallucinogenic or intoxicating herbs, even those taken as so-called medicine.

**: Shastri C.L. Goswami comments here to his translation of the book: 'the s'ruti lays down that a brâhmana may turn out to be a recluse whenever true vairâgya appears in him in whatever stage of life'.



Chapter 19

The Perfection of Spiritual Knowledge

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'One who, endowed with knowledge to the oral tradition, self-realized is not speculating should, knowing this universe - as well as the knowledge about it - to be illusory in a high degree, commit his way unto Me. (2) For the spiritual philosopher am I alone indeed the beloved, the self-interest, the motive and the accord as also the elevation and the way to heaven; indeed except for Me as the favorite he has no other purpose. (3) They who are completely perfected in knowledge and wisdom know My lotusfeet as the supreme object and thus is the learned transcendentalist by the spiritual knowledge keeping to Me, most dear to Me [see also B.G. 7: 17-18]. (4) What by austerities, visiting holy places, doing japa, performing charity and being of other pious deeds is awarded cannot match with the perfection awarded by a fraction of this spiritual knowledge [compare 10.46: 32-33]. (5) Therefore, with the spiritual knowledge knowing your own soul, dear Uddhava, worship, accomplished in the knowledge and the wisdom, Me [sharing] in the mood of devotional service. (6) By the sacrifice of vedic knowledge and wisdom having worshiped Me, the Supreme Soul within themselves - Me, the Lord of All sacrifices, did the sages sure achieve the supreme perfection. (7) O Uddhava, that which has settled, is divided in three divisions and is constantly transforming, is the bewildering energy apparent in the present, but since it is not there in the beginning nor in the end, what possible relation could, when just relating to your material body its birth and all that, these [three, see tri-kâlika and guna] have to [the real of ] you? That which first was not and in the end is there either, is there only for the time between.'

(8) S'rî Uddhava said: 'Please, o Controller of the Universe, o You in the Form of the Universe, explain the bhakti-yoga unto You that is also sought after by the great, including this extensive, thoroughly settled knowledge that is as traditional as the [original] detachment and wisdom [of Brahmâ]. (9) O Lord, for the one who, tormented on the violent material path, is overwhelmed by the threefold miseries [see 1.17: 19], I see no other shelter but the canopy of Your two lotus feet that shower the nectar. (10) Please uplift this person who, bitten by the snake of time, hopelessly has fallen in this dark hole, uplift this person so tremendously hankering for some insignificant happiness; o Might of Understanding, pour out Your words of mercy that awaken one to liberation!'

(11) The Supreme Lord said: 'This you ask did in the past the king who considered no one his enemy [Yudhishthhira] ask Bhîshma, the best of the upholders of the dharma, with all of us carefully listening [see 1.9: 25-42]. (12) When the war between the descendants of Bharata was over, asked he, overwhelmed by the destruction of his beloved well-wishers, having heard about the many principles of religion at last about the nature of liberation. (13) I'll describe to you the vedic knowledge consisting of detachment, self-realization, faith and devotional service, as was heard from the mouth of the one vowed to God [viz. Bhîshma]. (14) With the nine, eleven, five and three elements in all living entities truly seeing the one element [of the Time, the Supersoul, the Lord, see 1.2: 11] within them, is the spiritual knowledge I approve of. (15) Not being of all the elements subject to the three modes should one see it by the One who maintains, creates and annihilates this universe; seeing it so assuredly is the knowledge of realization [vijñâna]. (16) That [or He] which from one production to the other accompanies in the beginning, the end and the middle phase and remains with the annihilation again of all that, is indeed the Real Doer. (17) By the four types of evidence - the vedic truth [s'ruti], the truth of direct experience [pratyaksha], the truth by tradition [aitihya or smriti], and the truth of logical inference [anumâna] - becomes one detached from the flickering nature of the dual reality [see pramâna]. (18) Because all material activities are transient is there up to the world of Viriñca [brahmaloka] inauspiciousness; an intelligent person should see that what was experienced as also what has not been experienced as being temporary [see also shath-ûrmi, 11.3; 20 and B.G. 8: 16]. (19) I previously spoke to you, who has developed the love, on bhakti-yoga, o sinless one, let me also expound on the actual means of elevation of the devotional service unto Me. (20-24) Faith in the nectar of the narrations about Me, always chanting My glories, fixed in the attachment of ceremonial worship, to relate with hymns and prayers to Me; being of a high regard for My devotional service, with all of one's body to be offering obeisances, to be of the first-class worship of My devotees, being conscious of Me present in all living beings, dedicating all one's normal activities to Me as also with words defending My qualities, placing the mind in Me and rejecting all material desires; for My sake giving up on money as also on sensual pleasures, material happiness and passions, being of charity and offering in sacrifice, chanting the names to achieve Me and keeping to vows and austerities; thus, Uddhava, arises with those human beings who by such dharmic activities dedicated themselves the loving devotion unto Me - what other purpose remains there for My devotee? (25) When peaceful the consciousness is fixed in the soul, achieves he, strengthened by the mode of goodness, religiosity, spiritual knowledge, detachment and opulence. (26) When one to that, fixed on the material variety, with one's senses chases all around and one is reinforced in passion, should you know that that [materialist] consciousness dedicated to the impermanent is of the opposite. (27) The dharma is said to lead to My devotional service and the spiritual is honored as the vision of the Supreme Soul being present; detachment one calls the loss of interest in the sense-objects and the opulence is known by the animâ and such [perfections and powers see 11.15 & 11.16 and bhaga].'

(28-32) S'rî Uddhava said: 'How many types of don'ts [yama] or does [niyama] does one speak of, o Subduer of the Enemy, what is equilibrium, what is self-control, dear Krishna, what is tolerance and what is constancy, my Lord? What is charity, what is penance, heroism, what does one say about reality and truth, what is renunciation and wealth, what is desirable, a sacrifice and what is religious financial compensation? What do You think is the strength of a person, o Fortunate One, the opulence and gain, o Kes'vava, what is education, modesty, what is superior, what is beauty and what is happiness and also unhappiness? Who is learned, who is a fool, what is the real path and what the false path, what is heaven and what is hell and who do you say is a friend and what is home? Who is wealthy, who is poor, who a miser and who is a controller; please speak to me about these matters as also about the opposite qualities, o Lord of the Truthful.

(33-35) The Supreme Lord said: 'Nonviolence, truthfulness, not coveting or stealing the property of others, detachment, modesty, non-possessiveness, belief in God, celibacy as also silence, steadiness, forgiveness and fearlessness at the one hand, and cleanliness [internal and external], doing the rosary, penance, sacrifice, trustfulness, hospitality, worship of Me, visiting holy places, acting and desiring for the Supreme, contentment and serving the spiritual master at the other hand are the twelve remembered of yama that together with those of niyama by human beings are cultivated with devotion, my dearest, and according one's desire yield results [of beatitude or prosperity]. (36-39) Equilibrium means steady absorption of the intelligence in Me [see also 11.16: 10] and self-control is the perfect discipline of the senses; tolerance means to endure unhappiness and constancy is the conquering of the tongue and genitals. The highest charity is to give up the rod [to punish others], penance is remembered as giving up the lust, heroism is to conquer one's self-love and truth implies to see the Lord everywhere. The other [viz. reality] means to be of pleasing words approved by the sages [*], cleanliness means to be detached in fruitive activities [see also e.g. 1.1: 2 and B.G. 18: 6] and renunciation is said to be the renounced order of sannyâsa. For human beings is religiousness the wealth desirable, am I the Most Fortunate, is religious remuneration the gift [in return] of spiritual knowledge and is breathcontrol the supreme strength. (40-45) Opulence is My divine nature [see 11.16 and bhaga], gain is My bhakti, education is the nullifying of the dividedness of the self [see siddhânta and advaita] and modesty is the disgust with failing in prescribed duties [with sin]; beauty is to be of good qualities like detachment from material hopes and such, happiness means to transcend hap and mishap, unhappiness is meditating the happiness of lust, and a wise person is someone knowing the liberation from bondage. A fool is the one who identifies himself with the body and so on [the mind etc.], the right path is leading to Me, the wrong path is to be understood as the one leading to the perplexion of consciousness; and heaven implies the predominance of the mode of goodness. Hell is the predominance of the mode of darkness; the real friend is the spiritual master that I am, my dear friend, one's home is the human body, surely a rich person is called he who is enriched with good qualities while a poor person is someone who is discontented. The wretched one is the one who has not conquered his senses, a controller is someone whose intelligence is not attached to the material affair and of the opposite [qualities] is the one attached to sense gratification; these, Uddhava, are your subjects of inquiry all properly elucidated. But what of describing elaborately the characteristics of good and bad qualities when seeing good and bad is still a fault relative to the true good indeed distinct from the both of them [compare to 3.10: 28-29, 6.16: 10-11, 11.7: 8, 11.11.16 and B.G. 7: 5].



 *: Truth means here seeing the Lord everywhere while reality implies to speak in favorable terms. Given is here the literal meaning of the text, while it seems to be more logical to consider the seeing of the Lord everywhere as the reality and to consider as truthful the proper use of words. Nevertheless can one also very well consider it as not lying when one sees everything to be part of Him and that so everything deserves that esteem and that the love for the truth thus implies that one is not of displeasing words, but always of respect for the words of the sages. In fact are both translations equally valid relative to the ambiguity of the text.



Chapter 20

Trikânda Yoga: Bhakti Surpasses Knowledge and Detachment

(1) S'rî Uddhava said: 'Of You the Controller, o Lotus-eyed One, focus the sacred texts of positive and negative injunction upon the virtue and vice of the karma [akarma and vikarma]. (2) The diversity of the varnâs'rama system wherein the father may be of a higher [anuloma] or a lower [pratiloma] class than the mother gives evidence of heaven and hell with the possessions, the age, the place and the time [see also 4.8: 54 and *]. (3) How are for human beings Your words, of a prohibitive and regulative character, and the perfection of life possible at all, when they do not see the difference between the virtue and the vice [compare 11.19: 40-45]? (4) Isn't it so, o Lord, that to the forefathers, the gods and the human beings the vedic knowledge that emanates from You constitutes the means and end to the goals of life and the superior eye to that which cannot directly be perceived? (5) Seeing from the vedic texts the difference between piety and sin is something not arising of its own; Your denial of such a distinction thus clearly confuses the issue!'

(6) The Supreme Lord said: 'The three ways of yoga that I, desiring to bestow the perfection of the human being, have described are the path of philosophy [jñâna], the path of work [karma] and the path of devotion [bhakti]; outside of those there are no means whatsoever [see also B.G. contents and tri-kânda]. (7) For the ones disgusted in the renunciation of working for the profit there is the yoga of spiritual knowledge herein and for those who with a consciousness not disgusted in that do feel for material happiness is there the path of karma-yoga. (8) If by chance faith awakened in my narrations and all that, will for such a person - not averse, nor very attached - then the path of bhakti-yoga award him the perfection. (9) For as long as one has not enough of doing fruitive labor and not the faith in my discourses or hearing etc. [7.5: 23-24] has awakened, must one so proceed [see also 1.2: 7, 11.5: 41]. (10) Situated in one's prescribed duties worshiping with sacrifices and not desiring the fruits, Uddhava, does such a person, if he does not perform anything else, not go to heaven, nor to hell [see also B.G. 8: 16]. (11) In this world existing clinging to one's duties free from sin and clean [of motive], attains one to the transcendental knowledge or, by fortune, to My bhakti [compare 1.5: 23-31]. (12) Just as the residents of hell, do even the residents of heaven desire for this planet earth so conducive to the spiritual knowledge and devotional service that in both positions are of no avail. (13) A human being should never desire to reach heaven nor reach hell; nor should a person wise desire for this planet earth as absorbed in the body one becomes a fool. (14) One should know that, even though mortal, this [material existence] before death, when one not being foolish realizes the responsibility to transcend it all, can bring the perfection of the goal of life. (15) A bird giving up the home it built in a tree cut down by some messengers of death, achieves happiness on account of not being attached. (16) Knowing that one's lifespan is cut down by days and nights achieves one trembling with fear free from desire understanding the Lord perfect peace. (17) With the human body, the foremost of all bodies, effortlessly obtained but difficult to obtain with endeavor, as a boat that most suitable has the preceptor as its captain and My favorable winds as a drive, is the person that does not cross the ocean of material existence the killer of his own soul. (18) When hopeless in material endeavors the yogi detached is in full control of the senses, should he concentrate to steady the mind in discipline with the soul. (19) Concentrated on the spiritual platform should the mind, when all of a sudden drawn away from its position, carefully, according the rules of the game, be brought under the control of the self [see also B.G. 6: 26]. (20) Having conquered his breath and his senses should one not lose sight of the mind's goal but rather, endowed with goodness, intelligently lead the mind back under the control of the soul [see B.G. 3: 42]. (21) One must always carefully observe this truly supreme yoga process for the full control of the mind that, like a horse to be subdued, thus said is known by heart [see also B.G. 6: 33-34]. (22) By analysis of all the material elements in regression and in progress, in creation and destruction, should the mind constantly be attentive until [spiritually] satisfied. (23) Of a person disgusted and detached gives the mind, guided by the vedic precepts, by the constant analysis of what is contemplated, up on the false identification. (24) With all of the yama and the procedures of yoga [karma...] and with the logical analysis and the spiritual knowledge [jñâna] should one in no other way but by the worship of My form or other exercises of reverence [the bhakti] focus the mind upon the object of Yoga [its time, place and person]. (25) If due to negligence the yogî should perform a reprehensible act, should he by the process of yoga only burn up that sin; in these matters should he never at any time operate differently [compare B.G. 1.5: 17, 4: 19, 9.30]. (26) With the steady practice of each his own position is this the virtue praised while, to the desire to renounce the different sorts of attachment, by this disciplinary control the 'good' and 'bad' rule of principles [, the limit,] was established to the impure nature of the fruitive activities. (27-28) With the faith in my narrations awakened and disgusted with all karma should he [the âtmânandi bhakta] knowing the misery constituted by the lust, though not being fully in control with the process of renouncing, from that insight resolute of conviction engage in glorifying Me [bhajana] and thus in faith remain happy and repent to that the sense-gratification that lead to the unhappiness. (29) When the heart is firmly established in Me are of the sage who is constantly worshiping Me in the bhakti-yoga as described, all the lusts he has in the heart destroyed [see sthita-prajña]. (30) The knots in the heart are pierced, all misgivings are cut to pieces and the chain of his fruitive actions has ended when I am seen as the Supreme Soul of All. (31) For that reason is for a yogi who connected in My devotional service fixed His mind in Me, nor the path of knowledge, nor the path of detachment [from fruitive actions] generally the way to become happy in this world. (32-33) All that is obtained by fruitive action, penance, the cultivation of knowledge and detachment; indeed all that is attained by mystic yoga, charity, religious observances, auspicious actions and otherwise, is easily by My devotee achieved in loving service unto Me when he somehow or other desires heaven, beatitude and My abode. (34) The saintly that are sober, the devotees that for sure are one of heart unto Me, never indeed desire the enlightenment, the freedom from birth and death, granted by Me. (35) It is said that it is best not to desire anything, and thus may of him who, not seeking any personal reward, is desireless, as the highest stage of liberation arise the bhakti unto Me [see also 2.3: 10]. (36) Of the unalloyed devotees in Me can from what's unfavorable and sinful not arise the qualities as they, free from hankering being steady of consciousness, are beyond those who achieved by material intelligence [see also B.G. 9: 30]. (37) Those who follow these presentations thus instructed by Me achieve the security of My abode in direct knowledge of that which is the Absolute Truth.



