1. What is understood from all the Vedânta-texts (is one), on account of the non-difference of injunction and the rest.
The Sûtras have stated whatever has to be stated to the end of rousing the desire of meditation-concluding with the fact that Brahman bestows rewards. Next the question is introduced whether the vidyâs (i.e. the different forms of meditation on Brahman which the Vedânta-texts enjoin) are different or non-different, on the decision of which question it will depend whether the qualities attributed to Brahman in those vidyâs are to be comprised in one act of meditation or not.--The first subordinate question arising here is whether one and the same meditation--as e.g. the vidyâ of Vaisvânara--which is met with in the text of several sâkhâs, constitutes one vidyâ or several.--The vidyâs are separate, the Pûrvapakshin maintains; for the fact that the same matter is, without difference, imparted for a second time, and moreover stands under a different heading--both which circumstances necessarily attend the text's being met with in different sâkhâs--proves the difference of the two meditations. It is for this reason only that a restrictive injunction, such as the one conveyed in the text, 'Let a man tell this science of Brahman to those only who have performed the rite of carrying fire on their head' (Mu. Up. III, 2, 10)--which restricts the impaiting of knowledge to the Âtharvanikas, to whom that rite is peculiar--has any sense; for if the vidyâs were one, then the rite mentioned, which is a part of the vidyâ, would be valid for the members of other sâkhâs also, and then the restriction enjoined by the text would have no meaning.--This view is set aside by the Sûtra, 'What is understood from all the Vedânta-texts' is one and the same meditation, 'because there is non-difference of injunction and the rest.' By injunction is meant the
injunction of special activities denoted by different verbal roots--such as upâsîta 'he should meditate,' vidyât 'he should know.' The and the rest' of the Sûtra is meant to comprise as additional reasons the circumstances mentioned in the Pûrva Mîmâmsâ-sûtras (II, 4, 9). Owing to all these circumstances, non-difference of injunction and the rest, the same vidyâ is recognised in other sâkhâs also. In the Khâandogya (V, 12, 2) as well as in the Vâgasaneyaka we meet with one and the same injunction (viz. 'He should meditate on Vaisvânara'). The form (character, rûpa) of the meditations also is the same, for the form of a cognition solely depends on its object; and the object is in both cases the same, viz. Vaisvânara. The name of the two vidyâs also is the same, viz. the knowledge of Vaisvânara. And both vidyâs are declared to have the same result, viz. attaining to Brahman. All these reasons establish the identity of vidyâs even in different sâkhâs.--The next Sûtra refers to the reasons set forth for his view by the Pûrvapakshin and refutes them.