*: The vaidehakas consist of those born of a s'ûdra father and brâhmana mother, the sûtas are those born from a kshatriya father and a brâhmana mother or from a s'ûdra father and kshatriya mother. The mûrdhâvasiktas are those born of a brâhmana father and kshatriya mother. Ambasthhas are those born from a brâhmana father and vais'ya mother [these often work in the healthcare business]. Karana indicates those born of a vais'ya father and s'ûdra mother or of a kshatriya father and vais'ya mother.


Chapter 21

On Distinguishing between Good and Bad

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'They who give up on these means for achieving Me, consisting of the devotion, the knowledge and the work to be done, are by the insignificant of the flickering lusts with the senses that they cultivate, confronted with the finality of life. (2) Steadiness of each in his own position as such is declared to be the virtue and the opposite is indeed the vice; this is the definite conclusion about the two [see also B.G. 2: 16]. (3) A particular object is to be evaluated within the same category of objects and thus is for the purpose of the religion the pure and impure, for the ordinary dealings the virtue and the vice and for one's physical survival the auspicious and inauspicious established, o sinless one. (4) This way of proceeding [distinguishing between good and bad] is revealed by Me for those bearing the burden of religious principles. (5) Earth, water, fire, air and ether are the five basic elements that, from Lord Brahmâ down to the nonmoving creatures, make up the bodies of all living beings equally relating to the Supreme Soul. (6) Though being equal in their elements are, in relation to them, Uddhava, by the Veda different names and forms conceived for the achievement of their self-interest [see varnâs'rama].

(7) O most truthful one, the positive quality and the detrimental of the space and time and so on of the states of existence and of things, are by Me established to be sure of the restriction of profit minded activities. (8) Among the places are the places where there is no respect for the brahminical and the spotted antelopes are missing, spoiled; and even if there are spotted antelopes [left, viz. not all being killed] is a place without saintly cultured men, a place uncivilized where the practice is unclean and the earth is barren [see mleccha and *]. (9) That time is valid which, either by its own nature [the not-for-profit time of nature] or the same way to the person [the Lord, or the object, the lakshmî, the time for harvesting etc.], is suitable for executing one's prescribed duty; and bad and offensive is the time that impedes one's duty, the time that is unsuitable for doing work [lust- and profit-minded time, see 11.20: 26, kâla and kâlakûtha **]. (10) The pure or impure of a thing [or: the substance] is there by another thing, by the speech and by a ritual performance or else by time or according the relative magnitude [see ***]. (11) Depending one's power or impotence, the intelligence and increase of wealth, as also to one's condition or place, causes it to oneself a sinful [or pious] reaction accordingly. (12) By time, by air, by fire, by earth and by water in combination or separately [do also wither away] the grains, things of wood and bone, thread and liquids, things won from fire and skins and things of clay. (13) That which touching the impure removes a bad smell or dirt and so restores the original nature of that object, that is for that matter considered as purifying. (14) By bathing, charity and austerity, by virtue of his age, his heroism, ritual purification and his prescribed duties should a twice-born man [: the doer] in the remembrance of Me, perform to the pure, the cleanliness of the self. (15) The purification derived from a mantra so follows the correct knowledge of it and the purification by a certain act so follows the dedication to Me; the religiousness is achieved by the six [as mentioned: the place, the time, the substance, the mantras, the doer and the devotional act] but the irreligious follows the contrary.

(16) Sometimes a virtue turns into a vice though and turns a vice on the strength of vedic instruction into a virtue; it is actually in regard of this restriction of the two that the distinction falls away [4*]. (17) The same karma is for those who are fallen not a cause of a falldown; with the one who lies down not further falling down is the natural attachment a virtue. (18) Whatever one desists from, from that is one liberated - this is for human beings the foundation of dharma that takes away the suffering, fear and delusion. (19) Presuming the objects of gratification to be good rises from that presumption the attachment of a person, from that attachment springs the lust and from the lust so the quarrel among people. (20) From the quarrel there is the anger diffcult to handle and the ignorance that follows the anger; thus is of a man the broadmindedness, swiftly seized by darkness. (21) O saintly one, a living being bereft of that [wider consciousness] becomes empty-headed so that, consequently fallen down from his goals in life, he like dull matter is as good as dead [compare B.G.: 2: 62-63]. (22) Overly absorbed in the sensual knows he, in vain living to the lifestyle of a tree, not himself nor the other and is his breathing mere bellowing. (23) Those awards the scriptures speak are for man not the highest good; they are merely enticements with the idea of prompting for the ultimate good, just the same as what one says to make someone take a medicine. (24) Simply by birth do mortals, attached in the mind to the cause of their objects of desire, their vital functions and their folks, defeat the purpose of their soul. (25) Submissive [religiously] do they ignorant to their real self-interest wander the path of disaster; for what reason would the intelligent [the vedic authority] cause them, entering the darkness, to engage further in that all? [see also 5.5: 17] (26) Some, this way with a perverted intelligence not understanding the actual conclusion, speak in flowery statements of the material awards that the one who knows the Veda's indeed doesn't speak of [see also B.G. 2: 42-44]. (27) The lusty, miserly and greedy ones think the flowers to be the ultimate truth; bewildered by the fire do they, suffocating from the smoke, not know their own place [of being an individual soul instead of being a body]. (28) They, armed with their expressions, My dear, do not know Me who is seated within the heart and from whom this universe has risen - they, self-indulgent, are like persons with their eyes in the fog. (29-30) They without understanding My confidential conclusion [see also 10.87 and B.G. 9] are, when absorbed in the sensual, attached to the violence that may be, but certainly never is encouraged in the sacrificial prescriptions. Indeed taking pleasure in being violent with the animals that in the desire for their own happiness were slaughtered, are they in their worshiping the gods, the forefathers and the leading ghosts with rituals, mischievous people. (31) That world unholy [upheld by them] equals a dream that sounding nice is about mundane achievements with which they, imagined in their hearts like a businessman, do give up the purpose [of realizing the soul]. (32) Not worshiping Me the proper way do they, established in the mode of passion, goodness or ignorance worship the gods and others headed by Indra who delight in that passion, goodness and ignorance [see also B.G. 9: 23 and 10: 24 & 25]. (33-34) 'Worshiping out here will we by our sacrifices to the gods enjoy in heaven and at the end of that enjoyment will we on earth become great housekeepers of high standing', thus with their minds bewildered by the flowery words have they nevertheless, as proud and most greedy men, no attraction for My topics.

(35) The tri-kânda divided Vedas have the spiritual understanding of the Self as their subject matter but also dear to Me are the vedic seers esoterically expressing themselves in indirect terms [the 'other gurus']. (36) The spiritual sound [the s'abda-brahman] manifesting itself in the prâna, the senses and the mind knows no limit and is unfathomably deep like the ocean. (37) The groundless, changeless Absolute of endless potencies [that I am], is, as promoted by Me [see omkâra], represented within the living beings in the form of soundvibrations, the way a single single strand of fiber is on a lotus stalk [see also 11.18: 32 and 6.13: 15]. (38-40) Just as a spider from its opening from within emits its web, is the breath of God [the prâna] from the ether manifesting the soundvibration through the mind in the form of the different phonemes. Comprising all the shapes full of nectar branching out in thousands of directions, has the Master, decorated with consonants, vowels, sibilants and semivowels, expanded from the syllable om. By the elaborated diversity of expressions and metrical arrangements each having four more syllables, does He create and Himself withdraw the great unlimited expanse [of the vedic literature, see also B.G. 15: 15]. (41) For instance the metres: Gâyatrî, Ushnik and Anusthup; Brihatî and Pankti as also Tristhup, Jagatî, Aticchanda, and Atyasthi, Atijagatî and Ativirâth [have each in this order four more syllables]. (42) What they [karma-kânda] enjoin, what they [upâsana-kânda] indicate, what aspects they describe or what alternatives they [jñâna-kânda] thus literarily offer, that heart in this world, is not known by anyone else but by Me [compare 11.20, B.G. 5: 5, 7: 26, 10: 41]. (43) I am the object of worship enjoined and I am the alternative offered and argued; I thus am the meaning of all the Vedas that establish Me,the transcendental soundvibration, and elaborately describe the material duality as simply the illusory to negate to ultimately become happy.



*: S'rîla Madhvâcârya quotes from the Skanda Purâna as follows: 'Religious persons should reside within an eight-mile radius of rivers, oceans, mountains, hermitages, forests, spiritual cities or places where the s'âlagrâma-s'îlâ [a black oval river-stone suitable for worship] is found. All other places should be considered kîkatha, or contaminated. But if even in such contaminated places black and spotted antelopes are found, one may reside there as long as sinful persons are not also present. Even if sinful persons are present, if the civil power rests with respectable authorities, one may remain. Similarly, one may dwell wherever the Deity of Vishnu is duly installed and worshiped.'

**: The paramparâ adds here: Political, social or economic disturbances that obstruct the execution of one's religious duties are considered inauspicious times. (...) Therefore is that moment in which one achieves the association of the Supreme Lord or the Lord's pure devotee is the most auspicious time, whereas the moment of losing such association is most inauspicious.

***: An example to this rather abstract formulation is the clock: the clock is pure or impure relative to its object measured: the time of nature as another 'thing' of time. This is called the criterion of scientific validation or the determining of the zero point of measurement. But also speaking of it in a scientific lecture telling that the mean of time, the clock deviating from nature, is derived from and refers to nature itself through a scientific formula that expresses the socalled equation of time, is a way of sanctifying, declaring the purity of , an obviously deviating clock. Furthermore is there also the religious ritual that presents the cross of Jesus for instance, or the mahâmantra of Caitanya, to the standard of time adhered to in order to forgive the sin of deviating from God's nature of time pragmatically and the scientific rationalization about it. Next we can simply set the clock to the nature of time to be true to the religious insight [see f.c.o.]. And finally, realizing that the confidentiality of Krishna's time cannot be imposed politically, is there the purity to the relative magnitude, as this verse states, that with the modern complexity of time-awareness simply knows the difference by a dual display of time that some clocks do offer: one display set to nature and one to the politics of pragmatical timekeeping. Thus we can by this verse tolerate the impurity of profit-motivated karmic time-manipulations and still manage with purity as devotees [Prabhupâda who at the one hand demanded punctuality, requested his devotees to further study the subject of time. 'All days and hours are the same to me. I leave that matter to you', he confided in ' A Transcendental Diary' by Hari S'auri Dâsa].

4*: According to S'rîla Madhvâcârya, persons above the age of fourteen are considered capable of distinguishing between good and bad and are thus responsible for their pious and sinful activities.



Chapter 22

 Prakriti and Purusha: Nature and the Enjoyer

(1-3) S'rî Uddhava said: 'O Lord of the Universe, how many basic elements of creation have been enumerated by the seers? O master nine, eleven, five plus three I heard You speak of [see also 11.19: 14]. Some say there are twenty-six, others speak of twenty-five or seven, some speak of nine, some of four and others of eleven, while some speak of sixteen, seventeen or thirteen. To us o Eternal Supreme You should explain this what the sages had in mind who so differently do express themselves.'

(4) The Supreme Lord said: 'With them [the elements] being everywhere do the brahmins, taking it up with My mâyâ, accordingly speak the way it suits them; after all, what would be impossible for them as they speak? (5) 'This is not as you say, what I am saying is that it is as such': this is what my unfathomable energies do to those logically arguing [see also 6.4: 31]. (6) Of those who by their interaction argue on the subject will, when one has achieved equanimity and sense-control, the difference in their point of view disappear and the argument consequently subside. (7) Because the various elements mutually pervade one another, o best among men, does the speaker accordingly want to give a description enumerating their causes and resultant effects. (8) In each of those [descriptions] one sees other elements that have entered a prior one or either a later one even, or that some element has entered into others [*]. (9) Therefore, however these speakers intend upon calculations express themselves in terms of elements beforehand or elements in effect, We do accept as it springs from reason. (10) The process of selfrealization is with a person caught in ignorance without a beginning; it cannot occur by dint of his own strength, so there must be someone else knowing the reality who can bestow the spiritual knowledge [compare 11.21: 10]. (11) The according knowledge is a quality of material nature [called sattva]; there is to this [quality] not the slightest dissimilarity between the person and the Controller - the notion of them being different [as such] is a useless one [see B.G. 18: 20 and 9: 15 and **]. (12) Material nature [prakriti] is what binds together the modes; these modes as the causes of keeping, producing and ending and accordingly being of goodness, passion and ignorance, belong to the material world and not to the spirit soul [see also B.G. 3: 27]. (13) In this world is the mode of goodness of knowledge, the mode of passion of fruitive labor [karma] and the mode of darkness of ignorance; the interaction of the modes is called Time and what's there by nature is the thread [the mahat-tattva is the sûtra, see also 11.12: 19 -21]. (14) The soul enjoying, the material nature, the intelligible, the identification with the form, the ether, the air, the fire, the water and the earth are thus the nine elements of creation described by Me. (15) Hearing, touching, seeing, smelling and tasting are the five [senses] by which the knowledge is acquired; the organ of speech, the hands, the genitals, the anus and the legs constitute their operation, o dear one, and the mind is there to both. (16) Sounds, tactile qualities, tastes, fragrances, and forms [or colors] are the categories of the sense objects [see vishaya] and speech, manufacturing, excretion [by anus and genitals] and locomotion are the functions covered by them. (17) In the beginning of creation is the person of the enjoyer uninvolved given to witnessing the material nature of this universe that by the modes of sattva and the others embodies the gross manifestations and subtler causes [2.10: 10]. (18) The elements in all the manifest reality undergoing transformation do, amalgamated by the power of nature, form the egg of the universe, by the glance of the Lord having attained their potencies [2.5: 35, 3.20: 14-15, 3.26: 51-53, 3.32: 29, 5.26: 38, 11.6: 16]. (19) Speaking of it as having only seven elements: the five of the physical elements beginning with the ether and the individual knower with the Supreme Soul, are there from the fundamental basis of these two the body, the senses and the life air [or all the material phenomena produced]. (20) Herein thus also of six: the five elements with the Transcendental Person as the sixth element conjoined with them, has this creation created from Himself been send forth with Him entering. (21) In the case of so having four do fire, water and earth arise from the Self and came by them the birth then of the manifest product of this cosmos about. (22) Counting seventeen is there the consideration of the five gross elements, the five objects and the five senses along with the one mind and the soul as the seventeenth. (23) Likewise counts one sixteen with indeed the soul identified as the mind and thirteen so with the gross elements, the five senses, the mind and the [individual and supreme of the] soul. (24) To the number of eleven has one in this the soul, the gross elements and the senses; and nine one has also with the eight natural elements [the gross ones, mind, intelligence and false ego] as surely also the Enjoyer on top of that. (25) This way have various enumerations of the elements been contrived by the sages. They are all logically supported by rational arguments; what brilliance would one miss with the learned?'

(26) S'rî Uddhava said: 'Because both nature and the enjoyer, although constitutionally different, mutually shelter one another o Krishna, seems there to be no difference between them; the soul is seen within nature and nature in the soul as well [see also B.G. 18: 16]. (27) Please, o Lotus eyed One, as the Omniscient, Very Expert in Reasoning, cut with Your words down the great doubt in my heart. (28) The knowledge do the living beings indeed have from You and by the potency of You out here is it stolen away; You alone indeed know the perfection of the illusory potency of Yourself and no one else [see also B.G. 15: 15].'

(29) The Supreme Lord said: 'Prakriti and purusha [nature and the enjoyer] subject to this transformation based upon the mixing of the gunas of the creation, are thus distinct, o best of persons. (30) My dear, the deluding energy consisting of the modes establishes the manifold of the manifestations and perceptions of these differences that, subject to change, know three aspects: that of adhyâtma - the one, adhidaiva [- the nature] and of adhibhûta, the other [see also kles'as and 1.17: 19]. (31) The way the sight [the one], the form [nature] and the reflected image [the other] of the sun, on itself present in the sky, in this cooperate to the opening of the eye in order to manifest, is the Supersoul, who of these [three] is separate present as the transcendental experience [the One], the cause [the Nature], and the phenomena to be seen [the Other], there as the perfection of realization. (32) So it is too with the [organ, the object and the function of the] sense of touch and such, the hearing and such, the tongue and such, the nose and such and with that what belongs to the consciousness [the seer]. (33) The transformation effected by this agitation of the modes which rooted from the primary nature [pradhâna] is the cause of the bewilderment and variety of the false ego - subject to change in ignorance lording it over - that in the three aspects [as mentioned] was generated from the greater reality [of the mahat-tattva, see also ***]. (34) Lacking in the full knowledge of the Supreme Soul is indeed the speculation of saying 'it is there' and saying 'it is not there' [about the difference between prakriti and purusha], focussed as one is on discussing the difference, a useless one - although it for sure lingers with people who have turned their attention away from Me who is [qualitatively] alike themselves.'

(35-36) S'rî Uddhava said: 'In what way do those whose minds diverted from You by the fruitive activities they performed, o Master, accept and give up higher and lower material bodies? Please Govinda explain that to me what by those not so spiritual isn't understood since they, for the greater part knowledgeable about the world, suffer its imposition.'

(37) The Supreme Lord said: 'The mind of men conjoined with their five senses is shaped by the karma; it follows the spirit soul which, separate from that, travels from one world to the other [see also linga, vâsanâ and B.G. 2: 22]. (38) The mind faithfully meditating the sense objects seen or that what is heard in following [the vedic authority] rises and dissolves dependent on the karma, after which the remembrance is lost. (39) Being absorbed in the objects of perception does he [in an other body] not remember his previous self anymore; the total forgetfulness to this or that cause is known as death indeed. (40) What one calls birth, o great giver, is, just as in a dream or fantasy, the identification of a person in every way. (41) And this way sees he in that, like in a dream or fantasy not remembering what was before, himself as if he wouldn't have a past [*4 en B.G. 4: 5]. (42) Because of the engrossing resting with the senses appears in the one objective reality this threefold variety [in the qualities of a high, middle or lower birth] which, like a person being the progenitor of bad offspring, has the differences of the internal and external reality as a consequence. (43) For created bodies, my best, come into being and go out of being by the momentum of time that one perceives, that isn't seen because of its subtlety. (44) As of the flames of a candle and the currents of a river or the fruits of a tree are just so of all material bodies the situations and such of the different stages created. (45) 'This is the same physical person' is just as false a statement as 'This light radiating from the lamp is the same' or 'that water flowing in the river is the same'; this is the thought of men who waste their lives [see also 6.16: 58, 7.6: 1-2]! (46) Like with the fire locked up in wood does he from the seed of his activities not take birth nor does this person die; he is mistaken. (47) Impregnation, gestation, birth, infancy, childhood, youth, middle age, old age and death thus are the nine states of the body. (48) From associating with the modes does someone sometimes accept and sometimes give up these certainly greater and lesser bodily conditions achieved by his mental aspirations. (49) One's own birth and death one can surmise from the birth of one's son and the death of one's father; of self-remembrance is one no longer of all of that which, subject to generation and destruction, is characterized by these dualities. (50) The one who in knowledge of a tree its seed and maturity is the witness distinct from the birth and death of the tree is the same way the witness separate of [the birth and death of] the physical body. (51) The unintelligent person this way failing to distinguish the person from the material nature, does, by that contact with the reality completely bewildered, return to the material ocean [see also B.G. 9: 21-22 and 1.7: 5]. (52) In association with the mode of goodness goes he according his karma to the sages and gods, by the mode of passion goes he to the human and unenlightened [or demoniac] and by the mode of darkness goes he to the ghosts and the animal kingdom [see also B.G. 6.41-42, 9.25; 17: 4]. (53) Just as with observing dancing and singing persons one comes to imitate them, is the same way the disinclined one [the soul], in his intelligence facing the modal qualities, nevertheless made to follow [see also 11.21: 19-21]. (54-55) The way trees move by water also moving and the earth seems to spin with eyes spinning around, is the experience of the mental impressions of the sense objects not true since they are figments, alike the things one sees in a dream, as is also the case with the material life of the soul [viz. the wrong life to be avoided by the wise]. (56) For the one meditating the objects of the senses does the material existence, even though absent [viz. as a soul not being material], not cease to be, just like unpleasant things don't that come up in a dream [*5]. (57) Therefore Uddhava, do not delight in the sense-objects being untrue with the senses, see how based on the illusion of the material duality one fails in realizing the soul. (58-59) When insulted, neglected, ridiculed or envied by bad people, or else chastised, tied up or deprived of his means of livelihood; or when repeatedly spat upon or urinated upon by ignorant people, should the one desiring the Supreme thus being shaken having difficulties, save himself by resorting to his essence [see also 5.5: 30].'

(60) S'rî Uddhava said: 'How can I keep that in mind, please, o Best of All Speakers, tell us that. (61) The attacks of other people on myself is what I consider most difficult; except to those who fixed in Your dharma in peace reside at Your lotusfeet, is even to the learned, o Soul of the Universe, no doubt the material conditioning the most strong.'



*: Two examples: pots are of the earth that existed as a prior element or belong to rubble that is there as a later resultant substance, or either time as another element took them all together by entering them. Or the elements of nature appeared expanding in the space prior to them and all belong to the physical form that came about afterwards, and the vital breath entered them all as another element.

**: The paramparâ adds here: 'S'rî Caitanya Mahâprabhu described the actual situation as acintya-bhedâbheda-tattva - the supreme controller and the controlled living entities are simultaneously one and different. In the material mode of goodness the oneness is perceived. As one proceeds further, to the stage of vis'uddha-sattva, or purified spiritual goodness, one finds spiritual variety within the qualitative oneness, completing one's knowledge of the Absolute Truth' [see also siddhânta].

*** To differentiate the basic terms used in this chapter: Prakriti is the material nature with its living beings and gunas, pradhâna is the primordial, undifferentiated state of matter without the specific creatures and gunas and the mahat-tattva is the totality of the greater reality of it all, also known as the principle of intellect or the cosmic intelligence. The purusha is the original person that is the enjoyer: the Lord and the living beings that are the same in quality.

*4 To the well-known exception that establishes the rule says S'rîla Vis'vanâtha Cakravartî Thhâkura here that by the mystic power of jâti-smara one can remember one's previous body. Patañjali in the Yoga Sutra III.18 says: 'In the observation of the subliminal impressions or samskâras is there the knowledge of a previous life'.

*5 The classical philosophical stance defended here is: 'When one has a body one is a soul, when one is a body one is a pig', where the pig is here the fallen soul returning over and over to a materialistic life.


Chapter 23

Forbearance: the Song of the Avantî Brâhmana.

(1) The son of Vyâsa said: 'When He thus respectfully was requested by Uddhava, the greatest of the devotees, began the chief of the Dâs'ârhas whose heroism is so worthy to hear about, to speak, praising the words of His servant. (2) The Supreme Lord said: 'O disciple of Brihaspati, there is virtually no pious soul in this world capable of keeping his mind in check being disturbed by the insulting words used by a bad person. (3) A person is not as much pained pierced by arrows going through the heart as he is hurt indeed hoarding the arrows of harsh words of untruthful people. (4) In this regard Uddhava, is a most pious story told, please listen with rapt attention as I describe it to you. (5) It was related by a mendicant who, being insulted by bad people, keeping his composure remembered it as the consequence of his past deeds. (6) In Avantî [in the district of Malwa] there once lived a certain brahmin very rich with opulences who earned his livelihood doing business; but he was a miser, full of lust, greed and prone to anger as he was [see also B.G. 2: 49]. (7) For his relatives and guests was he not even in words of respect as he, devoid of religiosity, also not at the right times catered to his own needs. (8) With him so ill-behaved developed his sons, in-laws, his wife, daughters and servants enmity toward the miser, withholding their affection in disgust. (9) This way lacking in dharma and pleasure became the five claimants of sacrifice [pañca-bhâga], with that obsessive treasurekeeper failing in both worlds [this and the next], angry at him. (10) The neglect of them depleted his portion of piety, o magnanimous one, and all the wealth he so painstakingly had troubled himself for became lost. (11) Being just in name a brahmin was some taken by his relatives, some by thieves, Uddhava, some by providence, some by time, some by common people and some by higher authorities [see also 10.49: 22]. (12) When devoid of religiosity and love he thus had lost his property, arose, being neglected by his family members, a hard to endure anxiety. (13) With him thus thinking for a long time choked with tears in agony lamenting the riches lost, arose, a majestic disregard for worldly matters. (14) He then said to this: 'Alas, how painful to trouble myself so much with all this toiling nor for the pleasure, nor for the love of God. (15) Generally do of misers the things of wealth never ever result in any happiness: in this life they result in torment and with the one who died they lead to hell. (16) Whatever pure fame the famous might have or praiseworthy qualities there'd be of the virtuous, even these are destroyed by but a little greed, just like what white leprosy does with an enchanting physical beauty. (17) In the attainment, the increase, the protecting, spending, loss and enjoyment of making money, is there for man labor, fear, anxiety and confusion. (18-19) Theft, violence, lies, duplicity, lust, anger, perplexity, pride, discord, enmity, lack of faith, competition and [the three] dangers [of intoxication, promiscuity and gambling, see also 1.17: 24]: these are the fifteen man knows indeed as the unwanted things based on wealth; therefore should the one who wishes the ultimate benefit in life keep the undesirable under the heading of wealth at a great distance. (20) The brothers, wife, parents and friends that are one in love, all immediately turn into enemies over a single penny. (21) Even over a little amount of money give they, agitated and inflamed, in to anger and give they it as an adversary out for destruction, quickly, in a moment's notice, up in dropping the goodwill. (22) Having attained the human birth that the immortals pray for and in that life the status of the best of the twice-born, do they, destructive to their own best interest, not appreciate that; they head for an inauspicious destination [see also B.G. 16: 19-20]. (23) What person achieving this human life, the gateway to heaven and liberation, would become attached to property and, subject to death, remain in the realm of meaninglessness? (24) Like a moneyminded yaksha not distributing to the shareholders, viz. the greater family of the gods, the seers, the forefathers, one's relatives, the living entities and oneself, falls one down. (25) What now can I, an old man, achieve in the useless endeavor for money, youth and strength, by which maddened, people of discrimination try for perfection? [see B.G. 3: 35] (26) Why would someone wise constantly suffer the vain pursuit of wealth; for certain is someone in his world, because of this illusory potency, most bewildered. (27) What use are the goods or the ones providing them or what would be the use of the objects of desire or the people giving satisfaction; or else what use would it, for the one in the grip of death, be to be of the fruitive action that delivers one a next birth? (28) The Supreme Lord, the Supreme Personality comprising all the gods by whom I have been brought to this condition of detachment, is for certain, satisfied with me, the boat for the soul [see also 11.17: 44]. (29) With the time remaining will I, to find satisfaction within myself, unbewildered about my real interest, attenuate my body [to the minimum]. (30) May the gods, the controllers of the three worlds, in this be pleased; was it not Khathvânga who achieved the spiritual abode in but a moment?'

(31) The Supreme Lord said: 'Thus making up his mind became the most pious brahmin from Avantî, untying the knots in his heart, in peace a silent mendicant. (32) He wandered the big world alone and inconspicuous, and entered, herein with his self, senses and vital air controlled [see tri-danda], its cities and villages to live on charity. (33) Seeing him indeed an old, dirty beggar, was he with many an insult dishonored by the low-class people, my dear. (34) Some of them took his triple staff away, his begging bowl, his waterpot and his seat, and some took his prayer beads and his torn rags, where they, showing them in offering them back, again took them away from the sage. (35) And on a river shore about to partake of the food acquired by his begging, urinated the grave sinners upon him and spit they on his head. (36) He to the vow of silence not speaking they would deride with their words and beat up saying 'This one is a thief'; thus speaking they bound him in ropes while some shouted to it 'Tie him up, bind him!'. (37) Some criticized him committing insults like 'This one is a religious hypocrite, a cheater who, having lost his wealth and thrown out by his family, has taken to this profession'. (38-39) 'See how this person so powerful and steadfast as a massive mountain, with his silence striving for his goal, is as firmly determined as a duck'. Some ridiculed him speaking thus, while others passed foul air and, binding him in chains, kept the twiceborn one captive like a pet animal. (40) Thus destined to suffer that all due to other living beings, due to higher powers and due to himself [see kles'a], understood he that whatever came his way was allotted to him by his own destiny. (41) Being insulted by low-class men who tried to make him fall, sang he, remaining firm in his own duty, fixing his resolution in goodness, this song [see also B.G. 18: 33]:

(42) The twiceborn one said: 'These people are not the cause of my happiness or distress, nor are the demigods, my body, the planets, my karma or the time; it is, according the standard authorities [the s'ruti], nothing but the mind that is the cause, the mind which causes one to rotate in the cycle of material life. (43) The mind displaying indeed the modes is very strong by them and by the different sorts of white [goodness], red [passion] and black [ignorance] activities from which the conditions [the societal classes] arise to the same colors. (44) The soul not involved and golden [radiating enlightenment] existing along with the struggling mind, my friend, looks down upon the mind that with its image of the world embraces the objects of desire; and in that engagement he gets bound in attachment to the modes of nature. (45) Charity, doing one's duty, the niyama, the yama and the hearing [from the scripture], pious works and the purification by vows all entail the subduing of the mind, with the supreme of the yoga, the absorption of the mind [samâdhi], as their aim. (46) Tell me what is there to accomplish for him whose mind is pacified, perfectly fixed by charity and other processes; and what other thing can by these processes of charity and such be achieved when one is lost with a mind out of control? (47) As long as we know have others, [the senses and their] gods for example, fallen under the control of the mind and has the mind never fallen under the control of any other [but the Supreme One]; fearsome as a god [Aniruddha] is it likewise stronger than the strongest - indeed is He who can bring that mind under control the God of gods [see also B.G. 6: 35-36, *]. (48) Failing to conquer that difficult to conquer enemy [if worldly engaged, see B.G. 6: 6] who in its urges so unmanageable is tormenting and striking, do some therefore completely bewildered create useless quarrels, with the mortals in this world being friends, neuters and rivals. (49) Having accepted the material body as a part of their mind, in the sense of 'I' and 'mine', do human beings blinded in their intelligence by the hard to overcome illusion of 'this I am' and 'this is someone else', thus wander in darkness. (50) Asserting that [adhibhautika] these people would be the cause of my happiness and distress, then what room is there in this conception for the soul; they as that belong to the earth [and not to the soul] - with whom can one be angry when the tongue happens to be bitten by one's own teeth? (51) If one says that [adhidaivika] the gods would be responsible for the suffering then what has that suffering to do with the soul; that pain is all subject to change [while the soul is not] - at whom ever should the living being get angry when one limb of his own body hurts another limb? (52) If the soul itself [adhyâtmika] would be the cause of the happiness and distress, then by what else but his own nature would it be in that perspective; indeed there is nothing separate from the soul as that would be false - and whom to be angry with when there is no happiness or distress [in the witnessing soul, see B.G. 2: 14]? (53) If the planets would be the cause of happiness and distress, what then of the soul that is unborn; they relate to that what is born, as they [the astrologers] say, the planet is only troubled by other planets - at whom should the living being, distinct from that body, get angry then? (54) If we assume the karma to be the cause of happiness and distress, what would that karma mean to the soul; for sure are the animating person on the one hand and this animated body endowed with consciousness [on itself] not alive at the other, both not the root cause of the karma of course - whom to be angry with then? (55) If we say that time would be the cause of happiness and distress, then what for the soul in that idea; the soul belongs to time, the way fire doesn't burn the flames or the snow is not [harmed by cold] - with whom to become angry when there is no duality with the supreme [see also B.G. 18: 16 and timequotes]? (56) Not by anyone, anywhere or by any means is there for him, superior of transcendence, the influence of the duality to which the false ego arises that shapes the material existence; he whose intelligence is thus awakened has nothing to fear from other living beings. (57) By the worship of the feet of Mukunda will I cross over the hard to overcome ocean of material nescience; of this I am certain by the foregoing great seers [or âcâryas] anchored in the worship of the Soul Supreme [see also B.G. 6: 1-2].'

(58) The Supreme Lord said: 'With his wealth destroyed getting detached, leaving home, free from moroseness traveling the earth and despite of this way being insulted by rascals, sent the sage unswerving in his duties this song up. (59) As for giving happiness or distress to the soul is there nothing beside the mind, that bewildered out of ignorance created a material life of friends, neuters and enemies [see also 10.32: 17-22, B.G. 9: 29]. (60) Therefore in all respects, My best, bring with an intelligence absorbed in Me the mind under control and thus connected have the complete [the marriage, the comprehension] of yoga [see also s'iks'âshthaka-verse 1]. (61) Whosoever with full attention meditates on, makes others listen or listens himself to this [song] based upon the knowledge of the Absolute as sung by the mendicant, will for certain never be overwhelmed by the dualities.'



*: Some think that the essence of yoga is to stop the mind all together, but Krishna stresses in this chapter clearly that it is about the control, not the stopping. That stopping is an impersonalist mâyâvâda buddhist technique to concentrate on one's essence and constitutes a willfully created illusion [see Buddhism]. Saying neti-neti like Prahlâda e.g. will the mind indeed concentrate on the essence which exactly will boost the mind in that direction. So with the stopping of its worldly engagement, the real engagement of the mind in prayers and philosophy begins. Not going for the siddhis, the mystical perfections, must so the mind be engaged for the Fortunate One, for Krishna, by means of concentration on His names, mantras and stories; by s'ravanam, kîrtananam etc. one has to learn to listen at, sing and follow to the scripture, the guru and the co-believers. The first two yoga sûtras I.1&2 atha yogânus'ânamam, yogah citta vritti nirodah, should be translated with  'as the lesson of yoga, now curb the rumination of the mind about worldly things' and not with 'your yoga lesson now is to stop the mind from working'. Of course one has to use one's mind, in obedience to the Holy Spirit, to the voice of God; the mind is after all an aspect of the divine ruled by Aniruddha in the catur vyuha (see also vritti and siddhi).



Chapter 24

Analytic Knowledge, Sânkhya, Summarized

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'And now I shall discuss with you the analytic of knowledge ascertained by the classical authorities, knowing which a person is able to immediately give up the bewilderment based on the duality. (2) In the epoch of dutifulness [krita] there existed people expert in discrimination about the time before, wherein the seer and the seen were simply but one and the same [see also 11.22: 29]. (3) That one undifferentiated true inaccessible to speech and mind turned into the twofold of the forms of the products of material nature and the great of its being alike in nature [prakriti and purusha, see 11.22]. (4) One of the two indeed is she, the substance of material nature, consisting of a double self [products and causes] and the other entity is he, the knower, who is called the original person [the enjoyer or male principle]. (5) From the [pradhâna, see also] material nature became agitated by Me [as Kâla], and by the allowing original person, the modes of tamas, rajas en sattva [the gunas] manifest. (6) From these arose the thread of primeval nature [the sûtra] and in the transformation from the great [the mahat-tattva] conjoined with that was generated the identification [of the purusha with it as ahankara or false ego], which is the cause of bewilderment. (7) The I-ness [ego] of the three categories being of emotion, brilliance and darkness is in encompassing the sense objects [tanmâtra], the senses [indriyas] and the mind [manas] the cause of understanding and not understanding [the so-called conscious and unconscious]. (8) Out of the slowness germinated the motives [the substance] and their sensations, from the brilliance [the vigor, the passion] sprouted the senses, and the eleven gods arose from the emotion [or the goodness subject to change, see deva]. (9) By the amalgamation of all elements was the egg of the universe brought into being functioning as My supreme residence [see from 11.22: 18].

(10) In the water of the causal ocean I appeared within that egg [as Nârâyana] and from My navel arose a lotus known as universal and in that was there the one selfborn [Brahmâ, see 3.8]. (11) He, the soul of the universe, by his penance created, endowed with the passion, by My mercy the different worlds in three called earth, the atmosphere and heaven [bhûh, bhuvah and svaha], along with its rulers [see gâyatrî and loka]. (12) Heaven became the home for the demigods, the atmosphere the home for the ghostly spirits, the earthly places are the home of the humans and other living beings and the beyond of these three is for the ones of perfection [siddhaloka]. (13) The places lower to the earth were by the master created as the residence for the unenlightened and the ones perfect to the ego [the 'snakes', the nâgas]; of those under the influence of the gunas are the destinations of the three worlds there according all the types of karma [see B.G. 4: 17, 10.1: 42-43]. (14) By penance, yoga and even by forsaking [in sannyâsa] is one of the spotless destinations of mahar, janas, tapas and satya, but My destination [vaikunthha] is there by devotional service. (15) As arranged by Me, the Supporter, the Self of Time, rises one up and drowns one in the mighty stream of the modes of this world of being bound to profitminded labor. (16) Whatever the small, the great, the thin and the massive one may notice of the manifestation, is all joined together by both the material nature and the enjoyer [see also B.G. 18: 16]. (17) Like it is with common things - as things of gold and articles made of clay - is a product in the transformation from its beginning to its middle stage and to its end there for real [as the 'ingredient cause', compare 6.16: 22, 10.87: 15, 11.22: 8]. (18) That thing of which as the previous ingredient cause another thing is produced as its transformation, is called true when it is there from the beginning to the end [compare B.G. 2: 13, 2: 16]. (19) The material nature that is the foundation [âdhâra] of the ingredient cause, the real that is the Original Person Supreme, and the agitating agent of Time, these three [kâla, purusha and prakriti] make up the Absolute Truth [the brahman] that I am. (20) For as long [as I am] looking after, does for the purpose of the bountiful diversity of life to the modes, the creation in that sense of parents and children continue to exist perpetually until the end of its maintenance [see also B.G. 3: 24]. (21) Endowed with its different planets enabled to display the five gross elements' their properties, is the universal form, pervaded by Me epochal manifesting the variety [see yugas, manvantaras, en B.G. 11: 13]. (22-27) The mortal frame is [at the time of annihilation] being merged in the food, the food in the grains, the grains in the earth and the earth in the fragrance. The fragrance is being merged in the water, the water in its quality, that taste in the fire and the fire in the form. Form is being merged in the touch, the touch then into the ether, ether in the subtle object of sound and the senses [of sound etc.] in their sources [the gods of the sun and moon etc.]. The sources [as ahânkara ego of passion] are merged into the emotions [the ego of goodness], My dearest, and they merge in the mind, the controller of the sound, which dissolves in the original of the elements [ego of slowness], and that all powerful primal elementary merges in the cosmic intelligence [mahat]. That greater of nature merges in its own modes and they in their ultimate abode of the unmanifest which becomes merged in the infallible Time. Time merges in the Individual [the jîva] of the Supreme directing the illusory potency and that individuality merges in Me, the Supreme Self Unborn [âtmâ], who, characterized by creation and annihilation, established in Himself remains alone [see also 3.11: 28, 4.23: 15-18, 11.3: 12-15]. (28) How can, just like the darkness with the sun rising in the sky, this way, of one carefully examining, the bewilderment of the dual mind remain in the heart? (29) By Me the Overseer of the Spiritual and Material world, was thus spoken this sânkhya direction of analysis [see also 3.25-33] which breaks the bondage of doubts in the going along and going against the nature of things.



Chapter 25

The Three Modes of Nature and Beyond

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'O best of persons, try to understand this what I say on how and by which of the modes of nature in their pure state [*] a person is influenced. (2-5) To the mode of goodness there are: equanimity, sense control, tolerance, discrimination, penance, truthfulness, compassion, remembrance, contentment, renunciation, freedom from desire, faithfulness, modesty and finding pleasure within. To the mode of passion there are: lusts, endeavor, conceit, dissatisfaction, false pride, the quest for blessings, separatism, sense-gratification, rashness, love of praise, ridicule, display of valor and hard sanctioning. To the mode of ignorance there are: intolerance, greed, deceitfulness, violence, attention seeking [in particular with women], hypocrisy, listlessness, quarrel, lamentation, delusion, the suffering of depression, sloth, false expectations, fear and indolence. These, one after the other described, make up the greater part of the functions of the modes; now hear of their combinations [see also B.G. 14]. (6) O Uddhava, the ordinary activities in the mentality of 'I' and 'mine' are there so from their combination, just as the activities of the mind, the senses, their objects and the vital airs are there as a combination of them [see also 11.23: 49, 11.24: 7, 11.24: 13]. (7) When the person is fixed in religiosity, economic development and sense gratification brings each of the modes intermingling to this the faith, wealth and enjoyment. (8) When a person in family-life stands out with dedication [rajas] on the path of material enjoyment [tamas] and later on gets established in religiosity [sattva] is this indeed a combination of the modes. (9) From a person his calm can be derived that he is endowed with goodness, from his lust that he is in passion and from his anger that he is caught in ignorance. (10) When one worships Me with devotion independent of the results should such a man, or woman just as well, be understood as being of the nature of goodness. (11) When one by his duties worships Me hoping for benedictions should that be understood as being of the nature of passion, and with the intention to cause harm as being of ignorance [see also B.G. 17: 20-22]. (12) The modes of sattva, tamas and rajas so relate to the individual soul and not to Me; one is bound up to them as they, manifesting in the mind, lead to the attachment to material effects [see also B.G. 4: 14]. (13) When the mode of goodness - which is pure, luminous and auspicious - predominates over the others, will a man be graced with happiness, religiosity, knowledge and other good qualities [see also B.G. 14: 11, 18: 37]. (14) When passion conquers over both goodness and ignorance is one, then being of attachment, separatism and change, caught in fruitive labor, for having a good name and being opulent [see also B.G. 14: 12, 18: 38]. (15) When darkness conquers over passion and goodness is one's discrimination defeated, one's consciousness covered, loses one initiative and lands one in lamentation and bewilderment, with sleeping too much, violence and false hopes [see also B.G. 14: 13, 18: 39]. (16) When the mind clears up and the senses no longer distract is there fearlessness with the body and detachment of the mind; know that as the goodness of My position. (17) Passion you should recognize by these symptoms: the intelligence is disturbed by too much activity, one fails to disengage from one's senses, one is not at ease with one's body and the mind is unsteady. (18) Failing in the higher functions of consciousness, spacing out, unable to focus, to have one's mind ruined, groping in the dark and being gloomy you should understand as being of the mode of ignorance. (19) With the mode of goodness rising increases the strength of the godly with the increase of passion do the unenlightened gain strength and when the mode of ignorance increases, o Uddhava, does the wild man step forward. (20) Know that the wakeful state of consciousness is there by the mode of goodness, that sleep is indicative of passion, that the deep of sleep is there by the ignorance of the living entity, while the fourth state [the transcendental] pervades the three [see also 7.7: 25 and B.G. 6: 16]. (21) By the mode of goodness go persons of spirituality higher and higher, by the mode of ignorance goes one head first lower and lower and by the mode of passion remains one in between [see also B.G. 6: 45, 16: 19]. (22) Those who die in goodness go to heaven, those who die in passion go the human world and those who die in ignorance go to hell; they however who are free from the modes come to Me [see also B.G. 9: 25, 14: 18]. (23) Work as an offer to Me dutifully done without desiring the results is in the mode of goodness, work done in expectation of some result is in the mode of passion and that what one does with violence and such is in the mode of ignorance [B.G. 17: 20-22]. (24) Knowledge in the mode of goodness is of emancipation [of enlightenment], of passion is it opinionated and in ignorance is it materialistic while the spiritual knowledge concentrated upon Me is considered as being free from the modes [see also 6.14: 2]. (25) Having one's residence in the forest [to be a recluse] is of the mode of goodness, to reside among man [family] is of passion one says, and to reside in a gambling house is of the mode of ignorance, but My residence is above the modes [see also 7.12: 22, 11.18: 25]. (26) A worker free from attachment is of the mode of goodness, blinded by personal desire is one a man of passion, and a performer in ignorance is he considered who fell away from the remembrance [see 11.22: 38-39]; he who has taken shelter of Me [though] is free from the modes. (27) Of the soul is the faith in goodness, but of passion is the faith in fruitive action; irreligion is of the mode of ignorance, but that faith which is in service of Me is transcendental to the modes. (28) Beneficial, pure and attained effortlessly is food considered as of the mode of goodness, [strongly] catering to the senses is it of the mode of passion and of ignorance considers one impure foodstuffs which make one suffer [see also B.G. 17: 7-10]. (29) Happiness derived from the soul is of the mode of goodness but generated from sense objects is it of passion; of the mode of ignorance is the happiness derived from delusion and depravity, but the happiness free from the modes is found in Me [see 11.15: 17 & B.G. 5: 21, but also 6: 7].

(30) And so do all these of the substance, the place, the fruit, the time, the knowledge, the activity, the performer, the faith, the state of consciousness and the species and destinations of life belong to the three gunas. (31) All states of existence, whether seen, heard or imagined with the intelligence, are, composed of the gunas, established and maintained by the enjoyer subtle of nature, o best among men [see also linga]. (32) The individual by whom, o gentle one, these modes of nature are conquered - that connected with the karma as the successive states of existence of a living being as [these three groups of] qualities manifest in the mind - attains, in bhakti-yoga dedicated to Me, by the love he has for Me. (33) Therefore should, having obtained this body, this source of knowledge and wisdom, the clever ones in worship of Me shake it off to partake of the modes. (34) The sage, the man of learning, should, free from the partaking of, unbewildered having subdued his senses, in service of the goodness conquer the passion and the ignorance. (35) Being connected should he also, free from depending on it, conquer the goodness so that he, with his intelligence pacified in being liberated from the gunas, as an individual soul giving up on the cause of his being conditioned, achieves Me. (36) The living entity as an individual soul by Me thus liberated from the modes of nature that nestled in his mind is so complete by the Absolute Truth and should wander nor to the internal nor to the external [of life anymore].'



* The word nature can be taken literally too as the modes in the sense of the seasons and their belonging primary demigods. Krishna says that Vishnu, who is the original controller above the modes, the best of the gods [10.89: 14-17], is of the goodness [11.15: 15], the purest mode [B.G. 14: 6], leading to the godlyness of Him [B.G. 14: 14] and that of the seasons He is the season of spring [B.G. 10: 35]. As such is autumn/spring His season of balance and of the mode of goodness. The same way is the inertia of cold representative for the mode of ignorance ruled by S'iva and the hyperactivity and heat of the summer a display of the mode of passion ruled by Brahmâ.  



Chapter 26

The Song of Purûravâ

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'Having gotten to this human body does one, situated in My dharma being directed at Me, achieve the Supreme Soul of Spiritual Happiness, Me who is situated in the heart. (2) Devoted in spiritual knowledge being freed from the cause of a separate existence that is based on the modes of nature does a person, living in the midst of these natural qualities not become entangled with the triviality of these effects of nature - who deluding the senses are insubstantial despite of the fact that one sees them. (3) One should never at any time seek association with the ones untrue that are devoted to gratify their genitals and bellies since the follower of such people falls into the darkest pit, just like a blind man following a blind man. (4) The descendant of Ilâ [Aila or Purûravâ, see also 9.14: 15-16], the well-known great emperor, sang this mighty song as he, bewildered as he was, in separation from Urvas'î finally got his lamentation under control in feeling detachment. (5) Abandoning him as he was naked did the king cry out to her like a madman as she left, following her saying in distress: 'O my wife, o you terrible woman, please stop!' (6) Still not satisfied gratifying insignificant lusts for many years, realized he, in his mind attracted to Urvas'î, not how the nights had been coming and going.

(7) Aila said: 'How regrettable the extent of my delusion; with my consciousness contaminated by lust did I, by the neck being seized by this goddess, not notice the times of my life passing. (8) Under her spell had I, alas, for so many years comprising so many days, really no idea whether the sun was rising or setting. (9) How unfortunate that total bewilderment of myself because of which the body of this mighty emperor, this crown jewel of kings, became a cuddly toy of women! (10) Having abandoned me, the mighty controller, with all of my kingdom as if I were a blade of grass, ran I thus, crying out like a madman, naked after the woman. (11) Where now is the influence, strength, sovereignty of the person that I am? Who now ran after this woman leaving, just like an ass by the hoof being kicked in the face for punishment? (12) What's the use of knowledge, austerities and renunciation, of having listened to the scriptures, or what of solitude and silence with him whose mind was stolen by women? (13) To hell with the fool of me not knowing his own best interest, I who thought he was a scholar achieving the position of lord and controller, but just like a bullock or ass was conquered by women! (14) For so many years serving Urvas'î her lips did I, with the lust born from my mind, never get enough of the nectar, just like a fire never satisfied by oblations. (15) Who, but the Lord of the Sages Satisfied Within, the Supreme Lord Beyond the Senses, would be capable of freeing another one whose intelligence is stolen by a woman of pleasure? (16) Of me, dull-minded, did, even by the goddess informed with words well spoken, the confusion not cease, not having conquered myself [see 9.14: 20-22]. (17) What would have been her offense to a 'seer' like us who, taking a rope for a snake, not understands the real identity, for I'm the one who didn't conquer his senses. (18) What does this filthy body, unclean, full of bad odors, have to offer, what are those 'blossoming qualities' and so on anyway, for sure they're an imposition set up by ignorance! (19-20) Whether it's the property of the parents, the wife, the employer, the fire, the dogs and the jackals, the soul or the friends one can never decide. To that material body of abomination getting attached for it being so very attractive, feminine as it is having such a cute nose, beautiful smile and face, heads one for the lowest destination. (21) In what sense does one differ from worms in enjoying what is composed of skin, flesh, blood, muscle, fat, marrow and bone, urine, stool and pus? (22) He who knows what's best for him, should never but even initiate contact with women or men attracted to women for no other reason than the fact that the mind united with the senses reaching out to the sense-objects gets agitated [compare 5.5: 2, 7.12: 9, 9.19: 17, 9.14: 36]. (23) A thing not heard or seen gives no rise to mental agitation; the mind of the one restricting the forces of life [the senses], thus checked, becomes pacified. (24) When the senses, these six enemies [shath-varga], not even by wise men can be trusted, then what to say of persons like me; it is for that reason that one shouldn't seek association with women or men attracted to women [see also yoshita].'

(25) The Supreme Lord said: 'He thus eminent among kings and demigods singing it so, gave, realizing Me, the Supreme Soul within himself, up the world of Urvas'î and indeed became peaceful having his illusion removed by spiritual knowledge. (26) Someone intelligent should therefore do away with the bad [or desirous of] association and get attached to the saintly only [including the devîs, not to be sexist]; as by the words of the holy the deep attachment of the mind is cut off. (27) The devoted with their minds set on Me not depending [on lusts] are completely peaceful with an equal vision free from possessiveness, false ego, the dualities and greed. (28) O greatly fortunate one, constantly arise among those greatly fortunate ones indeed discussions about Me; of persons partaking in these topics are the sins completely eradicated. (29) They who hear, chant and take them indeed with respect to heart, they so decided faithful, achieve the bhakti for Me. (30) What else would there remain [to be accomplished] for the devotee who has achieved the devotional service to Me, the One of Countless Qualities, the Absolute Truth Comprising the Experience of Spiritual Happiness. (31) Just as cold, fear and darkness will dissolve for the one who resorts to the supreme of the fire [Agni] are similarly the dullness, sense of danger and ignorance removed of the one serving the saintly. (32) For those submerging and rising again in the horrible ocean of material life are the saintly devotees, peaceful in understanding the Absolute, a supreme shelter that is just like a strong boat in the water to the drowning [compare 11.23: 28 and 11.17: 44]. (33) With food indeed as the very life of living entities, I as the shelter of the distressed and the religion as the acquisition of men passing away, are the devotees the refuge of those afraid of going downward. (34) The devoted give one eyes where the sun allows the external after having risen; the devotees are the ones worshipable, one's [true] relatives, just as they are one's very soul and Me as well [see e.g.. 1.1: 15, 3.5: 47, 3.6: 28, 11.2: 6]. (35) He yielding to the supreme [Purûravâ] for that reason, thus freed from the desire for the world of Urvas'î, traveled, liberated from all attachment, indeed satisfied within himself this earth.'


Chapter 27

On Respecting the Form of God

(1) S'rî Uddhava said: 'Please explain the yoga of the service of You as a deity, o Master; who is of that worship, to what form is one of worship and in what manner does one worship You, o Master of the Sâtvatas [see also mûrti and 11.3: 48-55]? (2) The sages Nârada, Bhagavân Vyâsa and my preceptor the son of Angirâ [Brihaspati] repeatedly say that there is nothing more conducive to welfare. (3-4) From Your lotus mouth emanated that of which the great lord unborn spoke to his sons headed by Bhrigu, to the goddess [Pârvatî] and the great lord S'iva [see B.G. 3: 9-10]; this [working for the purpose of sacrifice] indeed approved by all classes and spiritual orders of society, I think, is the most fortunate way for [even, or to deal with] women and the working class, o Magnanimous One. (5) O Lord with the Lotus Eyes, please, o Controller of All Controllers in the Universe, speak to your bhakta so full of attachment of the means of liberation from the being bound to karma.'

(6) The Supreme Lord said: 'There is indeed no end to the innumerable prescriptions for acting in yoga [see e.g. B.G. 1-6]; so, Uddhava, let me in brief explain it nicely one step at a time. (7) One should properly be of worship by choosing for one of the three kinds of processes to sacrifice: to the three of the Veda, the explanatory literatures [tantras like the pañcarâtra] and a combination of them. (8) Please hear with faith in what way a person, who to the for him relevant sacred precepts [*] achieved the status of a second birth, with devotion should be of worship for Me. (9) With the necessary material must he, connected in bhakti, free from ulterior motives worship Me, his worshipable guru, in an image, an altar, a fire, the sun, the water or in the twiceborn heart itself [**]. (10) To the two kinds of purification one should first should bathe and brush one's teeth and secondly bathe in mantras with the application of clay and such [see tilaka, kavaca and 6.8: 3-10]. (11) Of ceremonial respect and such at the three junctures of the day performing duties as recommended by the Vedas [see also 11.14: 35], should he who is perfectly fixed in his determination by these activities perform My ritual worship [pûjâ] that eradicates the karma.

(12) The figure is remembered in eight different ways: in stone, wood, metal, smearable substances [like clay], being painted, in sand, in jewels and as an image kept in the mind. (13) The individual form thus of two varieties - subject and not subject to change - does, in a temple installed for permanent, o Uddhava, not have to be called forth (âvâdana) or sent away (udvâsa). (14) Temporarily installed is that optional, but assigned a fixed place [as in sand] do these two occur; not of a smearable substance [or of paint or wood] is it washed but in other cases it is cleansed without water. (15) There is My worship of the different forms with excellent paraphernalia and the worship of a devotee free from material desire using whatever that's readily available, as well as certainly the worship in the heart by what was mentally conceived.

(16-18) Customary bathing and decorating is most appreciated for an idol [in the temple], Uddhava, for an altar is that an exercise of respect in mantra's [tattva-vinyâsa] and for the fire are oblations [of sesame, barley etc.] drenched in ghee considered the best. For the sun is that a respectful greeting with a meditation in âsanas [see sûrya-namskar] and for the water are offerings of water and such most dear. If even but some water by My bhakta presented with faith is most dear [to Me, see also B.G. 9: 26], then how much more would foodstuffs, flowers, lamps, fragrances and incense mean; but the many that is being offered by non-devotees will not bring about My satisfaction [see also B.G. 16]. (19) Being clean, having collected the necessary items, with the blades [of kus'a] of the seat that was arranged to the east, and sitting down facing the east or the north, or else directly facing the deity, should he then be of worship [compare 1.19: 17, 4.24: 10, 8.9: 14-15]. (20) Chanting mantra's and assigning them to his own and to My deity body should he with his hand wipe clean [the altar and deity] and properly prepare the sacred pot and vessel for sprinkling the water. (21) With the water of the vessel sprinkling the area of the deity, the utensils and his own body, should he next get ready three vessels with water and arrange the necessary auspicious items available [like flowers, grains, blades of grass, sesame seeds etc., see ***]. (22) The three vessels there with water for His feet [pâdya], His hands [arghya], and His mouth [âcamana] should the worshiper then purify with the mantra's for [respectively] the heart [hridayâya namah], the head [s'îrase svâhâ] and the tuft of hair [s'ikhâyai vashath] as also with the gâyatrî. (23) He should meditate on the Original Individuality of all Expansions, the very subtle transcendental form of Mine that, within his body fully purified by air and fire, is situated on the lotus of the heart and is experienced in the end vibration of the pranava [see also 2.2]. (24) By that from his own realization conceived, meditated form perfectly of worship within the body, that by His presence pervaded got charged, should he carry out the worship in detail inviting Him by [nyâsa] touching His limbs with mantras to establish Him within the deity and all there to it respected. (25-26) One should for the achievement of both [enjoyment and liberation], to both the Vedas and the tantras, together with the items of worship make the offerings of the pâdya, arghya and âcamana water to Me, after having pictured to oneself My seat with the nine s'aktis and the dharma etc. [*4] as an effulgent lotus with eight petals within its whorl saffron filaments. (27) One after the other he should respect the Lord His disc-weapon [the sudars'ana cakra], His conch [the pâñcajanya], His club [the kaumodaki] and His arrows and bow [the s'arnga], His [Balarâma items of the] plow and pestle [hala and mushala], his gem [the kaustubha], His garland [the vaijayantî] and His chest mark curl of white hairs [the s'rîvatsa]. (28) Garuda, Nanda, Sunanda, Pracanda and Canda; Mahâbala and Bala and indeed Kumuda and Kumudekshana [are the names of His His carrier bird and eight associates]. (29) Durgâ, Vinâyaka [Ganes'a], Vyâsa, Vishvaksena [see 6.8: 29, 9.21: 25-26], the spiritual masters, the godly, should each in their own place facing the deity be worshiped with the sprinkling of water and other rituals [*5]. (30-31) Using waters scented with sandalwood, us'îra root, camphor, kunkuma and aguru should the worshiper every day bathe [the deity] as far as his means permit; also he should chant hymns, such as the one from the vedic chapter known as svarna-gharma, the incantation called mahâpurusha, the purusha-sûkta [from the Rig Veda] and songs from the Sâma Veda such as the râjana and such. (32) With clothing, a sacred thread, ornaments, marks of tilaka, garlands and fragrant oils should My devotee with love decorate Me as is enjoined. (33) Pâdya and âcamana water, fragrances and flowers, whole grains, incense, lamps and such items should by the worshiper be presented to Me with faith. (34) To one's means should one arrange for offerings of foodstuffs like candy, sweet rice, ghee rice flour cake [s'ashkulî], sweet cakes [âpûpa], sweet rice flour dumplings with coconut [modaka], spicy sweet wheat cake of ghee and milk [samyâva], yogurt and vegetable soups. (35) Massaging with ointment, cleaning the teeth using a mirror, bathing, food to be chewed and not to be chewed, singing and dancing one should have on special days or else every day. (36) In a sacrificial area set up as prescribed should one, using a girdle, a fire pit and an elevation of sacrifice, by hand build and bring to a blaze a fire equally piled up. (37) Spreading [kus'a grass, mats] and then sprinkling and ceremonially [anvâdhâna] placing wood in the fire according the rules should he, having arranged for the âcamana water, sprinkling the items to offer, meditate on Me as residing in the fire. (38-41) Meditating in worship of Him as being brilliant with a color of molten gold, His conch, disc, club and lotus, His four arms and tranquility; His garment with the color of the filaments of a lotus, shining helmet, bracelets, belt, the ornaments on His arms, the s'rîvatsa on His chest, the effulgent kaustubha and a flower garland; throwing pieces of wood soaked in ghee into the fire and in the course of the arghya ritual making the two offerings of sprinkling ghee [two ways called ârgâharas] and [two different] oblations of ghee [called âjyabhâgas], should the intelligent one offer into the fire with root mantras and the [sixteen lines of the] purusha-sûkta hymn the oblations to Yamarâja and the other demigods called svisthi-krit in due order using a mantra for each [see also 11.14: 36-42, 11.19: 20-24, 11.21: 15]. (42) Thus having been of worship next offering obeisances unto His associates, should he present offerings chanting the basic mantra for the Deity in question, remembering the Absolute Truth as being the Original Self of Nârâyana. (43) Offering the âcamana water and giving the remnants of the food to Vishvaksena, should one then present prepared betel nut and fragrant water for the mouth [see also 11.3: 48-53, 11.25: 28]. (44) He should at times [see kâla, 11.21: 9] become absorbed in the celebration, listening himself and making others listen to My stories, acting out actively the transcendental activities along with loud singing and dancing [see also e.g. 11.5: 36-37, 11.14: 23-24]. (45) With prayers from the purânas, with greater or lesser prayers from other ancient scriptures and prayers written by others [see bhajans], should one prostrating pay homage and say 'O Lord, please show your mercy' and so also pray from direct experience [and other common sources]. (46) Placing one's head at My feet with one's palms brought together [one may pray like:] 'O Lord, please protect this one of surrender afraid of the mouth of death in this material ocean' [compare B.G. 11: 19]. (47) Thus praying should the remnants granted by Me be put to one's head and in case the deity respectfully is to be bidden farewell, should this praying be done once more, so that the light [of the deity] is placed within the light [of one's heart *6].

(48) Whenever one develops faith in Me in whatever deity form or other manifestations should one therein accordingly be of respect since I, the Original Soul of All, am situated within as well all living beings as in oneself [see also B.G. 6: 31 and *7]. (49) This way by the processes of acting in yoga will a person worshiping both in this life and the next to the Veda and other specialized texts, from Me achieve the desired perfection. (50) To properly establish My deity should he build a strong temple, along with beautiful flower gardens reserved [to provide flowers] for daily puja, festivals and yearly occasions. (51) He who donates land, shops, cities and villages in order to assure the continuance of the daily worship and the special occasions, will achieve an opulence equal to Mine. (52) Installing the deity brings sovereignty over the entire earth, building a temple gives rulership over the three worlds and performing puja and other such services delivers one the realm of Brahmâ; with all three will one attain a status equal to Mine. (53) He who free from ulterior motives engages in bhakti-yoga achieves by bhakti-yoga; he who thus is of worship receives Me alone [see also 5.5: 14, 11.12: 24 and B.G. 6: 44]. (54) He who from the godly and the learned takes away the livelihood he gave himself or was given by others, is a stool-eating worm to take birth for a hundred million years [compare 10.64: 39]. (55) The perpetrator [of such theft] and his accomplice as also the prompter and the one approving all share the karmic reaction in the next life in which they according their commitment to that will reap the results.



*: The paramparâ says to this that members of the three higher classes of society all achieve the twice-born status by initiation into the Gâyatrî mantra. To the tradition may brâhmin boys after due preparation be initiated at age of eight, kshatriya boys when they're eleven and vais'ya boys when they're twelve.  

** The materialist devotee - almost any person thus - is of devotion with the help the image of God in the form of a timetable, the altar in the form of the desk in his office, the fire in the stove on which one regularly has one's meals cooked, the sun with the date and the clock one is manipulating pragmatically, the water with the daily shower one takes and the dishes one washes, and the twiceborn heart in his daily contemplations to the wisdom one acquired as an adult from personal experience and one's teachers. Thus is everyone, more or less engaged in devotional service to the practices of devotion mentioned here, be it at an unconscious materialist and rather impersonal level (see prâkrita).

***: 'S'rîla S'rîdhara Svâmî gives references from Vedic literature stating that the water meant for bathing the feet should be combined with millet seeds, dûrvâ grass mixed in water, vishnukrânta flowers and other items. The water used for arghya should include the following eight items - fragrant oil, flowers, unbroken barleycorns, husked barleycorns, the tips of kus'a grass, sesame seeds, mustard seeds and dûrvâ grass. The water for sipping should include jasmine flowers, ground cloves and kakkola berries' (p.p. 11.27: 21).

*4: The seat of dharma is here imagined as consisting of the righteousness, wisdom, detachment and supremacy as its legs, its opposites as the sides and the three gunas as the three planks of the base.

*5: According to S'rîla Jîva Gosvâmî are the personalities mentioned here eternally liberated associates of the Lord who reside in the spiritual sky, beyond the material manifestation. Not so much the Ganes'a that in this world, as the son of Lord S'iva, is famous for awarding financial success, and the goddess Durgâ, the wife of Lord S'iva, who is famous as the external, illusory potency of the Supreme Lord. ' (p.p. 11.27: 29).

*6 Devotees accepting flowers, food or fire from the deity customarily take the offering first to their head as a token of respect.

*7 The paramparâ adds here: 'By regulated, faithful worship one gradually understands that the Deity is completely nondifferent from the Supreme Lord Himself. At that stage, on the strength of Deity worship, one rises to the second-class platform of devotional service. At this more developed stage one desires to make friendship with other devotees of the Lord, and as one becomes solidly established in the community of Vaishnavas, one completely gives up material life and gradually becomes perfect in Krishna consciousness' (p.p. 11.27: 48).


Chapter 28

Jñâna Yoga or the Denomination and the Real

(1) The Supreme Lord said: 'Seeing the world with its material nature and enjoyer as based on one soul, should one not praise, nor criticize someone else's nature and activities. (2) He who praises or criticizes someone else's nature and actions quickly looses sight of his own interest getting caught in the inessential. (3) When the bright of the one residing within the material encasement is overcome by sleep is there the experience of the illusory [of dreams] or the deathlike of having lost consciousness; the same way [not that bright] sees a person the objective variety. (4) What would be the good or bad of this insubstantial duality, that, meditated in the mind and expressed in so many words, indeed lacks in truth [*]. (5) Shadows, echoes and mirages, though mere projections, create motives; the same way gives the body and all of its material conceptions rise to fear till the day one dies. (6-7) The Supreme Soul alone creates the universe and is created as its Lord, protects and is protected as the Self of all Creation and withdraws and is withdrawn as the Controller; accordingly no other entity can be ascertained as existing apart from Him, and thus has this threefold appearance established within the Supreme Self and consisting of the modes no [other or independent] basis; know that the threefold [of the seen, the seeing and the seer to resp. the tamas, the rajas and the sattva] is a construct of the illusory energy [under the influence of Him in the form of Time, see also B.G. 14: 19]. (8) The one who, being fixed in the knowledge laid down and realized by Me, knows this, does not blame or praise [in looking for another cause], he wanders the world like the sun does [see B.G. 2: 57, 13: 13, 13: 32, 14: 22-25]. (9) From direct perception, logical deduction, scriptural truth and one's selfrealization knowing that the inessential has a beginning and an end, should one free from attachment move about out here [see also B.G. 2: 16].'

(10) S'rî Uddhava said: 'O Lord of whom might be the experience of the material existence? It is not exactly of the soul, the seer that is self-aware, nor is it of the body, the seen that has no experiencing self of its own. (11) The soul inexhaustible, free from the modes, is pure and stands in its own light uncovered like a fire, while the material body is like firewood, without understanding; to which of them is the experience of a material life out here?'

(12) The Supreme Lord said: 'As long as the attraction of the soul goes out to the body, the senses and the vital force, will the material existence - fruitful as it is for the time - be meaningless though, for lacking in discrimination. (13) Even though the substance is nonexistence [non-permanence], does the material condition [in its elements] not cease to be and is there, contemplating like in a dream the objects of the senses, the arrival of disadvantages [compare 3.27: 4, 4.29: 35 & 73, 11.22: 56, B.G. 2: 14]. (14) That [dream] which to the one not awake in his sleep presents many undesirable experiences, does to the one awakened certainly not give rise to confusion. (15) The lamentation, elation, fear, anger, greed, confusion, hankering and such, appear with the birth and death of one's identification with the body [ahankâra] and not with the soul [that doesn't take birth or die, see 11.22: 12, 11.23: 50-56, 11.25: 30]. (16) Haughty dwelling within the self of the material body, the senses, life-air and the mind, assumes the living being his form according the gunas and the karma and is he, relating to the thread of the greater nature, thus variously described as he runs about in the material ocean under the strict control of Time. (17) This with no [other] basis in many forms, to the mind, the speech, the life force, the gross body and the fruitive action being represented, will, with the sword of transcendental knowledge that was sharpened in worship, be cut down by a sober sage who free from desires wanders the earth. (18) Spiritual knowledge [entails] the discrimination [of spirit and matter], the scripture and the penance; the direct experience, the historical accounts and the following logic; and that which alone indeed is there from the beginning to the end of this [creation] and which is the same in the middle as the Time and Ultimate Cause [of brahman, the Absolute Truth, see also B.G. 10: 30, 33, 11: 32 and kâla]. (19) Just as gold, before being wrought, in the middle being utilized, and thereafter, is only that to everything golden, do I the same way exist in the various designations of this [creation]. (20) This spirit of condensed knowledge in its three conditions [of wakefulness, sleep and unconscious sleep], is my dear, manifesting through the modes as the causing [of rajas], the caused [of tamas] and the causer [of sattva, compare 11.22: 30], the fourth factor that being separate is the single truth to each of them. (21) That which wasn't there before nor is there afterwards, isn't there in between but as a designation; whatever that is created and is made known by something else, is actually only that something else; that is how I think about it. (22) The spiritual reality of God as established in its own light manifests the Absolute Truth as the variety of the senses, their objects, the mind and the transformations and for that reason does does this creation, that of the mode of rajas is subject to modification, shine forth, though it is not really there [see also siddhânta]. (23) This way by discriminating logic clear about the Absolute of the Spiritual Truth should one, expert by refuting what's beside the point, cut down the doubt regarding the self and satisfied in one's own spiritual happiness desist from all lusty [unregulated] matters [see B.G. 3: 34]. (24) The body made of earth is not the true self, nor are senses, their gods or the life air; the external air, the water, the fire or the mind just after the food; nor are the intelligence, the material consciousness, the I that thinks itself the doer, the ether, the earth, material things or the original state of balance. (25) What 's the merit of one who perfect in concentrating his senses - that basically belong to the gunas - and who rightly has ascertained My personal identity; and on the other hand what blame indeed would there be for a mind distracted? What of the sun to which clouds gathered or dispersed? (26) Just as the sky is not entangled by the coming and going qualities of the seasons or the qualities of the air, the fire, the water and the earth is likewise the All-pervading superior to contaminations by the modes of sattva, rajas and tamas, the notions of ego or the causes of evolving through successive states [see also 1.3: 36, 3.27: 1, B.G. 7: 13]. (27) Yet must meanwhile the attachment in the qualities that spring from the deluding energy be shunned, until by My bhakti-yoga firm [being differently attached, see B.G. 7: 1], the dirt of the mind of passion is eliminated [see B.G. 14 and **]. (28) The same way as a disease imperfectly treated repeatedly rising up gives man distress, will the mind not purified from its contamination of karma torment the imperfect yogî who [still] is of all kinds of attachments. (29) Those imperfect yogîs who are commanded by impediments in the form of human beings [family members, disciples etc., see e.g. s'iks'âshthaka-4] sent by the thirty gods [see tridas'a] will, on the strength of their perseverance in their previous life once more engage in the yogapractice, but never again be trapped in the fruitive labor [see also 11.18: 14, B.G. 6: 41-42]. (30) The normal living entity is, of fruitive labor being in transition, impelled by some force or other so up to the point of death whereas the intelligent one, though situated in the material position, is not [that fickle], having given up material desire by the experience of his own happiness. (31) He whose consciousness is fixed in the true self doesn't take notice of the standing, sitting, walking or lying down; urinating, eating food or doing whatever else that manifests from his conditioned nature. (32) The one intelligent doesn't take anything else as essential; whenever he sees the not really [independently] existing things of the senses, refutes he the separateness by logical inference, so that they are like in a dream that disappears after waking up. (33) The variety of ignorance, by the activities of the modes taken as being identical to the soul of yore, My dear, comes to an end again by consideration alone; the soul on the contrary is never assumed nor ever abandoned. (34) As indeed happens with the sun rising, is the darkness of the human eyes vanquished - but that [rising] does not create what exists; similarly does the adroit investigation of the true of Me destroy the darkness in a person's intelligence [but not create the soul]. (35) This selfluminous, unborn, immeasurable Greatness of Understanding aware of everything is the One Without a Second where words find closure, and by Whom impelled the speech and life airs move. (36) Whatever the notion of duality the self might have is but a delusion to the unique soul, as it indeed has no basis outside of that very self [compare 7.13: 7]. (37) The dualistic imaginative interpretation [in terms of good and bad, see also 11.21: 16] by so-called scholars of this in names and forms perceivable duality which unmistakably consists of the five elements, is only vain [see also 5.6: 11].

(38) The body of the yogî who immature tries to engage in the practice of yoga, may be overcome by the disturbances which rose; in that connection is the following the prescribed rule of conduct: (39) Some disturbances may be eradicated by postures [âsanas] combined with concentration [dhârana], penance [tapas, see ***], mantras and medicinal herbs. (40) Some of the inauspicious situations can step by step be overcome by constantly thinking of Me [Vishnu-smarana] by the celebration of My names and such [japa, sankîrtana] and by following in the footsteps of the masters of yoga [see also B.G. 6: 25]. (41) Some [yogîs] by various means fixed in youth making this selfcontrolled material body fit thus engage for mystic perfections [siddhis]. (42) By the ones conversant is that not honored, sure that that endeavor is quite useless, because the body, like the fruit of a tree, is perishable [see also 11.15: 33]. (43) The one intelligent seeing how someone regularly executing yoga attains fitness, takes, dedicated to Me giving up [any ulterior motive] in yoga, no [great] faith in that [*4]. (44) The yogî executing this process of yoga is, free from hankering having taking to the shelter of Me, not checked by obstacles and experiences his own [soul's] happiness. 



*: Contrary to popular notions that the medium would be the message, is stated here clearly that the medium is not the message. The words and the ideas, and also the so-called fixed form of things, are all false relative to the original truth, the message, the essence. That what is expressed is the essence, not the expression itself. So is the one living being of the person and the living material nature with her Time as the masculine aspect, the essence and are all ideas, fixed things of it and words about it actually false. Thus we have the paradox of the in itself false expression in words and ideas, this sentence before you as a reader e.g., of what is true on itself as the wholeness of life. So there are idols of Krishna being worshiped with the tre strict warning not to consider them as something material. Thus are praise and criticism, good and bad, notions missing the point of what is objectively the value free reality of brahman, the Absolute Truth of the reality free from illusion outside as well as inside. Or as one says these days: science is value-free.

**: The purport of this is that, even though the material nature as His gigantic virât-rûpa form is nondifferent from the Supreme Lord (as elaborately described in this and other chapters), one who has yet to conquer material desire must not artificially seek solace in material things, declaring them to be nondifferent from the Lord [see p.p. 11.28: 27].

***: Concerning penance the beginner is reminded of the fact that voluntary penance, voluntary suffering, is better than penance enforced from the outside in the form of a disease, legal prosecution, shortage, calamities etc. Like the Jews in Exodus would be ready to leave Egypt one should be ready for the coming of the Lord [see also 11.17: 42 and B.G. 2: 40, 12: 16].

*4: Here one is reminded that characters like Râvana and Hiranyakas'ipu also practiced yoga and attained fitness; attaining perfections that way can also be a demoniac thing and is thus not the object of belief as stated here. Rather attaining the Lord is the motive for the yogî. Control and order is a nice thing to achieve, but without the Lord is it just as well a thing of the devil.


Chapter 29

Bhakti Yoga: the Most Auspicious way to Conquer Death

(1) S'rî Uddhava said: This process of yoga is, I think, most difficult to execute for someone not spiritual; please o Acyuta, tell me in easy terms how a person may be perfect in that [see also B.G. 6: 33-34]. (2) Generally, o Lotus-eyed One, become yogîs frustrated exercising the mind and do they, unable as they are to find absorption, get tired in the attempt to subdue the mind. (3) Therefore, o Lotus eyed One, are the swanlike then indeed happy to take to the source of all ecstasy, the shelter of Your lotusfeet, o Lord of the Universe; but those who take pride in the results of their yoga, do not, as these are defeated by Your material energy. (4) It raises no wonder Acyuta, that You are a friend to all servants who with no other shelter are joined in intimacy with You, You who were affectionate with the animal-like [vânaras] while the edges of Your footstool were covered by the effulgent helmets of the great controllers [like Brahmâ]. (5) Knowing the benefit offered by You, the Supreme Soul, Bestower of All Perfections and dearest Lord to those seeking shelter, who would reject You or ever be devoted to anything just to feel good and consequently forget; what actually is there not for us serving the dust of Your feet? [see also 10.44: 15, 10.47: 46] (6) Not even with a lifetime prolonged to that of Brahmâ would the learned, despite of all their work, be capable of expressing the gratitude o Lord for You, who shows His path in the forms of the [authority of the Supersoul] being mentally conceived within in order to remember the joy and the âcârya outside to dissipate the misfortune of the being embodied [the caittya- and the paramparâ-guru].'

(7) S'rî S'uka said: 'He who has the universe as His plaything and by His own energies has assumed the three different personal forms of the Controllers [the guna-avatâras], thus by Uddhava most attached of heart being asked, lovingly spoke with an attractive smile. (8) The Supreme Lord said: 'Here then, I'll speak of the dharma relating to Me that is most auspicious and by which a mortal being, executing with faith, conquers death so unconquerable. (9) Having offered one's mind and intelligence unto Me, should one for My purpose stepwise [learn to] perform all work, by one's own loving mind remembering My respect of duties. (10) One should take shelter of the holy places frequented by My saintly devotees and [follow the example of] the activities of My devotees among the godly, the demoniac and the human beings. (11) Either alone or in assembly should one to the moon, at special occasions and at festivals arrange to perform with singing, dancing and such and greatly royal proofs of grace. (12) Me indeed should one with a pure heart see as the self-willing Supreme Soul that like the sky is there inside and outside of all living beings as well as within oneself [see also B.G. 13: 16 and 1.7: 10]. (13-14) O great brightness, with this way to My love of respect for all living beings, will one considering thus be taking shelter of purely spiritual knowledge. In this manner in the brahmin and the outcast, the thief and the man loyal to the brahminical culture, in the sun and in the spark, in the gentle and in the cruel one having an equal vision, is one considered a learned man [a pandit, see B.G. 5: 18]. (15) Of the person who constantly is meditating upon My presence in all man will quickly the rivalry, the envy, the disdain along with the false ego for certain disappear. (16) Ignoring the laughter of one's friends and the embarrassment about outer looks should one like a rod on the ground offer obeisances to [all,] even dogs, outcasts, cows and asses [see also s'ikshâshthaka-3]. (17) As long as one has not developed the vision of Me present in all living beings, will one that long this way have to be of worship in speech, mind and body [see also tridanda]. (18) For him who by knowledge and realization sees the Supreme Soul everywhere is everything based upon the Absolute Truth and is there, freed from doubts, the duty to bring all his worldly activities to a stop. (19) This with the functions of one's mind, words and body going for the truth of Me within all living beings is of all processes indeed by Me considered the one most appropriate. (20) My dear, because it, perfectly established by Me, is free from the modes and ulterior motives is there, Uddhava, in the attempt to be of My dutifulness accordingly not even the slightest loss [see also B.G. 2: 40]. (21) O best of the saintly, whatever fear and likewise etcetera of endeavoring there may be, is futile if that [endeavor], which tends towards fruitlessness, is religiousness unto Me, the Supreme [see also B.G. 18: 6]. (22) This by which one by the false and mortal in this life obtains the real, the immortal, of Me, is the cleverness of the clever and intelligence of the intelligent. (23) With this has both in brief and in detail been described to you the complete survey of the science of the Absolute Truth that even for the gods is difficult to pass. (24) Having properly understood this knowledge, repeatedly explained to you with clear logical arguments, will a person with his doubts destroyed be liberated. (25) He who but concentrates on this question of yours properly cleared up by Me, attains to the eternal secret of the Vedas, the Supreme Absolute of the Truth. (26) The one who as the bestower of the Spiritual Supreme liberally disseminates this among My devotees will I by Myself give Myself. (27) He who loudly recites this Supreme so sanctifying and clear, will, with the lamp of knowledge forming My presence, day after day be purified. (28) The person who free from distraction with faith regularly listens to this will, performing transcendental devotional service [bhakti], not be bound by karmic reactions [see also B.G. 3: 9]. (29) Uddhava, o friend, have you well enough understood the spiritual and has this lamentation and illusion born from your mind been removed [see 11.6: 42-49 and also B.G. 18: 72]? (30) Do not share this with a hypocrite, an atheist or a cheat, nor with one not listening with faith or an obstinate non-devotee [compare to B.G. 18: 67]. (31) Share it with the person free from these bad qualities, the one saintly and pure, kindly disposed in dedication to the welfare of the brahmins, as well as with the laborers and with women if they are of bhakti [compare B.G. 9: 32]. (32) For the inquisitive one fully understanding this is there nothing left to imbibe; having drunk the palatable nectarean beverage is there nothing left to drink. (33) Whatever man of accomplishment to the fourfold goals [catuh-vidah], finds in spiritual knowledge, in fruitive labor, in mystic yoga, in ordinary activities or in political ruling, am I as much to you. (34) When a mortal offering himself has given up all his fruitive labor in desire for the special of Me, becomes he in the process of attaining immortality with Me at that time verily also eligible for an opulence that is equal.'

(35) S'uka said: 'He thus shown the path of yoga, having heard the words of Uttamas'loka then with folded hands said nothing as his throat was choked of love and his eyes overflowed with tears. (36) Completely agitated with love restraining himself to steady his mind, o King spoke he, feeling grateful, with his hands folded to the Greatest Hero of the Yadus, touching His lotusfeet with his head. (37) S'rî Uddhava said: 'The great darkness of my delusion to which I, in the presence of the Sun of You, did take, has been dispelled; what cold, darkness and fear could hold sway over the one who came into the proximity, o Unborn Primeval One? (38) In return was by Your good Self so merciful offered to me, Your servant, the torchlight consisting of Your wisdom; whoever grateful could abandon the base of Your feet and go for another shelter? (39) The through Your mâyâ, for the increase of Your creation [Your family], by You being cast, firmly binding rope of my affection for the Dâs'ârhas, Vrishnis, Andhakas and Sâtvatas has been cut by the sword of proper knowledge about the soul. (40) Let there be my obeisances unto You, o Greatest of Mystics, please instruct me on how to remain constant with the transcendental attraction at Your lotusfeet.'

(41-44) The Supreme Lord said: 'Please, o Uddhava, go on My order to My hermitage called Badârika; be there, at the riverbanks, purified by the touching of and bathing in the water emanating from My feet [see 5.17]. With your eyes at the Alakanandâ [a tributary of the Ganges] being cleansed of all impurity, wearing bark my dear, eat from the forest and be happy free from desire. With intelligence, spiritual knowledge and wisdom endowed be of forbearance with all dualities, of a saintly character, of sense control, of peace and absorption. Be consequent with that which you with discrimination learned from Me; with your words and mind absorbed in Me devoted to realize My dharma will you, thus situated crossing beyond the three destinations [the gunas], thereafter come to Me.'

(45) S'rî S'uka said: 'Thus addressed by the Lord of Recollection, circumambulated Uddhava Him keeping Him to the right and drenched he, with a breaking heart, with his head placed down, His feet with his teardrops, despite of the fact that he at the time of departure wasn't involved in material dualities. (46) With the attachment most difficult to give up was he, not capable of abandoning Him upon the separation, overwhelmed in great pain beside himself, and went he, again and again offering his obeisances, away carrying his Maintainers slippers on his head [*]. (47) Then installing Him in his heart, went the great devotee, as was told by the only Friend in the Universe, to the illustrious place of pilgrimage [as such also called Vis'âlâ] and attained he, properly executing the austerities, the Lord His destination [vaikunthha]. (48) Anyone in the world who true in faith renders service to this ocean of ecstasy, this nectar of knowledge that collected by Krishna, by Him whose feet are served by the masters of yoga, was spoken to His devotee, will be liberated. (49) I am bowed down to the Greatest and First Personality named Krishna, who makes His many devotees drink from the ocean the nectar, de essence of the Vedas, the essence of the spiritual knowledge and wisdom that He, as the author of the Vedas, like a bee delivers in order to take away the fear of a material existence.



*: The paramparâ adds here: 'According to the S'rîmad-Bhâgavatam [3.4: 5], while Uddhava was enroute to Badarikâs'rama he heard about the Lord's journey to Prabhâsa. Turning back and following Lord Krishna from behind, he saw the Lord alone just after the withdrawal of the Yadu dynasty. After being again mercifully instructed by the Personality of Godhead (along with Maitreya, who had just arrived), Uddhava felt his knowledge of the truth reawaken, and then, by the order of the Lord, he went on his way.'


Chapter 30

The Disappearance of the Yadu-dynasty

(1) The honorable king [Parîkchit] said: 'What did the Supreme Lord and Protector of All Living Beings do in Dvârakâ after Uddhava, the great devotee, had left? (2) Please tell how He, the Chief of the Yadus Dearest to the Eyes of All, gave up His body upon the destruction of His family following the curse of the brahmins [see 11.1]? (3) Attached to it could the women not turn their eyes away; having entered the ears of the sages would it, stuck in their minds, not leave; and what to say of the special attraction of the words that generated to the honor of the poets seeing its beauty and of those who, seeing it on Arjuna's chariot on the battlefield, attained an equal status?'

(4) The fine rishi [S'uka] said: 'Seeing the number of great disturbances which had appeared in the sky, the earth and in outer space addressed Krishna the Yadus seated in the Sudharmâ hall [see 10.50: 54] as follows [see also 1.14]. (5) The Supreme Lord said: 'O best of the Yadus, with these fearful, great and inauspicious omens, that are like the flags of the king of death, shouldn't we stay a moment longer here in Dvârakâ. (6) The women, the children and the old-aged should go to S'ankoddhâra [halfway Dvârakâ and Prabhâsa]; we shall go from here to Prabhâsa where the Sarasvatî flows westward. (7) There we should purify bathing, fast and fix our minds, and will we worship the gods [the idols] with various offerings, ablutions and âlepa [smearing with sandalwood]. (8) The brahmins so full of grace having performed the ceremonies for good fortune will we [honor] with cows, land, gold, clothing, elephants, horses, chariots and houses [see also 3.3: 26-28]. (9) This is the course to follow indeed to avert the misfortune and bring good fortune; to worship the best among the living beings - the gods, the brahmins and the cows - brings about the supreme [compare to 10.24: 25]. (10) All of them thus listening to the Enemy of Madhu, said the elderly Yadus 'so be it', and crossed they over by boat to head for Prabhâsa in chariots. (11) There, to what the Supreme Personality, the Lord of the Yadus had instructed, performed the Yadus with transcendental devotion and all that would strengthen, all auspicious rituals. (12) Then as destined [see 11.1: 4] falling from their intelligence, drank they a large amount of the sweet tasting maireya [honey-liquor] of which the ingredients overpower the mind [see also 6.1: 58-60]. (13) With the heroes bewildered by Krishna's illusory potency arose, by the excessive drinking intoxicated, arrogant of mind a terrible quarrel. (14) Totally agitated with anger they took up their weapons - their bows, swords, bhalla-arrows [arrows with a particular arrowhead] clubs, lances and spears - and fought they on the shore. (15) With flying flags riding chariots, elephants and other carriers - asses, camels, bulls, buffalos, mules and even humans - came they together most enraged attacking with arrows as if they were elephants in the forest attacking with their tusks. (16) With their enmity aroused in battle fought ferociously Pradyumna against Sâmba, Akrûra against Bhoja, Aniruddha against Sâtyaki, Subhadra against Sangrâmajit, Sumitra against Suratha and the two Gadas [the brother and a son of Krishna] against each other. (17) Others also, such as Nis'athha, Ulmuka and so on under the lead of Sahasrajit, S'atajit and Bhânu, confronted and killed each other, blinded as they were by intoxication and totally confused by Mukunda. (18) Completely letting go of their friendship slaughtered the Kuntis, the Kukuras, the Visarjanas, the Madhus and Arbudas, Vrishnis and Andhakas, the Bhojas, the Sâtvatas, the Dâs'ârhas and the inhabitants of Mâthura and S'ûrasena one another. (19) Bewildered killed relatives relatives and friends friends; sons fought with their fathers and their brothers, nephews with uncles, paternal uncles with maternal uncles and well-wishers with well-wishers. (20) Running out of arrows and with their bows broken and missiles used up, took they cane stalks [eraka, see 11.1: 22] in their fists. (21) Those stalks held in their fists turned into iron rods as strong as thunder bolts as they attacked their enemies with them, and although Krishna tried to stop them, attacked they Him as well. (22) Confused with their minds set on killing, mistaking Balarâma for an enemy, o King, raised they their weapons also against Him. (23) The Two then also most furiously joined the fight, o son of the Kurus, and started, cane in fist using them as clubs, to kill moving about in the battle. (24) Overcome by the brahmins curse and with their minds clouded by Krishna's mâyâ, led the fury of the competition to their end like a fire of bamboos does in a forest.

(25) When all of His own clans had been destroyed this way, concluded Krishna, remaining, that as planned [11.1: 1-4] the earth its burden was removed. (26) Râma at the shore of the ocean resorting to meditation on the Original Person, merging Himself within Himself, gave up the human world. (27) Seeing that Râma had left sat the Supreme lord, the son of Devakî, finding a pippala tree, silently down on the lap of the earth [see also 3.4]. (28-32) Exhibiting His four-armed form dissipated, like a fire without smoke, His brilliant effulgence the darkness in all directions. With the s'rîvatsa mark and gray-blue color like the clouds, radiated He like molten gold wearing an all-auspicious pair of silken garments. His face like a blue lotus smiling beautifully with the charming lotus eyes, was adorned with His locks of hair and gleaming shark-shaped earrings. Splendid with a belt, a sacred thread, a helmet and bracelets; arm-ornaments, necklaces, ankle bells and royal symbols, was there the kaustubha gem. Placing His right foot reddish like a lotus on His thigh, sat He with the forms of His personal weapons and His limbs encircled by a garland of forest flowers. (33) His foot having the form of a deer's face was [then] pierced by a hunter named Jarâ who thought he saw a deer, [aiming] with his arrow that was made with a fragment that had remained of the iron [from the by the brahmins cursed and destroyed club, see 11.1: 23]. (34) Seeing that four-armed personality fell he, afraid of having committed an offense, with his head down at the feet of the Enemy of the Asuras: (35) 'This was done by a sinful person acting in ignorance; o Madhusûdana, please forgive this sinner his deed, o Uttamas'loka, o Sinless One. (36) O Master, what I did toward Him, Vishnu, to You, was wrong; o You, of whom the constant remembrance destroys the darkness of ignorance of all man, so they say. (37) Therefore, please kill me right now o Lord of Vaikunthha, so that I, a sinful deer hunter indeed, thus not again may commit such an offense against the True One [*]. (38) What can we, impure of birth, say of Him, of You, with our direct vision to this being covered by Your illusory potency, with Your mystic power not [even] understood by Viriñca, Rudra and his other masters and sons of the vedic word?'

(39) S'rî Bhagavân said: 'Fear not o Jarâ, please get up, for what you did was My desire; you've My permission to go to the spiritual realm, the abode of the ones of good deeds.'

(40) Thus instructed by Krishna, the Fortunate One embodied to His own will, circumambulated he Him three times and went he, bowing down to Him, with a higher spirit [a 'vimâna'] to heaven. (41) Dâruka seeking out where Krishna had gone to, came near Him scenting the air fragrant of tulasî and approached Him. (42) With Him there brilliant and effulgent, surrounded by His weapons resting at the base of the As'vathha, fell he, rushing down from the chariot with tear-filled eyes, with his heart overwhelmed with affection down at His feet. (43) 'O Master, not seeing Your lotusfeet is my power of vision destroyed and do I, just as in the night of a new moon having landed in darkness, not know the directions nor can I find peace.'

(44) As he was speaking thus rose for true before the chariot driver his eyes the chariot along with the horses and the flag of Garuda that marked it, up into the sky, o King of kings. (45) With Vishnu's divine weapons following it, spoke Janârdana to the driver flabbergasted by that occurrence: (46) 'O driver, head for Dvârakâ and inform Our family members of the mutual destruction of their close relatives, My condition and the passing away of Sankarshana. (47) You and your relatives should not remain in Dvârakâ; now the Yadu capital is abandoned by Me will it sink into the ocean. (48) Each taking all his family as well as Our parents with him, should you all, protected by Arjuna, go to Indraprastha. (49) You however, fixed in knowledge and indifferent about My mâyâ will, remaining firm in My devotional service, with understanding for what I arranged, acquire the tranquility of mind.'

(50) Thus being addressed by Him circumambulated he Him offering his obeisances again and again, and went he, placing His lotusfeet on his head, with a heavy heart to the city.' 



*: S'rîla Vis'vanâtha Cakravartî Thhâkura wonders whether, since deer are by nature fearful and timid, how any deer could possibly be on the scene of such a huge battle, and how could a hunter calmly go about his business in the midst of such carnage? Therefore, the withdrawal of the Yadu dynasty and Lord Krishna's own disappearance from this earth were not material historical events; they were instead a display of the Lord's internal potency for the purpose of winding up His manifest pastimes on earth [p.p. 11.30: 37]. Also the name of the hunter Jarâ, meaning old age, is indicative of the metaphorical purport of this incident [see also footnote 10.87:*]. In the Mahâbhârata-tâtparya-nirnaya, S'rî Madhvâcârya-pâda wrote that the Lord for His mission created a body of material energy into which the arrow was shot. But the Lord's actual four-armed form was never touched by the arrow of Jarâ, who is actually the Lord's devotee Bhrigu Rishi. In a previous age Bhrigu Muni had offensively placed his foot on the chest of Lord Vishnu.


Chapter 31

The Ascension of Lord Krishna

(1) S'rî S'uka said: 'Then came there Brahmâ with his consort Bhavânî, along with S'iva and the demigods led by Indra and the sages with the lords of the people. (2-3) The forefathers, the perfected and divine singers, the scientists and the great egos, the venerable, the treasure keepers and the wild men, the ones of superpower and the dancing girls of heaven and all the ones of Garuda [the dvijâs] desirous to witness the passing away of the Supreme Lord, eagerly chanted and praised the birth and activities of S'auri. (4) They, crowding the sky in a great number of vimânas, o King, showered, joined in transcendental devotion, flowers. (5) The Supreme Lord seeing the great father and his powerful expansions, fixed His consciousness within Himself, the Almighty One, and closed His lotus eyes. (6) Without burning in a mystic trance the object auspicious to all trance and meditation - His own body most attractive to all the worlds - entered He His own abode [compare 4.4]. (7) With in heaven the kettledrums sounded and the flowers falling from the sky followed Him, as He left the earth, Truth, Righteousness, Constancy, Fame and Beauty [see also 10.39: 53-55]. (8) The demigods and others headed by Brahmâ saw, [most of them] not known with Krishna's movements, Him not entering His abode, but those who did were most amazed. (9) Just as the movement of lightning, from the clouds traveling through the sky, by mortals cannot be ascertained, could likewise the gods not trace the path of Krishna. (10) Brahmâ, S'iva and the others though, witnessing, astonished glorified the yogic power of the Lord, after which each went to his own world. (11) O King, you should understand the appearance, the actions of His illusory potency, and the disappearance of the Supreme One, resembling that of embodied beings, as a representation [a show], by which He just like an actor by Himself sets up this universe, enters it, plays in it and in the end winds it up again, after having ceased [thereto] remaining in the greatness of the Supreme Self. (12) He who brought His guru's son in his selfsame body back from being taken to the world of Yamarâja [10.45], and who also offered protection against the superior weapon that burned you [1.12]; He who even conquered S'iva, the death to the agents of death [10.63], how would He who brought the deerhunter body and all to the spiritual world, be incapable of preserving Himself? (13) Despite of, as the One Possessing Unlimited Potencies, being the exclusive cause in the maintenance, creation and annihilation of all created beings, did He not desire to keep His frame remaining here in the mortal world; why [would He] keep to the show for those [who are] fixed in Him, the destination [beyond the body, see also 3.2: 10-11]? (14) Anyone who getting up early in the morning with care glorifies this supreme destination of Krishna, will, with the devotion, for sure obtain that unsurpassable destination [see also B.G. 8: 6].

(15) Dâruka deprived of Krishna arriving in Dvârakâ, wet with his tears the feet of Vasudeva and Ugrasena he fell down to. (16-17) He related the destruction of the complete of the Vrishnis, o ruler of man, and hearing that were the people, with their hearts agitated by sorrow, rendered senseless. They, overwhelmed by the separation from Krishna striking their faces, swiftly went there where their relatives were laying lifeless. (18) When Devakî, Rohinî and Vasudeva so couldn't find their sons, lost they, pained in tears, their consciousness. (19) Tormented by being separated from the Supreme Lord they then gave up their lives there and did the wives embracing their [dead] husbands, my dearest, climb upon the funeral pyre. (20) And so did the wives of Balarâma embracing His body enter the fire, and was the fire as well entered by the wives of Vasudeva together with his body, the Lord His daughters-in-law to Pradyumna and the others, and the wives of Krishna led by Rukminî, the first queen, fully absorbed in Him. (21) Arjuna distressed because of the separation from Krishna, his dear friend, consoled himself with the transcendental words of Krishna's song [like 2: 11-12 , 2: 20-21 , 2: 27, 4: 7, 4: 6, 7: 25 and 14: 27 of the Bhagavad Gîtâ]. (22) Of the relatives, who had no remaining family members, had Arjuna as prescribed, in order of the seniority of the deceased, the funeral rites for the ones killed executed. (23) Dvârakâ abandoned by the Lord, was immediately overflooded by the ocean except, o King, for the residence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead [see archeology pictures 1,2 & 3 of the site]. (24) Right there is Madhusûdana, the Supreme Lord, eternally present; the very remembrance, as the most auspicious of all auspicious things, takes away everything inauspicious. (25) Arjuna, resettling the survivors - the women, the children and elders of the ones killed - in Indraprastha, placed there Vajra [Aniruddha's son] on the throne. (26) From Arjuna hearing of the death of their friend, o King, did all your grandfathers, making you the maintainer of the dynasty, leave for the great journey [northwards, see also 1.15: 34-51]. (27) The mortal one who with faith sings about the birth and activities of Vishnu, the God of Gods, will be completely liberated from all sins [see das'âvatâra stotra]. (28) Thus were the attractive and most auspicious exploits and childhood pastimes of the incarnation [with all His expansions, see 10.1: 62-63] of the Supreme Lord Hari here described as also elsewhere; a person singing [about them] will attain to the transcendental devotional service of the perfect sages [the paramahamsas] for the destination. 

Thus ends the eleventh Canto of the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam named: 'General History' named.

Translation: Anand Aadhar Prabhu, http://bhagavata.org/c/8/AnandAadhar.html

Production: the Filognostic Association of The Order of Time, with special thanks to Sakhya Devi Dasi for proofreading and correcting the manuscript. http://theorderoftime.com/info/guests-friends.html

The sourcetexts, illustrations and music to this translation one can find following the links from: http://bhagavata.org/ 

For this original translation next to the Sanskrit dictionary a one-volume printed copy has been used with an extensive commentary by A.C. Bhaktivedânta Swami Prabhupâda. ISBN: o-91277-27-7 . See the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam treasury: http://bhagavata.org/treasury/links.html for links to other sites concerning the subject.

home      contact us